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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Environmental Engineering Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Environmental Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
Selecting the target year
Effect of Mixing Methods on the Biodegradation of Sorbed Naphthalene and Phenanthrene in Soils
Kim, Hae-Young ; Moon, Deok Hyun ; Chung, Seon-Yong ; Park, Jeong-Hun ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 15, issue 2, 2010, Pages 57~62
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2010.15.2.057
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of mixing methods on the biodegradation of sorbed naphthalene and phenanthrene in soils. Biodegradation was initiated by inoculating Pseudomonas sp. KM1 into equilibrated soil slurry vials. Four different mixing methods, including no mixing, orbital shaking, rolling and rotating were utilized to enhance the biodegradation of both naphthalene and phenanthrene. The experimental results showed that the sorbed compounds were more effectively biodegraded with rolling and rotating mixing methods. The sorbed naphthalene concentrations were reduced to 0 mg/kg via the rolling and rotating methods. However, with no mixing and the orbital shaking methods, the sorbed naphthalene concentrations were comparatively high, ranging from 2.59 to 20.45 mg/kg. Similar trends were observed for the biodegradation of phenanthrene, but the concentrations remaining were higher than those of naphthalene, due to the limited bioavailability of the sorbed phenanthrene. The rolling and rotating mixing methods are suggested can distribute bacteria uniformly in the slurry system; improve the mass transfer rate and the probability of physical contact between bacteria and the sorbed contaminants, resulting in higher bioavailability of the contaminants.
Application of Response Surface Method as an Experimental Design to Optimize Coagulation Tests
Trinh, Thuy Khanh ; Kang, Lim-Seok ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 15, issue 2, 2010, Pages 63~70
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2010.15.2.063
In this study, the response surface method and experimental design were applied as an alternative to conventional methods for the optimization of coagulation tests. A central composite design, with 4 axial points, 4 factorial points and 5 replicates at the center point were used to build a model for predicting and optimizing the coagulation process. Mathematical model equations were derived by computer simulation programming with a least squares method using the Minitab 15 software. In these equations, the removal efficiencies of turbidity and total organic carbon (TOC) were expressed as second-order functions of two factors, such as alum dose and coagulation pH. Statistical checks (ANOVA table,
value, model lack of fit test, and p value) indicated that the model was adequate for representing the experimental data. The p values showed that the quadratic effects of alum dose and coagulation pH were highly significant. In other words, these two factors had an important impact on the turbidity and TOC of treated water. To gain a better understanding of the two variables for optimal coagulation performance, the model was presented as both 3-D response surface and 2-D contour graphs. As a compromise for the simultaneously removal of maximum amounts of 92.5% turbidity and 39.5% TOC, the optimum conditions were found with 44 mg/L alum at pH 7.6. The predicted response from the model showed close agreement with the experimental data (
values of 90.63% and 91.43% for turbidity removal and TOC removal, respectively), which demonstrates the effectiveness of this approach in achieving good predictions, while minimizing the number of experiments required.
Electricity Generation from MFCs Using Differently Grown Anode-Attached Bacteria
Nam, Joo-Youn ; Kim, Hyun-Woo ; Lim, Kyeong-Ho ; Shin, Hang-Sik ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 15, issue 2, 2010, Pages 71~78
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2010.15.2.071
To understand the effects of acclimation schemes on the formation of anode biofilms, different electrical performances are characterized in this study, with the roles of suspended and attached bacteria in single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The results show that the generation of current in single-chamber MFCs is significantly affected by the development of a biofilm matrix on the anode surface containing abundant immobilized microorganisms. The long-term operation with suspended microorganisms was demonstrated to form a dense biofilm matrix that was able to reduce the activation loss in MFCs. Also, a Pt-coated anode was not favorable for the initial or long-term bacterial attachment due to its high hydrophobicity (contact angle =
), which promotes easy detachment of the biofilm from the anode surface. Maximum power (
) was obtained at a current density of
in the MFCs with longer acclimation periods. It was found that a dense biofilm was able to enhance the charge transfer rates due to the complex development of a biofilm matrix anchoring the electrochemically active microorganisms together on the anode surface. Among the major components of the extracellular polymeric substance, carbohydrates (
) and proteins (
) in the dense anode biofilm accounted for 17 and 19%, respectively, which are greater than those in the sparse anode biofilm.
