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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Environmental Engineering Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Environmental Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
Utilization of the Outflowing Groundwater Resources in an Underpass Structure
Jin, Kyu-Nam ; Park, Jae-Hyeon ; Lee, Jung-Min ; Lee, Sang-Ho ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 117~121
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2013.18.3.117
For underpasses in Yeongjong Sky City business district, the guided drainage system, as a buoyancy prevention system has been designed, and is under construction. This paper investigates the safety of the guided drainage system for underpass structures being constructed in Yeongjong Sky City business district. This paper also calculates the amount of outflowing groundwater generated by the guided drainage system, and proposes alternative usages of the water. In order to investigate safety and field applicability of the guided drainage system for underpasses, characteristics of the surface flow for the area of interest have been analyzed, and the flow change of groundwater following the underpass structure construction has been evaluated using the 3-dimensional groundwater program MODFLOW. The influence of ground water on safety of the underpass structures has been calculated by FLAC2D analysis. For alternative usages for the outflowing groundwater generated by the guided drainage system, utilization methods of the outflowing groundwater in national and international resources have been researched. The amount of an outflowing groundwater to be generated in the area of interest has been analyzed, and efficient potential usages of this groundwater have been researched. When guided drainage technique is applied, the change in flow of groundwater must be evaluated and considered as safety factor relating to the buoyancy of the structure. As a result, safety factor demonstrated more than 1.2, meaning that the underpass structure is safe. The amount of subsoil drain generated by the guided drainage system was also analyzed. The quality and amount of water satisfied the standards and volume requirements, so as to make it applicable for a number of uses, such as X, Y, and Z, and should prove to be a valuable resource as the circumstances of the neighboring area change over time. These resources can be used as basic data for future urban water circulation studies, as well as generating research of alternative water usages.
Evaluation of Badge-Type Diffusive Sampler Performance for Measuring Indoor Formaldehyde
Yim, Bongbeen ; Lee, Kyusung ; Kim, Jooin ; Hong, Hyunsu ; Kim, Suntae ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 123~128
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2013.18.3.123
The purposes of this study were to determine the efficiency of using a badge-type diffusive sampler to measure formaldehyde concentrations indoors, and to evaluate the uncertainty associated with the use of data from a diffusive sampler. A diffusive sampler using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) reagent was found to be a suitable tool for measuring the formaldehyde concentration in an indoor environment. The agreement between results of the diffusive sampler and DNPH cartridge were good, showing a correlation coefficient of 0.996. The sampling rate for the diffusive sampler was calculated to be 1.428 L
, with a standard deviation of 0.084 L
. It was found through analysis that the uncertainty associated with the sampling rate and the mass of the formaldehyde transported into the diffusive sampler by diffusion was the dominant contributor to the total.
Characterizing Hydraulic Properties by Grain-Size Analysis of Fluvial Deposits Depending on Stream Path in Korea
Oh, Yun-Yeong ; Hamm, Se-Yeong ; Chung, Sang Yong ; Lee, Byeong Dae ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 129~137
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2013.18.3.129
The infiltration of rainwater into the surface soil is highly dependent on hydraulic variables, such as the infiltration rate, capillary fringe, moisture content, and unsaturated/saturated hydraulic conductivity. This study estimates the hydraulic conductivity (K) of fluvial deposits at three sites on the right and left banks of Nakdong River in Gyeongbuk Province, South Korea, including the Gumi, Waegwan, and Seongju bridge sites. The K values of 80 samples from 13 boreholes were estimated by using six grain-size methods (Hazen, Slichter, Kozeny, Beyer, Sauerbrei, and Pavchich formulae). The Beyer, Hazen, and Slichter methods showed a better relationship with K values along with an effective grain size than did the other three methods. The grain-size, pumping test, and slug test analyses resulted in different K values, but with similar K values in the grain-size analysis and pumping test. The lower K values of the slug test represent the uppermost fine sand layer.
Distinct Oxidative Damage of Biomolecules by Arrays of Metals Mobilized from Different Types of Airborne Particulate Matters: SRM1648, Fine (PM
), and Coarse (PM
Park, Yong Jin ; Lim, Leejin ; Song, Heesang ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 139~143
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2013.18.3.139
This study was performed to examine the in vitro toxicities which are incurred due to the mobilization metals from standard reference material (SRM) 1648, fine (
), and coarse (
) particulate matter collected in Seoul metropolitan area. DNA single strand breaks of approximately 74% and 62% for
, respectively, were observed in the presence of chelator (EDTA or citrate)/reductant (ascorbate), as compared to the control by 2% without chelator or reductant.
induced about 40% more carbonyl formation with proteins in the presence of EDTA/ascorbate than
. Therefore, more damage to biomolecules was incurred upon exposure to
. The treatment of a specific chelator, desferrioxamine, to the reaction mixture containing chelator plus reductant decreased the extent of damage to DNA to the level of the control, but did not substantially decrease the extent of damage to proteins. This suggests that different arrays of metals were involved in the oxidation of DNA and proteins.
