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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Environmental Engineering Research
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Korean Society of Environmental Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Jun 2016
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Mar 2016
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Membrane fouling control in low pressure membranes: A review on pretreatment techniques for fouling abatement
Arhin, Samuel Gyebi ; Banadda, Noble ; Komakech, Allan John ; Kabenge, Isa ; Wanyama, Joshua ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 2, 2016, Pages 109~120
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2016.017
Conventional treatment techniques cannot meet the stringent modern water quality regulations emanating from the need to provide high quality drinking water. Therefore, a number of studies have suggested low pressure membrane filtration as a worthwhile alternative. However, a major constraint to the extensive use of this technology in low and middle income countries is the high operating and maintenance costs caused by the inherent predisposition to membrane fouling. Notwithstanding, pretreatment of feed water using techniques such as coagulation, adsorption, oxidation and bio-filtration is believed to control fouling. In this review paper, the existing scientific knowledge on membrane fouling and pretreatment techniques for controlling fouling in low pressure membranes is analyzed with the aim of providing new and valuable insights into such techniques, as well as unveiling crucial issues noteworthy for further studies. Among the techniques reviewed, coagulation was observed to be the most cost-effective and will remain the most dominant in the coming years. Although oxidants and magnetic ion exchange resins can also control fouling, the propensity of oxidants to form health treating precursors and the high economic implications of magnetic ion exchange resins will hinder their adoption in developing countries.
Involvement of leaf characteristics and wettability in retaining air particulate matter from tropical plant species
Barima, Yao Sadaiou Sabas ; Angaman, Djedoux Maxime ; N'gouran, Kobenan Pierre ; Koffi, N'guessan Achille ; Tra Bi, Fidele Zamble ; Samson, Roeland ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 2, 2016, Pages 121~131
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2015.120
In most African urban areas, Particulate Matters (PM) concentration exceeds by far the WHO limits. In these areas, plants can play a key role in removing particles. In this study, we evaluated three ornamental species (Jatropha interrigima, Ficus benjamina, Barleria prionitis) used in Abidjan (Ivory Coast). Leaf-encapsulated saturation isothermal remnant magnetisation (SIRM) were measured and the relationship between PM captured and leaf wettability were done. The sampling were performed at roadsides and Parks. Firstly, Leaf-encapsulated and total leaf SIRM were quantified and the wettability was determined by drop contact angles (DCA). Secondly, the relationship between leaf SIRM and wettability was found. Results showed that leaf SIRM was two to ten times higher at roadsides than in Parks. Total leaf SIRM was also higher on mature leaves in Main roads suggesting a particle accumulation in leaves over time especially in waxy species (Ficus benjamina). This species encapsulated other than 20% of total leaf SIRM. All tested species were highly-wettable (
< DCA <
). Thus, Jatropha interrigima with its leaf trichomes and F. benjamina with its leaf waxes were more wettable. A significantly positive correlation was found between wettability intensity and leaf SIRM.
Environmental awareness and economical profits of replacing gas turbines in gas compressor stations: A case study of Polkalleh station in Iran
Sadrnejad, Amin ; Noorollahi, Younes ; Sadrnejad, Tohid ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 2, 2016, Pages 132~139
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2015.088
In early 90s the worldwide awareness about the energy crisis and global warming had been increased and emission reduction (by improving energy efficiency), as well as increasing the capacity of clean and renewable energies, showed themselves as the most important steps towards the sustainable development approach. However, investigations on Iran's environmental situation show huge decline in recent decades and apparently there is no sense of urgency about these issues through the vision of Iranian politicians. In this article the idea of replacing the old gas turbines of Polkalleh natural gas compressor station - as one of the main compressor stations of Iran - with newer and more efficient gas turbines is evaluated, emphatically for reducing greenhouse gases emissions and their environmental costs and decreasing natural gas consumption as well. Clearly such idea is costly, but analyzing its economic impacts, huge declines in annual costs and greenhouse gases emissions can be seen as well. So an investment about $95 million can decrease 40% of Polkalleh compressor station annual costs, 25% of natural consumption and 30% of
emissions. Besides the simple payback period of this investment is about 2.5 years from the cut-expenses of annual costs.