Impact of Media Type and Various Operating Parameters on Nitrification in Polishing Biological Aerated Filters
Ha, Jeong-Hyub ; Ong, Say-Kee ; Surampalli, R. ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 15, issue 2, 2010, Pages 79~84
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2010.15.2.079
Three biological aerated filters (BAFs) composed of a PVC pipe with a diameter of 75 mm were constructed and operated at a waste-water temperature at
. The media used for each BAF were: 5-mm gravel; 5-mm lava rock; 12.5-mm diameter by 15-mm long plastic rings, all with a media depth of 1.7 m. The feedwater, which simulated the effluent of aerated lagoons, had influent soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) and ammonia concentrations of approximately 50 and 25 mg/L, respectively. For a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of two hours without recirculation, ammonia percent removals were 98.5, 98.9, and 97.8%, for the gravel, lava rock, and plastic rings, respectively. By increasing the effluent recirculation from 100 to 200% for an HRT of one hour, respective ammonia removals improved from 90.1 to 96, 76.5 to 90, and 65.3 to 79.5% for gravel, lava rock, and plastic rings. Based on the ammonia and sCOD loadings for different HRTs, the estimated maximum ammonia loading was approximately 0.6 kg
-day for the three BAFs of different media types. The zero-order biotransformation rates for the BAF with gravel were found to be higher than the lava rock and plastic ring media. The results ultimately showed that BAF can be used as an add-on system to aerated lagoons or as a secondary treatment unit to meet ammonia discharge limits.
Derivation of Threshold Values for Groundwater in Romania, in order to Distinguish Point & Diffuse Pollution from Natural Background Levels
Radu, E. ; Balaet, Ruxandra ; Vliegenthart, F. ; Schipper, P. ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 15, issue 2, 2010, Pages 85~91
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2010.15.2.085
Romania aims to adopt and implement the European Union's legislation, also including that for the field of water management. Like other countries, groundwater in Romania is locally polluted from point sources, such as leaking landfills, as well as from diffuse pollution sources, include fertilizers, pesticides and leakages from sewers, in urbanized areas. Diffuse pollution can also occur indirectly, by over-exploitation of groundwater wells, resulting in salt water intrusion, as well as from mining and exploitation of mineral aggregates. Romania has quite an intensive monitoring scheme to measure groundwater quality in phreatic and confined aquifers. The purpose of the work resumed in this paper was to derive natural background levels (NBL) for groundwater in order to distinguish the natural elevated concentrations of some substances (natural phenomena) from point and diffuse pollution (anthropogenic phenomena). Based on these NBLs, threshold values (TV) for groundwater will be set according to the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive and the related Groundwater Directive. This paper describes the results of a study for the derivation of NBL and TV in a pilot Groundwater Body. Also, the process and draft results for extrapolating this work for all Romanian groundwater bodies is explained, as well as points for future consideration with respect to monitoring and management.
Chemical Composition and Seasonal Variation of Acid Deposition in Chiang Mai, Thailand
Sillapapiromsuk, S. ; Chantara, S. ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 15, issue 2, 2010, Pages 93~98
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2010.15.2.093
This study aims to determine the chemical composition and seasonal variation of atmospheric acid deposition in order to identify possible sources contributing to precipitation. Sampling and analysis of 132 wet deposition samples were carried out from January to December 2008 at Mae Hia Research Center, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai Province. Total precipitation was 1,286.7 mm. Mean electro-conductivity and pH values were 0.94 mS/m and 6.27, respectively. Major cations (
) and major anions (
) were determined by Ion Chromatography. The relative volume weight mean concentrations of anions, in descending order, were
and those of cations were
. Results of a principle component analysis highlighted the influence of various possible sources of ions such as agricultural activity, fuel combustion, marine sources, soil resuspension, and biomass burning.
Who Should Control the Integrated Management System for Sewerage Facilities in the Upper Reaches of Multi-Purpose Dams in Korea?
Park, Kyoo-Hong ; Kim, Hyung-Joon ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 15, issue 2, 2010, Pages 99~103
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2010.15.2.099
Integrated management systems (IMS) that control entire sewerage facilities in the upper reaches of multi-purpose dams are being constructed for their efficient operation and management. However, because the IMS installed in a watershed belong to several local government bodies, significant conflict would be expected between stakeholders in the process of deciding who should control the IMS after completion of the construction that was initially implemented under the support of central government. The objective of this study was to suggest a decision making to determine who should control the IMS for sewerage facilities in the upper reaches of multipurpose dams in Korea, using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Three alternatives were selected to determine who should control the IMS for sewerage facilities: commissioning to public corporations, commissioning to private corporations, and a role-sharing partnership. In using the AHP technique, the emphasis was on comparing public interests, economics, efficiency, sustainability, specialty, grievance mediation and receptiveness. As a result, building a role-sharing partnership received the highest score. Commissioning to a special institute was also suggested as an alternative as this showed a score similar to that of building a role-sharing partnership.