Optimal Metal Dose of Alternative Cathode Catalyst Considering Organic Substances in Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cells
Nam, Joo-Youn ; Moon, Chungman ; Jeong, Emma ; Lee, Won-Tae ; Shin, Hang-Sik ; Kim, Hyun-Woo ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 145~150
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2013.18.3.145
Optimal preparation guidelines of a cathode catalyst layer by non-precious metal catalysts were evaluated based on electrochemical performance in single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Experiments for catalyst loading rate revealed that iron(II) phthalocyanine (FePc) can be a promising alternative, comparable to platinum (Pt) and cobalt tetramethoxyphenylporphyrin (CoTMPP), including effects of substrate concentration. Results showed that using an optimal FePc loading of
was equivalent to a Pt loading of
on the basis of maximum power density. Given higher loading rates or substrate concentrations, FePc proved to be a better alternative for Pt than CoTMPP. Under the optimal loading rate, it was further revealed that 40 wt% of FePc to carbon support allowed for the best power generation. These results suggest that proper control of the non-precious metal catalyst layer and substrate concentration are highly interrelated, and reveal how those combinations promote the economic power generation of single-chamber MFCs.
Assessing Organic Matter and Organic Carbon Contents in Soils of Created Mitigation Wetlands in Virginia
Ahn, Changwoo ; Jones, Stacy ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 151~156
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2013.18.3.151
Several soil properties were studied from three young created mitigation wetlands (<10 years old), which were hydrologically comparable in the Piedmont region of Virginia. The properties included soil organic matter (SOM), soil organic carbon (SOC), pH, gravimetric soil moisture, and bulk density (
). No significant differences were found in the soil properties between the wetlands, except SOM and SOC. SOM and SOC indicated a slight increase with wetland age; the increase was more evident with SOC. Only about a half of SOC variability found in the wetlands was explained by SOM (
= 0.499, p < 0.05). The majority of the ratios of SOM to SOC for these silt-loam soils ranged from 2.0 to 3.5, which was higher than the 1.724 Van Bemmelen factor, commonly applied for the conversion of SOM into SOC in estimating the carbon storage or accumulation capacity of wetlands. The results may caution the use of the conversion factor, which may lead to an overestimation of carbon sequestration potentials of newly created wetlands. SOC, but not SOM, was also correlated to
, which indicates soil compaction typical of most created wetlands that might limit vegetation growth and biomass production, eventually affecting carbon accumulation in the created wetlands.
Impact of Current Density, Operating Time and pH of Textile Wastewater Treatment by Electrocoagulation Process
Hossain, Md. Milon ; Mahmud, Md. Iqbal ; Parvez, Md. Shohan ; Cho, Haeng Muk ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 157~161
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2013.18.3.157
Treatment of textile wastewater by the electrocoagulation (EC) process is being investigated by this experimental study. The objective of this experiment is to observe the efficiency of the EC process in removing chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity. In this experiment an iron electrode is used in the EC process, and different working parameters such as pH, current density and operating time were studied in an attempt to achieve a higher removal capacity. The results show that the maximum COD removal occurred at neutral pH at operating time 30 min. COD and turbidity removal reaches at maximum, with optimum consumption of electrodes, between current density 85-95
, and only trace amounts of metals were determined in the EC treated effluent.
Iron Mixed Ceramic Pellet for Arsenic Removal from Groundwater
Shafiquzzam, Md. ; Hasan, Md. Mahmudul ; Nakajima, Jun ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 163~168
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2013.18.3.163
In this study, an innovative media, iron mixed ceramic pellet (IMCP) has been developed for arsenic (As) removal from groundwater. A porous, solid-phase IMCP (2-3 mm) was manufactured by combining clay soil, rice bran, and Fe(0) powder at
. Both the As(III) and As(V) adsorption characteristics of IMCP were studied in several batch experiments. Structural analysis of the IMCP was conducted using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis to understand the mechanism of As removal. The adsorption of As was found to be dependent on pH, and exhibited strong adsorption of both As(III) and As(V) at pH 5-7. The adsorption process was described to follow a pseudo-second-order reaction, and the adsorption rate of As(V) was greater than that of As(III). The adsorption data were fit well with both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacities of As(III) and As(V) from the Langmuir isotherm were found to be 4.0 and 4.5 mg/g, respectively. Phosphorus in the water had an adverse effect on both As(III) and As(V) adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy results revealed that iron(III) oxides/hydroxides are aggregated on the surface of IMCP. XAFS analysis showed a partial oxidation of As(III) and adsorption of As(V) onto the iron oxide in the IMCP.
