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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Environmental Engineering Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Environmental Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
Review of Ancient Wisdom of Qanat, and Suggestions for Future Water Management
Taghavi-Jeloudar, Mohsen ; Han, Mooyoung ; Davoudi, Mohammad ; Kim, Mikyeong ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 57~63
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2013.18.2.057
Arid areas have a significant problem with water supply due to climate change and high water demand. More than 3,000 years ago, Persians started constructing elaborate tunnel systems called Qanat for extracting groundwater for agriculture and domestic usages in arid and semi-arid areas and dry deserts. In this paper, it has been demonstrated that ancient methods of water management, such as the Qanat system, could provide a good example of human wisdom to battle with water scarcity in a sustainable manner. The purpose of this paper is twofold: Review of old wisdom of Qanat-to review the history of this ancient wisdom from the beginning until now and study the Qanat condition at the present time and to explore why (notwithstanding that there are significant advantages to the Qanat system), it will no longer be used; and suggestions for future water management-to suggest a number of new methods based on new materials and technology to refine and protect Qanats. With these new suggestions it could be possible to refine and reclaim this method of extracting water in arid areas. Also, a new multi-purpose water management model has been introduced based on rainwater infiltration management over the Qanat system as the model can be applied either in dry or wet cities to solve current urban water problems.
Progress of Multipurpose and Proactive Rainwater Management in Korea
Han, Mooyoung ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 65~69
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2013.18.2.065
Despite the most severe weather and geological conditions, Korean people in earlier times were successful in maintaining sustainable water supplies because they understood the importance of rainwater management, and developed technologies and a philosophy which were needed to live under such circumstances. Recently, the Korean people have suffered frequent incidence of flood damage and drought, and have gradually started to remind themselves of the lessons of the past, which can be described as proactive, multipurpose rainwater management. Most of the problems associated with water and energy can be solved by the integration of rainwater management practices. The concept of multipurpose rainwater management and two examples of its practice are discussed. One is a design for a multipurpose rainwater tank which has been used in a building project, and is based on Korean philosophy. Secondly, a regulation was promulgated recently in Seoul that requires the building of rainwater tanks in new buildings over a certain size. The primary purpose is for the prevention of flooding, but water conservation is a secondary intention. Two examples of proactive rainwater management are discussed, one being public involvement in rainwater management, and the second being the rainwater piggy bank microcredit project. In order to maintain sustainability, to meet the requirements of the Millennium Development Goals, and to be prepared for the effects of climate change, it is expected that multipurpose and proactive rainwater management will be a very effective approach for both developing countries and developed countries. A worldwide network of scientific researchers, as well as a great number of professions, has suggested the promotion of rainwater management.
Control of the Sediment in a Combined Sewer Using a Separation Wall
Lim, Bong Su ; Kwon, Chung Jin ; Kim, Do Young ; Lee, Kuang Chun ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 71~75
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2013.18.2.071
This study is to evaluate the effects of the separation wall on the sediment quality and quantity in a combined sewer, by surveying the sewer overflow and sediments during a rainfall. Since the separation wall installed in the combined sewer separates the rainfall and the sewage, the flow rate of the sewage is increased, and the amount of the sediment deposited on the sewer is decreased. One sampling point was the outfall of Daesacheon with a separation wall, and the other was the outfall of Gwaryecheon without a separation wall, in Daejeon metropolitan city. The maximum control of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) overflow load was more than 38% in the Daesacheon point with the separation wall, during a rainfall of 0.11 mm/hr. The maximum control of the BOD overflow load was 24% in Gwaryecheon without a separation wall, during a rainfall of 1.0 mm/hr. According to the survey results of the sediment in the sewer, the discharged sediment deposited on the sewer in Gwaryecheon point was about 23% to 28% of the total suspended solid during the rainfall. In addition, the average velocity of sewage in the presence of sediment was about 0.30 m/s, and if the separation wall is installed, it was expected to be about 1.01 m/s, that is 3.4 times more than the same conditions, resulting in the reduction of the sediment deposit.