EU Water Framework Directive-River Basin Management Planning in Ireland
Earle, R. ; Almeida, G. ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 15, issue 2, 2010, Pages 105~109
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2010.15.2.105
The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) (2000/60/EC) was transposed into Irish law by Statutory Instrument Nos. 722 of 2003, 413 of 2005 and 218 of 2009, which set out a new strategy and process to protect and enhance Ireland's water resources and water-dependent ecosystems. The Directive requires a novel, holistic, integrated, and iterative process to address Ireland's natural waters based on a series of six-year planning cycles. Key success factors in implementing the Directive include an in-depth and balanced treatment of the ecological, economic, institutional and cultural aspects of river basin management planning. Introducing this visionary discipline for the management of sustainable water resources requires a solemn commitment to a new mindset and an overarching monitoring and management regime which hitherto has never been attempted in Ireland. The WFD must be implemented in conjunction with a myriad of complimentary directives and associated legislation, addressing such key related topics as flood/drought management, biodiversity protection, land use planning, and water/wastewater and diffuse pollution engineering and regulation. The critical steps identified for river basin management planning under the WFD include: 1) characterization and classification of water bodies (i.e., how healthy are Irish waters?), 2) definition of significant water pressures (e.g., agriculture, forestry, septic tanks), 3) enhancement of measures for designated protected areas, 4) establishment of objectives for all surface and ground waters, and 5) integrating these critical steps into a comprehensive and coherent river basin management plan and associated programme of measures. A parallel WFD implementation programme critically depends on an effective environmental management system (EMS) approach with a plan-do-check-act cycle applied to each of the evolving six-year plans. The proactive involvement of stakeholders and the general public is a key element of this EMS approach.
Wide Area Distribution of Nitrogen Concentrations in Mountain Streams of Hyogo Prefecture, Japan
Muramatsu, K. ; Komai, Y. ; Umemoto, S. ; Inoue, T. ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 15, issue 2, 2010, Pages 111~115
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2010.15.2.111
To study the relationship between the concentrations of nitrogen in mountain streams, and anthropologic and natural factors, the water chemistry of the mountain streams in the entire Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, were investigated. A thousand mountain streams were investigated between 1998 and 2001. The concentrations of nitrate nitrogen ranged from 2.92 to 0.1 mg/L, with an arithmetic mean value of 0.45 mg/L. A number of streams showing more than 1.0 mg/L of nitrate nitrogen accounted for 8% of the mountain streams investigated. These results indicated that the concentrations of nitrate nitrogen in the mountain streams were low in the entire Hyogo Prefecture. In general, the mountain stream water in Hyogo Prefecture appears to not have been affected by wet and dry deposition originating from anthropologic sources in mountain streams and Japan. On the other hand, sites with more than 0.8 mg/L nitrate nitrogen were distributed over the entire Hyogo Prefecture, which were classified into five groups. Each group showed unique geographical, geological and anthropological characteristics. No common characteristic among five groups were discover. These results suggest that the cause of high concentrations of nitrogen in mountain streams is not from a uniform set of conditions.
Saltwater Intrusion Modeling in the Aquifer Bounded by Manila Bay and Parañaque River, Philippines
Insigne, Maria Sharlene L. ; Kim, Gyeong-Seok ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 15, issue 2, 2010, Pages 117~121
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2010.15.2.117
The continual extraction and indiscriminante use of groundwater for residential sectors could cause a decrease in the groundwater level in Para
aque river and Las Para
aque City; and allows saltwater to penetrate into the aquifer due to the proximity of Manila Bay. This study models the present condition and extent of saltwater intrusion in the aquifer bounded by Para
aque river River and Manila Bay. The model is simulated using a 3D finite element modeling software (FEMWATER) that is capable of modeling the groundwater flow condition in the aquifer. Moreover, the model can also be used to predict the future condition of the aquifer for better groundwater management. This study aims to raise public awareness of the extent of the problem and the possible side effects incurred. The model will serve as a basis for further studies on remediation techniques and saltwater intrusion control in the coastal aquifer of Para
aque river City.
Assessment of Scale Effects on Dynamics of Water Quality and Quantity for Sustainable Paddy Field Agriculture
Kim, Min-Young ; Kim, Min-Kyeong ; Lee, Sang-Bong ; Jeon, Jong-Gil ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 15, issue 2, 2010, Pages 123~126
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2010.15.2.123
Modeling non-point pollution across multiple scales has become an important environmental issue. As a more representative and practical approach in quantifying and qualifying surface water, a modular neural network (MNN) was implemented in this study. Two different site-scales (
) with the same plants, soils, and paddy field management practices, were selected. Hydrologic data (rainfall, irrigation and surface discharge) and water quality data (time-series nutrient loadings) were continuously monitored and then used for the verification of MNN performance. Correlation coefficients (R) for the results predicted from the networks versus measured values were within the range of 0.41 to 0.95. The small block could be extrapolated to the large field for the rainfall-surface drainage process. Nutrient prediction produced less favorable results due to the complex phenomena of nutrients in the drainage water. However, the feasibility of using MNN to generate improved prediction accuracy was demonstrated if more hydrologic and environmental data are provided. The study findings confirmed the estimation accuracy of the upscaling from a small-segment block to large-scale paddy field, thereby contributing to the establishment of water quality management for sustainable agriculture.