Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Environmental Engineering Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Environmental Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
Selecting the target year
A Transdisciplinary Approach for Water Pollution Control: Case Studies on Application of Natural Systems
Polprasert, Chongrak ; Liamlaem, Warunsak ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 185~195
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.S1.010
Despite the enormous technical and economic efforts to improve environmental conditions, currently about 40% of the global population (or 2 billion people) are still lack access to safe water supply and adequate sanitation facilities. Pollution problems and transmission of water- related diseases will continue to proliferate. The rapid population growth and industrialization will lead to a reduction of arable land, thus exacerbating the food shortage problems and threatening environmental sustainability. Natural systems in this context are a transdisciplinary approach which employs the activities of microbes, soil and/or plants in waste stabilisation and resource recovery without the aid of mechanical or energy-intensive equipments. Examples of these natural systems are: waste stabilisation ponds, aquatic weed ponds, constructed wetlands and land treatment processes. Although they require relatively large land areas, the natural systems could achieve a high degree of waste stabilisation and at the same time, yield potentials for waste recycling through the production of algal protein, fish, crops, and plant biomass. Because of the complex interactions occurring in the natural systems, the existing design procedures are based mainly on empirical or field experience approaches. An integrated kinetic model encompassing the activities of both suspended and biofilm bacteria and some important engineering parameters has been developed which could predict the organic matter degradation in the natural systems satisfactorily.
Assessment of Water Quality using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of the Nakdong River Basin, Korea
Park, Seongmook ; Kazama, Futaba ; Lee, Shunhwa ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 197~203
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.008
This study estimated spatial and seasonal variation of water quality to understand characteristics of Nakdong river basin, Korea. All together 11 parameters (discharge, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, pH, suspended solids, electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total organic carbon) at 22 different sites for the period of 2003-2011 were analyzed using multivariate statistical techniques (cluster analysis, principal component analysis and factor analysis). Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped whole river basin into three zones, i.e., relatively less polluted (LP), medium polluted (MP) and highly polluted (HP) based on similarity of water quality characteristics. The results of factor analysis/principal component analysis explained up to 83.0%, 81.7% and 82.7% of total variance in water quality data of LP, MP, and HP zones, respectively. The rotated components of PCA obtained from factor analysis indicate that the parameters responsible for water quality variations were mainly related to discharge and total pollution loads (non-point pollution source) in LP, MP and HP areas; organic and nutrient pollution in LP and HP zones; and temperature, DO and TN in LP zone. This study demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for analysis and interpretation of multi-parameter, multi-location and multi-year data sets.
Synthesis and Application of Metal Doped Silica Particles for Adsorptive Desulphurization of Fuels
Jabeen, Bushra ; Rafique, Uzaira ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 205~214
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.017
Petroleum a vital commodity affecting every aspect of 21st century. Toxicity and adverse effects of sulphur as catalyst in petroleum products is of great concern required development of techniques for desulphurization in compliance with the International standards. Installation of desulphurizing units costs over $200 million per unit placing economic burden on developing countries like Pakistan. Present study analysis of commercial fuels (station petrol and jet fuel JP8) on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified sulphur concentration of 19.94 mg/L and 21.75 mg/L, respectively. This scenario urged the researcher to attempt synthesis of material that is likely to offer good adsorption capacity for sulphur. Following protocol of sol-gel method, transition metals (Ni, Cu, Zn) solution is gelated with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS; silica precursor) using glycerol. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra revealed bonding of Zn-O, Cu-O, and Ni-O by stretching vibrations at
, respectively. Thiophene and Benzothiophene mixed in n-heptane and benzene (4:1) for preparation of Model Fuels I and II, respectively. Each of silica based metal was applied as adsorbent in batch mode to assess the removal efficiency. Results demonstrated optimal desulphurization of more than 90% following efficacy order as Si-Ni > Si-Zn > Si-Cu based adsorbents. Proposed multilayered (Freundlich) adsorption mechanism follows
-complexation with pseudo secnd order kinetics.