The Effect of a Rainwater Education Program on South Korean Students' Awareness and Attitudes
Seo, Eun-Jung ; Kim, Tae-Yeon ; Kang, Tae-Ho ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 77~84
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2013.18.2.077
Recently, rainwater has come to the forefront as an alternative resource contributing to solving various environmental problems, especially those related to water. However, more or less biased perspectives on rainwater as a pollutant, mainly derived from acid rain, have still been pervasive in public as well as research communities. Considering the significance of rain harvesting in recent society, it is necessary to promote educational efforts to overcome such social prejudices and improve desired values towards rainwater. Thus, this research attempted to develop a teaching-learning program focusing on the theme of rainwater for high school students in Korea. To verify the effectiveness of the program, one group pre/post testing was conducted with 57 students participating in the courses. According to the survey, students show significant differences in both awareness and attitude towards rainwater as well as water after the courses. In conclusion, this study has an implication on developing an effective educational way to improve students' positive recognitions and attitudes regarding rainwater-related issues. Such an educational effort might contribute to sharing the worthiness of preserving rainwater with the future generation and promoting rainwater harvesting within wider public participation.
Evaluation of Rainwater Utilization for Miscellaneous Water Demands in Different Types of Buildings Using Geographic Information System
Kim, Jinyoung ; An, Kyoungjin ; Furumai, Hiroaki ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 85~90
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2013.18.2.085
This study is an attempt to quantify rainwater utilization and miscellaneous water demand in Tokyo's 23 special wards, the core of the urban area in Tokyo, Japan, in order to elucidate the potential of further rainwater utilization. The rainwater utilization for miscellaneous appropriate water demands, including toilet flushing, air conditioning, and garden irrigation, were calculated for six different types of building: residential house, office, department store, supermarket, restaurant, and accommodation. Miscellaneous water demands in these different types of building were expressed in terms of equivalent rainfall of 767, 1,133, 3,318, 1,887, 16,574, and 2,227 (mm/yr), respectively, compared with 1,528 mm of Tokyo's average annual precipitation. Building types, numbers and its height were considered in this study area using geographic information system data to quantify miscellaneous water demands and the amount of rainwater utilization in each ward. Area precipitation-demand ratio was used to measure rainwater utilization potential for miscellaneous water demands. Office and commercial areas, such as Chiyoda ward, showed rainwater utilization potentials of <0.3, which was relatively low compared to those wards where many residential houses are located. This is attributed to the relatively high miscellaneous water demand. In light of rainwater utilization based on building level, the introduction of rainwater storage mechanisms with a storage depth of 50 mm for six different types of buildings was considered, and calculated as rainfall of 573, 679, 819, 766, 930, and 787 (mm), respectively. Total rainwater utilization using such storage facilities in each building from 23 wards resulted in the retention of 102,760,000
of water for use in miscellaneous applications annually, and this volume corresponded to 26.3% of annual miscellaneous water demand.
Assessment of Rainwater Harvesting Potential in Ibadan, Nigeria
Lade, Omolara ; Oloke, David ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 91~94
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2013.18.2.091
Recently Ibadan in southwestern Nigeria has been facing severe water shortage due to the increase of population, social and economic activities. In order to meet the shortfall, attempts to utilize rainwater harvesting (RWH) have been made to provide an alternative source of water supply. A desk study was conducted to review various RWH technologies locally, regionally and globally. A hydrological analysis was also carried out using rainfall data for 30 years from two meteorological stations, with the aim of providing a more sustainable RWH system for water supply to private individuals, organizations, and government agencies. RWH is found to be technically feasible based on the prevailing rainfall pattern with over 90% of households having a rooftop constructed from technically appropriate materials. Results of the study indicate that an average roof of
will collect 82,835 L/yr (45 L/person/day) for a family of five people which is about the required water demand for drinking and cooking purposes. Hence, the capacity of storage tanks and the catchment area required for an all-purpose water supply system based on RWH are quite large. These can be reduced to affordable sizes, by collecting and storing water for cooking and drinking only while non-potable uses are supplemented by water from other sources. However, it must be highlighted that due to the type of roofing material, rainwater should go through proper treatment in order to be used for potable purposes. This study clearly shows that Ibadan city has a good rainwater harvesting potential.
