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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Environmental Engineering Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Environmental Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
Selecting the target year
Application of Management Reliability Index for Water Distribution System Assessment
Choi, Taeho ; Lee, Sewan ; Kim, Dooil ; Kim, Mincheol ; Koo, Jayong ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 117~122
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.19.2.117
Indexes of safety, restoration, damage impact, and management reliability were developed to assess reliability of drinking water distribution networks (DWDNs) management. The developed indexes were applied to evaluate the reliability of the pipeline management stage during unexpected mechanical and hydraulic accidents of components. The results were used to support the decision-making process in effective management and maintenance by enhancing the administrator's system understanding and by helping to create appropriate maintenance and management policies. The results of this study indicated that application of a management reliability index to assess DWDNs reliability may help create a more effective plan for establishing DWDNs management and maintenance.
Quantitative Determination of Organic Yield by Continuous Percolation Processes of Bio-wastes at K Composting Plant
Seo, Jeoung-Yoon ; Jager, Johannes ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 123~130
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.19.2.123
Percolation is the important process of extracting the soluble constituents of a fine mesh, porous substance by passage of a liquid through it. In this study, bio-wastes were percolated under various conditions through continuous percolation processes, and the energy potential of percolate was evaluated. The representative bio-wastes from the K composting plant in Darmstadt, Germany were used as the sample for percolation. The central objective of this study was to determine the optimal amount of process water and the optimum duration of percolation through the bio-wastes. For economic reasons, the retention time of the percolation medium should be as long as necessary and as short as possible. For the percolation of the bio-wastes, the optimal percolation time was 2 hr and maximum percolation time was 4 hr. After 2 hr, more than two-thirds of the organic substances from the input material were percolated. In the first percolation process, the highest yields of organic substance were achieved. The best percolation of the bio-wastes was achieved when the process water of 2 L for the first percolation procedure and then the process water of 1.5 L for each further percolation procedure for a total 8 L for all five procedures were used on 1,000 g fresh bio-waste. The gas formation potentials of 0.83 and
fresh matter (FM) were obtained based on the percolate from 1 hr percolation of 1,000 g bio-waste with the process water of 2 L according to the measurement of the gas formation in 21 days (GB21). This method can potentially contribute to reducing fossil fuel consumption and thus combating climate change.
The Cultural and Environmental Unsoundness of the Chinese Public Squatting-Type Toilet: A Case Study toward a Sustainable Excreta Treatment System
Chang, Jin-Soo ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 131~138
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.19.2.131
The inconvenient truth of sustainable public squat toilet culture varies among nationalities. This culture may be comfortable to the people of China, yet uncomfortable to the non-Chinese, according to the adequate environmental management in Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture (YKAP), northern China. We conducted a series of field surveys and individual interviews (Chinese n = 1,000 and non-Chinese [foreign visitors] n = 100) on several aspects of the public squat toilet: structural properties, waste disposal methods, important factors, and overall satisfaction level. The significant factors in response to the public squat toilets were cleanliness, odor, toilet paper, temperature, soap, other facilities, and presence of cubicles. These factors should be policy priorities of the local government. In addition, 66.2% of Chinese and 91% of foreign visitors desired type E toilets (two full-high partition walls and a door). The results illustrate the nature of a sustainable and beautiful approach to the culturally and environmentally sound management of various types of public squat toilet in YKAP. The government needs to focus on the future-oriented and excreta treatment management of the sustainable toilet culture for residents and visitors of YKAP.
Verification of Heme Catalytic Cycle with 5-Aminosalicylic Acid and Its Application to Soil Remediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Chung, Namhyun ; Park, Kapsung ; Stevens, David K. ; Kang, Guyoung ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 139~143
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.19.2.139
Catalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol in soil by heme and hydrogen peroxide has been hypothesized to occur through nonspecific catalytic reactions similar to those involving ligninase. The present study examines the evidence for a heme catalytic mechanism for the oxidation of organic compounds. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, heme is converted to the ferryl heme radical (Hm-
), which can oxidize organic compounds, such as 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). A second 5-ASA may later be oxidized by ferryl heme (Hm-
), which reverts to the ferric heme state (Hm-
) to complete the cycle. We believe that this catalytic cycle is involved in the degradation of hazardous pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Remediation via heme catalytic reactions of PAHs in soil from a pole yard was evaluated, and about 96% of PAHs was found to disappear within 42 days after treatment with heme and hydrogen peroxide. In addition, benzo[a]pyrene and six other PAHs were undetectable among a total of 16 PAH compounds examined. Therefore, we propose heme catalysis as a novel technology for the remediation of hazardous compounds in contaminated soil.
Efficacy of Three Different Plant Species for Arsenic Phytoextraction from Hydroponic System
Tiwari, Sarita ; Sarangi, Bijaya Ketan ; Pandey, Ram Avatar ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 145~149
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.19.2.145
Arsenic (As) is one of the heavy metals which causes acute bio-toxicity even at low concentration and has disastrous effect on environment. In some countries, As contamination has become alarming and increasing day by day as consequences of unsustainable management practices. Many existing physical, chemical and biological processes for As removal from water system are not feasible due to techno-economic limitations. The present study highlights the scope of biological strategy for As removal through phytoextraction. Arsenic uptake and accumulation in the biomass of three plant species and their As tolerance abilities have been investigated to develop an efficient phytoextraction system in combination of these plant species. Three non-crop plant species, Pteris vittata; Mimosa pudica, and Eichhornia crassipus were treated with 0-200 mg/L As in liquid nutrient solution for 14 days. P. vittata accumulated total 9,082.2 mg (8,223 mg in fronds) As/kg biomass and Eichhornia total 6,969 mg (4,517 mg in fronds)/kg biomass at 200 mg/L As concentration, respectively. Bioaccumulation factor (BF) and translocation factor (TF) were estimated to differentiate between excluders, accumulators and accumulation in above ground biomass. Pteris and Eichhornia have highest BF (67 and 17) and TF (64 and 3), respectively. In contrast, Mimosa accumulated up to 174 mg As/kg plant biomass which is low in comparison with other two plants, and both BF and TF were
. This study reveals that Pteris and Eichhornia are As hyperaccumulator, and potential candidates for As removal from water system.