Photocatalytic Degradation of Gaseous Formaldehyde and Benzene using TiO
Particulate Films Prepared by the Flame Aerosol Reactor
Chang, Hyuksang ; Seo, Moonhyeok ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 215~221
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.022
particles were produced by a premixed flame aerosol reactor, and they were immobilized on a mesh-type substrate in form of particulate film. The reactor made it possible maintaining the original particulate characteristics determined in the flame synthetic process. The particulate morphology and crystalline phase were not changed until the particulate were finally coated on the substrate, which resulted in the better performance of the photocatalytic conversion of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the ultraviolet
system. In the flame aerosol reactor, the various specific surface areas and the anatase weight fractions of the synthesized particles were obtained by manipulating the parameters in the combustion process. The performance of the
particulate films was evaluated for the destruction of the VOCs under the various UV irradiation conditions. The decomposition rates of benzene and formaldehyde under the irradiation of UV-C of 254 nm in wavelength were evaluated to check the performance of
film layer to be applied in air quality control system.
Assessment of Seasonal Algae Variability in a Reservoir
Lee, Ju Young ; Han, Mooyoung ; Kim, Tschungil ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 223~228
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.023
We investigated seasonal algae variability and its influence on water quality in an agricultural reservoir. We observed that maximal total phosphorus (TP) loads were 1,715 kg from farmland in September, which changed the ecosystem in the reservoir. At this time, Dictyosphaerium pulchellum as green algae dominated. Aulacoseira ambigua as diatom became the most dominant from November 2010 to May 2011. The diatom was sensitive to water temperature. Microcystis spp. and Oscillatoria spp. as cyanobacteria were dominant during summer and fall, and sank down to the sediment during winter and spring. Increasing water temperature during summer causes anaerobic conditions in the sediment, leading to regrowth of cyanobacteria. With regard to the ratio of total nitrogen (TN) to TP, green algae and cyanobacteria were dominant at TN:TP ratios less than 20-30. Diatoms were dominant at TN:TP ratios greater than 30-40. Statistical analysis indicated that diatom growth was dependent on water temperature and TN concentration. TP concentration and water temperature were the key factors for the growth of cyanobacteria and green algae. From these results of this study, the management of land-use was an important parameter for improving water quality in the agricultural reservoir.
Distribution of Inorganic Phosphorus Fractions in Sediments of the South Han River over a Rainy Season
Vo, Nguyen Xuan Que ; Ji, Yoonhwan ; Doan, Tuan Van ; Kang, Hojeong ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 229~240
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.026
Rain events are extremely important for phosphorus (P) dynamics in rivers since large portions of annual river P loads can be transported in particulate forms during only a few major events. Despite their importance, a precise estimation of P contribution in river sediments after rainy seasons has rarely been reported. This study estimated the longitudinal variation in the concentrations of different inorganic P fractions in bed sediments of the South Han River over a rainy season, through using the sequential extraction method. Non-apatite P was the dominant form, representing more than 60% of total inorganic P (TIP) content in sediments. Although no significant variation of TIP contents was observed, the proportion of bioavailable P in TIP pools decreased after the rainy season. The concentrations of individual inorganic P fractions (
, NaOH-P, and
) were significantly different across sites and after the rainy season (p < 0.05, two-way ANOVA).
and NaOH-P concentrations in sediments increased in a downstream direction. After the rainy season,
concentrations in sediments decreased whereas
concentrations increased. The redistribution of individual P fractions in sediments observed after rainy seasons were possibly due to the changing contribution of various sources of runoff and the variation in flow related particle size. Current estimation of P in bed sediments of the South Han River suggests a lower potential of internal P loading from sediments after the rainy season.