Rainfall Harvesting as an Alternative Water Supply in Water Stressed Communities in Aguata-Awka Area of Southeastern Nigeria
Okpoko, Ephraim ; Egboka, Boniface ; Anike, Luke ; Okoro, Elizabeth ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 95~101
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2013.18.2.095
Alternative sources of water are sought in some water stressed communities in the study area. The study focuses on the Aguata-Awka area of southeastern Nigeria. Aquifers occur at great depths, and surface waters may be far from homesteads. The scarcity of water has necessitated the people to adopt various local technologies for harvesting rainfall. The local technology includes collecting rainwater from roofs and channeling the water into large underground tanks, shallow wells and surface reservoirs. Large concrete tanks of
dimensions are often built underground and can store
of water. Surface reservoirs built on 4 m concrete pillar supports having dimensions of
and have a storage capacity of
. Water samples were collected at 3 different locations of Agulu, Ekwulobia, and Awka and were analyzed for their physical, chemical, and bacteriological parameters. Results indicate a range of values for pH, 5.9 to 7.1; turbidity, 0.9 to 2.7; total dissolved solids, 80 to 170 mg/L; total hardness, 4.5 to 6.4 mg/L; magnesium, 1.2 to 1.4 mg/L; bicarbonate, 19.4 to 83.6 mg/L; and sulfate, 3.6 to 6.4 mg/L. Bacteriological analysis results were negative for fecal and total coliform counts. All parameters, with the exception of pH where aluminum and galvanized iron roofs are used for collection, fall within the recommended guidelines for drinking water quality of the World Health Organization, and the Standard Organization of Nigeria, new Nigerian standards for drinking water quality. Magnesium is above the maximum permitted level for consumer acceptability of the Nigerian standards for drinking water quality. The water can be classified as fresh moderately hard and soft. The water can be described as a calcium and bicarbonate type.
Benefit of the Drinking Water Supply System in Office Building by Rainwater Harvesting: A Demo Project in Hanoi, Vietnam
Dao, Anh-Dzung ; Nguyen, Viet-Anh ; Han, Mooyoung ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 103~108
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2013.18.2.103
Vietnam is a developing country with the rate around 5%-6% per year, especially in urban areas. Rapidly developed urban areas lead to stress for infrastructure and the water supply is also stressed. In Hanoi city, total water capacity from the manufactories is around one million cubic meters per day and almost the entire main water source is groundwater but it is not enough to supply all of Hanoi's people, especially in the summer. A demo project is implemented in Hanoi University of Civil Engineering (HUCE) to produce drinking water by using the rainwater and membrane system and supply for people. In this project, rainwater is collected on the rooftop of the lecture building with an area of around
volumetric rainwater tanks. Afterwards, the rainwater is treated by the micro-membrane system and supplied to the tap water. Total cost for construction, technology and operation in the first year is around USD 48,558. In the long-term (15 yr) if HUCE invests in the same system, with
volumetric storage tank, it can provide drinking water for 500 staffs in every year. The cost of investment and operation for this system is lower than 30% compared to buying bottled water with the price USD 1.8/bottle. The drinking water parameters after treatment are pH, 7.3-7.75; turbidity, 0.6-0.8 NUT; total dissolved solids, 60-89 mg/L; coliform, 0; heavy metal similar with water quality in the bottle water in Vietnam.
A Sustainability Assessment of the Rainwater Harvesting System for Drinking Water Supply: A Case Study of Cukhe Village, Hanoi, Vietnam
Nguyen, Duc Canh ; Dao, Anh Dung ; Kim, Tschung-Il ; Han, Mooyoung ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 109~114
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2013.18.2.109
In Cukhe, a village located in the outskirts of Hanoi, Vietnam, people suffer from a shortage of high-quality water due to an arsenic contaminated supply water resource. We installed catchments, filters and settled tanks in the existing rainwater harvesting facility to improve water quality, and ten portable rainwater tanks to provide good-quality drinking water to the poor households and kindergartens in the dry season. The triple bottom line considerations, as well as the environmental, economic, and social impacts of the rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems are examined. RWH is a sustainable method to obtain good-quality drinking water at low cost and with little energy expenditure. Education of the system also encourages that continuation of the system and expansion can lead into economic prosperity, as the safe drinking water can be sold to the community. Hence, RWH is a unique proposal as sustainable drinking supply water for improving the lives and health of residents in Cukhe and other sites where water supply sources are contaminated.