Effects of Co-current and Cross Flows on Circular Enhanced Gravity Plate Separator Efficiencies
Ngu, Lock Hei ; Law, Puong Ling ; Wong, Kien Kuok ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 151~155
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.19.2.151
This study compares the effects of flow on oil and suspended solids removal efficiencies in circular enhanced gravity plate separator equipped with coalescence medium. Coalescence medium acts to capture rising oil droplets and settling solid particles and assist in the coalescence of oil and coagulation of solid. The circular separator uses an upflow center-feed perforated-pipe distributor as the inlet. The co-current flow is achieved using 4 increasing sizes of frustum, whereas cross flow uses inclined coalescence plates running along the radius of the separator. The different arrangement gave the cross flow separator a higher coalescence plan area per operational volume, minimal and constant travelling distance for the oil droplets and particles, lower retention time, and higher operational flowrate. The cross flow separator exhibited 6.04% and 13.16% higher oil and total suspended solids removal efficiencies as compared to co-current flow.
Batch and Flow-Through Column Studies for Cr(VI) Sorption to Activated Carbon Fiber
Lee, In ; Park, Jeong-Ann ; Kang, Jin-Kyu ; Kim, Jae-Hyun ; Son, Jeong-Woo ; Yi, In-Geol ; Kim, Song-Bae ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 157~163
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.19.2.157
The adsorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions to activated carbon fiber (ACF) was investigated using both batch and flow-through column experiments. The batch experiments (adsorbent dose, 10 g/L; initial Cr(VI) concentration, 5-500 mg/L) showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) to ACF was determined to 20.54 mg/g. The adsorption of Cr(VI) to ACF was sensitive to solution pH, decreasing from 9.09 to 0.66 mg/g with increasing pH from 2.6 to 9.9; the adsorption capacity was the highest at the highly acidic solution pHs. Kinetic model analysis showed that the Elovich model was the most suitable for describing the kinetic data among three (pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and Elovich) models. From the nonlinear regression analysis, the Elovich model parameter values were determined to be
= 162.65 mg/g/h and
= 2.10 g/mg. Equilibrium isotherm model analysis demonstrated that among three (Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson) models, both Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson models were suitable for describing the equilibrium data. In the model analysis, the Redlich-Peterson model fit was superimposed on the Freundlich fit. The Freundlich model parameter values were determined to be
= 0.52 L/g and 1/n = 0.56. The flow-through column experiments showed that the adsorption capacities of ACF in the given experimental conditions (column length, 10 cm; inner diameter, 1.5 cm; flow rate, 0.5 and 1.0 mL/min; influent Cr(VI) concentration, 10 mg/L) were in the range of 2.35-4.20 mg/g. This study demonstrated that activated carbon fiber was effective for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions.
Numerical Simulation of Turbulence-Induced Flocculation and Sedimentation in a Flocculant-Aided Sediment Retention Pond
Lee, Byung Joon ; Molz, Fred ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 165~174
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.19.2.165
A model combining multi-dimensional discretized population balance equations with a computational fluid dynamics simulation (CFD-DPBE model) was developed and applied to simulate turbulent flocculation and sedimentation processes in sediment retention basins. Computation fluid dynamics and the discretized population balance equations were solved to generate steady state flow field data and simulate flocculation and sedimentation processes in a sequential manner. Up-to-date numerical algorithms, such as operator splitting and LeVeque flux-corrected upwind schemes, were applied to cope with the computational demands caused by complexity and nonlinearity of the population balance equations and the instability caused by advection-dominated transport. In a modeling and simulation study with a two-dimensional simplified pond system, applicability of the CFD-DPBE model was demonstrated by tracking mass balances and floc size evolutions and by examining particle/floc size and solid concentration distributions. Thus, the CFD-DPBE model may be used as a valuable simulation tool for natural and engineered flocculation and sedimentation systems as well as for flocculant-aided sediment retention ponds.
Impoundments Increase Potential for Phosphorus Retention and Remobilization in an Urban Stream
Vo, Nguyen Xuan Que ; Doan, Tuan Van ; Kang, Hojeong ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 175~184
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.19.2.175
Weirs are conventional structures that control water level and velocity in streams to facilitate water resource management. Despite many weirs built in streams, there is little information how weirs change hydrology regime and how that translates to sediment and phosphorus (P) responses. This study evaluated the influence of weirs on P retention and mobilization in an urban tributary of the Han River in Korea. Total P concentrations in sediments upstream of weirs were higher than the downstream site, mainly due to the increase of potentially available fractions (labile P and aluminum- and iron-bound P) (p < 0.05). Equilibrium phosphorus concentrations (
) were lower than soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations of stream waters, but there was an increasing trend of sediment
upstream of weirs compared to the downstream site (p < 0.001) indicating a greater potential for P release upstream of weirs. Sediment core incubation showed that SRP release rates upstream of weirs were higher than the downstream site under anoxic conditions of the water column (p < 0.01), but not under oxic conditions. SRP release rates under anoxic conditions were greater than that measured under oxic conditions. Un-neutral pH and increased temperature could also enhance SRP release rates upstream of weirs. We conclude that weirs can increase P retention within stream sediments and potentially promote significant P releases into waters, which in turn cause eutrophication.