Effect of Kaolin on Arsenic Accumulation in Rice Plants (Oryza Sativa L.) Grown in Arsenic Contaminated Soils
Koonsom, Titima ; Inthorn, Duangrat ; Sreesai, Siranee ; Thiravetyan, Paitip ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 241~245
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.S1.001
The As accumulation in part of roots, shoots, husks and grains of rice plants was significantly decreased with the increasing dosage of kaolin addition from 0.5% to 10% w/w. Kaolin addition could reduce As accumulation in rice plants, which mainly could be attributed to the formation of stable crystalline Al oxides bound As that decreased the available As in soil with decreased As accumulation in rice plants. The pH values of the soils did not change significantly when amended with kaolin. The pH values of the soils was neural that proper to adsorb of arsenic with
. Arsenic tends to adsorb with
at acid neutral pH and with desorbing at alkaline pH. The dry weight of rice plant was significantly increased with the increasing dosage of kaolin addition from 2.5% to 10% w/w. The highest dry weight of rice plants was 6.67 g/pot achieved at kaolin addition of 10% w/w with about 13% increasing over the control, which was probably attributed to the highest As concentration formation with kaolin at this dosage. The results of this study indicated that kaolin has the potential to reduce As accumulation in rice plants and enhance the dry weight of rice plants.
Characterization of Quintinite Particles in Fluoride Removal from Aqueous Solutions
Kim, Jae-Hyun ; Park, Jeong-Ann ; Kang, Jin-Kyu ; Son, Jeong-Woo ; Yi, In-Geol ; Kim, Song-Bae ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 247~253
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.029
The aim of this study was to characterize quintinite in fluoride removal from aqueous solutions, using batch experiments. Experimental results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of fluoride to quintinite was 7.71 mg/g. The adsorption of fluoride to quintinite was not changed at pH 5-9, but decreased considerably in highly acidic (pH < 3) and alkaline (pH > 11) solution conditions. Kinetic model analysis showed that among the three models (pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and Elovich), the pseudo-second-order model was the most suitable for describing the kinetic data. From the nonlinear regression analysis, the pseudo-second-order parameter values were determined to be
. Equilibrium isotherm model analysis demonstrated that among the three models (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson), both the Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson models were suitable for describing the equilibrium data. The model analysis superimposed the Redlich-Peterson model fit on the Freundlich fit. The Freundlich model parameter values were determined from the nonlinear regression to be
and 1/n=0.51. This study demonstrated that quintinite could be used as an adsorbent for the removal of fluoride from aqueous solutions.
Study of COD Removal Efficiency from Synthetic Wastewater by Photocatalytic Process
Rojviroon, Orawan ; Rojviroon, Thammasak ; Sirivithayapakorn, Sanya ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 255~259
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.S1.002
In this research, we compared the COD removal efficiencies of titanium dioxide (
) thin films coated on the surfaces of borosilicate glass that prepared by three different numbers of coating layer; i) 3 layers ii) 4 layers and iii) 5 layers by sol-gel method. All of the prepared
thin films consisted of pure anatase crystalline structure with grain sizes in the range 20-250 nm. The calculated optical band gaps of the
thin films were 3.24. The total apparent surface area per total weight of
thin films were 4.74, 3.86 and
for 3, 4 and 5 layers coating, respectively. The kinetics of the photodegradation reactions of COD under UVA light source were described by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) kinetic model. The specific rates of the photodegradation of
thin films at 3 layers coating was
, while for the 4 layers coating and the 5 layers coating were
, respectively. The photocatalytic performance of COD degradation was higher with smaller grain size, higher surface area and narrow optical band gaps. Moreover, the numbers of coating layer on substrate also have great influence for kinetic of COD removal.