Temporal Characteristics of Volatile Organic Compounds in Newly-Constructed Residential Buildings: Concentration and Source
Shin, Seung-Ho ; Jo, Wan-Kuen ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 169~176
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2013.18.3.169
The present study was designed to examine the concentrations, emission rates, and source characteristics of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in 30 newly-constructed apartment buildings by measuring indoor and outdoor VOC concentrations over a 2-year period. For comparison, seven villa-type houses were also surveyed for indoor and outdoor VOC concentrations over a 3-month period. Indoor and outdoor air samples were collected on Tenax-TA adsorbent and analyzed using a gas chromatograph (GC)/mass spectrometer system or a GC/flame ionization detector system coupled to a thermal desorption system. The long-term change in indoor VOC concentrations depended on the type of VOCs. Generally, aromatic (except for naphthalene), aliphatic, and terpene compounds exhibited a gradual deceasing trend over the 2-year follow-up period. However, the indoor concentrations of the six halogenated VOCs did not significantly vary with time changes. Similar to these halogenated VOCs, the indoor naphthalene concentrations did not vary significantly with time changes over the 2-year period. Unlike the halogenated VOCs, the indoor naphthalene concentrations were much higher than the outdoor concentrations. The indoor concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic compounds were higher for the villa-type houses when compared to those of apartment buildings. In addition, four source groups (floor coverings and interior painting, household products, wood paneling and furniture, moth repellents) and three source groups (floor coverings and interior painting, household products, and moth repellents) were considered as potential VOC sources inside apartment buildings for the first- and second-year post-occupancy stages, respectively.
Effect of Rotary Drum on the Speciation of Heavy Metals during Water Hyacinth Composting
Singh, Jiwan ; Kalamdhad, Ajay S. ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 177~189
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2013.18.3.177
Studies were carried out on the speciation of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr) during rotary drum composting of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for a period of 20 days. Five different proportions of cattle manure, water hyacinth and sawdust were prepared for composting. This study concluded that, rotary drum was very efficient for the degradation of organic matter as well as for the reduction of mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals during water hyacinth composting. The results from the sequential extraction procedure of heavy metals shows that rotary drum composting changed the distribution of five fractions of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr. The highest reduction in the bioavailability factors of Pb and Cd was observed during the process. The total concentration of Cu, Cr, and Cd was very low compared to the other metals (Zn, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Pb); however, the percentage of exchangeable and carbonate fractions of these metals was similar to other metals. These results confirmed that the bioavailability of metals does not depend on the total concentration of metals. From this study, it can be concluded that the addition of an appropriate proportion of cattle manure significantly reduced the mobile and easily available fractions (exchangeable and carbonate fractions) during water hyacinth composting in rotary drum.
Analysis of Potential Reductions of Greenhouse Gas Emissions on the College Campus through the Energy Saving Action Programs
Woo, Jeongho ; Choi, Kyoung-Sik ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 191~197
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2013.18.3.191
Republic of Korea announced the reduction target to be around 30% of business as usual greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. College campuses were ranked at the 5th of high energy consumption areas in the building sectors. Target management scheme was designed to set greenhouse gas emissions target including several college campuses. Previous studies showed the amount of greenhouse gas emissions with several assumptions such as the applications of renewable energy systems and light emitting diode lamps, etc. Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning model was utilized to simulate future greenhouse gas emissions. This study sets standard model labs for energy saving action programs by applying guidance studies. It has been deduced that energy saving action programs was responsible for reducing 949.5 kWh for each standard model lab and the total reduction of all 59 model labs in the Engineering College building has been calculated to 56,020.5 kWh. The objective of the study is to provide guidelines on standard model laboratory for greenhouse gas emissions reduction on the campus.
Building an Integrated Governance Model and Finding Management Measures for Nonpoint Source Pollution in Watershed Management of Korea
Ban, Yong Un ; Woo, Hye Mi ; Han, Kyung Min ; Baek, Jong In ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 199~208
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2013.18.3.199
This study intended to develop an integrated governance model and find measures to manage nonpoint source (NPS) pollutions in watershed management. To reach this goal, this study has analyzed NPS pollution management policies in Korea and has employed statistical methods such as expert Delphi survey, analysis of variance, and factor analysis. As a result, this study has found that the favored basic organization form was a private-public cooperative council. The necessary governance-based NPS pollution management measures determined through this study are as follows: to build collaboration mechanisms including those related to motivation provision, trust building, capacity building, and making optimal regulations; to employ financial resources based on principles such as 'polluter-pays', 'recipient-pays', and 'general-tax-source'; and to develop several programs, including system improvement, pilot and management projects, and publicity.