Comparison of Solid Waste Stabilization and Methane Emission from Anaerobic and Semi-Aerobic Landfills Operated in Tropical Condition
Sutthasil, Noppharit ; Chiemchaisri, Chart ; Chiemchaisri, Wilai ; Wangyao, Komsilp ; Towprayoon, Sirintornthep ; Endo, Kazuto ; Yamada, Masato ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 261~268
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.S1.003
Leachate quality and methane emission from pilot-scale lysimeters operated under semi-aerobic and anaerobic conditions were monitored for 650 days. Two semi-aerobic lysimeters were filled with un-compacted and compacted municipal solid wastes whereas two anaerobic lysimeters containing compacted wastes were operated with leachate storage at 50% and 100% of waste height, respectively. Despite having high moisture in wastes and operating under tropical rainfall events, leachate stabilization in semi-aerobic lysimeters took place much faster resulting in BOD reduction by 90% within 60 days, significantly shorter than 180-210 days observed in anaerobic lysimeters. Nitrogen concentration in leachate from semi-aerobic lysimeter could be reduced by 90%. In term of gas emission, semi-aerobic lysimeter with un-compacted wastes had much lower methane emission rate of
compare to anaerobic lysimeters (
) through seasonal fluctuation was observed. Nevertheless, semi-aerobic lysimeter with waste compaction has similar performance to anaerobic lysimeter.
Hydraulic Evaluation and Performance of On-Site Sanitation Systems in Central Thailand
Koottatep, Thammarat ; Eamrat, Rawintra ; Pussayanavin, Tatchai ; Polprasert, Chongrak ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 269~274
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.S1.004
On-site sanitation systems are typically installed to treat grey and toilet wastewaters in areas without sewer and centralized treatment systems. It is well known that, due to inappropriate design and operation, treatment performance of these systems in developing countries is not satisfactory in the removal of pathogens and organic matters. This research aimed to investigate the hydraulic conditions occurring in some on-site sanitation systems and the effects of hydraulic retention times (HRTs) on the system performance. The experiments were conducted with a laboratory-scale septic tank (40L in size) and an actual septic tank (600L in size), to test the hydraulic conditions by using tracer study with HRTs varying at 12, 24 and 48 hr. The experimental results showed the dispersion numbers to be in the range of 0.017-0.320 and the short-circuit ratios in the range of 0.014-0.031, indicating the reactors having a high level of sort-circuiting and approaching complete-mix conditions. The removal efficiency of
was found to be 67% and the
. A modified complete-mix model based on the relationship between
removal efficiencies and HRTs was developed and validated with actual-scale septic tank data having a correlation coefficient (
) of 0.90. Therefore, to better protect our environment and minimizing health risks, new generation toilets should be developed that could minimize short-circuiting and improving treatment performance.
Colonization of Microbial Biofilms in Pipeline of Water Reuse
Kumjaroen, Teratchara ; Chiemchaisri, Wilai ; Chiemchaisri, Chart ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 275~281
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.S1.005
Aim of this study was to investigate biofilms attached in pipeline of water reuse from the MBR system treating sewage without chlorination in correlation to the outflow water quality. Two general pipe materials: polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE) were employed in the experiment. The peak growths were found at week 4 in both pipes. The maximum biofilms in PE pipe was
with the growth rate of
which was significant higher than that of PVC pipe. Biofilms examined by PCR-DGGE technique revealed five bacterial species in PE biofilms namely Sinorhizobium medicae WSM419, Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234, Geobacter sp. M18, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae UV-7, and Mycobacterium chubuense NBB4. The VSS concentrations in outflow had directly correlated to the biofilm attachment and detachment. High COD concentrations of outflow appeared during biofilm detaching phase. In summary, water quality of reuse water corresponded to the biofilms attachment and detachment in the pipeline.
Wastewater from Instant Noodle Factory as the Whole Nutrients Source for the Microalga Scenedesmus sp. Cultivation
Whangchenchom, Worawit ; Chiemchaisri, Wilai ; Tapaneeyaworawong, Paveena ; Powtongsook, Sorawit ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 283~287
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.s1.007
Cultivation of microalgae using wastewater exhibits several advantages such as nutrient removal and the production of high valuable products such as lipid and pigments. With this study, two types of wastewater from instant noodle factory; mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and effluents after sedimentation tank were investigated for green microalga Scenedesmus sp. cultivation under laboratory condition. Optimal wastewater dilution percentage was evaluated in 24 wells microplate. MLSS and effluent without dilution showed the highest specific growth rate (
, respectively, in which they were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than Scenedesmus sp. grown in BG11 medium (
). Ten days experiment was also conducted using 2000 ml Duran bottle as culture vessel under continuous light at approximately 5000 lux intensity and continuous aeration. It was found that maximum biomass density of microalgae cultivated in MLSS and effluent were
respectively and there was no significant (p < 0.05) difference on growth to control (BG11 medium). Moreover, cultivation microalgae in wastewater could reduce COD in wastewater by 39.89%-73.37%. Therefore, cultivation of Scenedesmus sp. in wastewater from instant noodle factory can yield microalgae biomass production and wastewater reclamation using photobioreactor simultaneously.
Enhancement of Efficiency of Activated Carbon Impregnated Chitosan for Carbon Dioxide Adsorption
Patkool, Chaiwat ; Chawakitchareon, Petchporn ; Anuwattana, Rewadee ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 289~292
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.S1.008
The effect of carbon dioxide (
) on global warming is serious problem. The adsorption with solid sorbents is one of the most appropriate options. In this study, the most interesting adsorbent is granular activated carbon (GAC). It is suitable material for
adsorption because of its simple availability, many specific surface area, and low-cost material. Afterwards, GAC was impregnated with chitosan solution as impregnated granular activated carbon (CGAC) in order to improve the adsorption capacity of GAC. This research aims to compare the physical and chemical characteristics of GAC and CGAC. The experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of
adsorption between GAC and CGAC. The results indicated that the iodine number of GAC and CGAC was 137.17 and 120.30 mg/g, respectively. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller results (BET) of both GAC and CGAC show that specific surface area was 301.9 and
, respectively; total pore volume was 0.16 and
, respectively; and mean diameter of pore was 2.18 and 2.15 nm, respectively. Finally, the
adsorption results of both GAC and CGAC in single column how the maximum adsorption capacity was 0.17 and 0.25 mol/kg, respectively; how degeneration time was 49.6 and 80.0 min, respectively; and how the highest efficiency of
adsorption was 91.92% and 91.19%, respectively.
Conversion of Organic Carbon in Food Processing Wastewater to Photosynthetic Biomass in Photo-bioreactors Using Different Light Sources
Suwan, Duangkamon ; Chitapornpan, Sukhuma ; Honda, Ryo ; Chiemchaisri, Wilai ; Chiemchaisri, Chart ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 293~298
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2014.S1.009
An anaerobic photosynthetic treatment process utilizing purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria (PNSB) was applied to the recovery of organic carbon from food processing wastewater. PNSB cells, by-product from the treatment, have high nutrition such as proteins and vitamins which are a good alternative for fish feed. Effects of light source on performance of anaerobic photosynthetic process were investigated in this study. Two bench-scale photo-bioreactors were lighted with infrared light emitting diodes (LEDs) and tungsten lamps covered with infrared transmitting filter, respectively, aiming to supply infrared light for photosynthetic bacteria growth. The photo-bioreactors were operated to treat noodle-processing wastewater for 323 days. Hydraulic retention time (HRT) was set as 6 days. Organic removals in the photo-bioreactor lighted with infrared LEDs (91%-95%) was found higher than those in photo-bioreactor with tungsten lamps with filter (79%-83%). Biomass production in a 150 L bench-scale photo-bioreactor was comparable to a 8 L small-scale photo-bioreactor in previous study, due to improvement of light supply efficiency. Application of infrared LEDs could achieve higher treatment performance with advantages in energy efficiency and wavelength specifity.