Ammonia half-saturation constants of sludge with different community compositions of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria
Kayee, Pantip ; Rongsayamanont, Chaiwat ; Kunapongkiti, Pattaraporn ; Limpiyakorn, Tawan ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 2, 2016, Pages 140~144
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2015.121
Owing to the kinetic differences in ammonia oxidation among ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOM), there is no standard set of kinetic values that can be used as a representative set for nitrifying wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) design. As a result, this study clarified a link between the half-saturation constants for ammonia oxidation (Ks) and the dominant ammonia-oxidizing bacterial (AOB) groups in sludge from full-scale WWTPs and laboratory-scale nitrifying reactors. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that AOB affiliated with the Nitrosomonas oligotropha cluster were the dominant AOM groups in the sludge taken from the low-ammonia-level WWTPs, while AOB associate with the Nitrosomonas europaea cluster comprised the majority of AOM groups in the sludge taken from the high-ammonia-level WWTPs and nitrifying reactors. A respirometric assay demonstrated that the ammonia Ks values for the high-ammonia-level WWTPs and nitrifying reactors were higher than those of the low-ammonia-level plants. Using the Ks values of available AOM cultures as a reference, the Ks values of the analyzed sludge were mainly influenced by the dominant AOB species. These findings implied that.different sets of kinetic values may be required for WWTPs with different dominant AOM species for more accurate WWTP design and operations.
Biodrying of municipal solid waste under different ventilation periods
Ab Jalil, N.A. ; Basri, H. ; Basri, N.E. Ahmad ; Abushammala, Mohammed F.M. ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 2, 2016, Pages 145~151
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2015.122
Biodrying is a pre-treatment method that applies biological and mechanical concepts to drying solid waste. In Malaysia, municipal solid waste (MSW) is unseparated and contains a high level of moisture, making the use of technology such as solid waste burning unsuitable and harmful. MSW containing organic material can be processed naturally until the moisture content of the waste is reduced. This study on MSW biodrying was carried out on a laboratory scale to measure the percent moisture content reduction and to monitor temperature patterns under different ventilation periods. This work was conducted using five biodrying reactors volumes of 50 liters each. Reactors were ventilated for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min every 3 h, with a 3 bar air supply. The duration of this process was 14 days for all samples. The results showed that the optimum ventilation time was 10 min, with an 81.84% reduction in moisture content, and that it required almost half of the electricity cost required for the 20 and 30 min ventilations.
Mass transfer kinetics using two-site interface model for removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution with cassava peel and rubber tree bark as adsorbents
Vasudevan, M. ; Ajithkumar, P.S. ; Singh, R.P. ; Natarajan, N. ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 2, 2016, Pages 152~163
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2015.152
Present study investigates the potential of cassava peel and rubber tree bark for the removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution. Removal efficiency of more than 99% was obtained during the kinetic adsorption experiments with dosage of 3.5 g/L for cassava peel and 8 g/L for rubber tree bark. By comparing popular isotherm models and kinetic models for evaluating the kinetics of mass transfer, it was observed that Redlich-Peterson model and Langmuir model fitted well (
> 0.99) resulting in maximum adsorption capacity as 79.37 mg/g and 43.86 mg/g for cassava peel and rubber tree bark respectively. Validation of pseudo-second order model and Elovich model indicated the possibility of chemisorption being the rate limiting step. The multi-linearity in the diffusion model was further addressed using multi-sites models (two-site series interface (TSSI) and two-site parallel interface (TSPI) models). Considering the influence of interface properties on the kinetic nature of sorption, TSSI model resulted in low mass transfer rate (5% for cassava peel and 10% for rubber tree bark) compared to TSPI model. The study highlights the employability of two-site sorption model for simultaneous representation of different stages of kinetic sorption for finding the rate-limiting process, compared to the separate equilibrium and kinetic modeling attempts.
Removal of acetaminophen from wastewater by constructed wetlands with Scirpus validus
Phong, Vo Hoang Nhat ; Koottatep, Thammarat ; Chapagain, Saroj Kumar ; Panuvatvanich, Atitaya ; Polprasert, Chongrak ; Ahn, Kyu-Hong ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 2, 2016, Pages 164~170
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2015.132
Since most of the existing wastewater treatment options lack the ability to treat micro-contaminants, the increased use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and release as human waste have become a serious concern in recent years. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are a low-cost technology for wastewater treatment, however, its performance in term of PPCPs removal has not yet been fully investigated. This study aimed to characterize the removal factors and efficiency of acetaminophen (ACT) removal by CWs. The results revealed the decreased concentrations of ACT with increasing hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 0, 3, 5 days. The contribution of removal factors was found to be varied with initial ACT concentration. At the low ACT concentration (i.e. 1 ppb), plant uptake was the dominant, followed by microbial and photolytic removal. In contrast, at the high ACT concentration (i.e. 100 ppb), microbial and photolytic removal were found as dominant factors. On the other hand, hydrogen peroxide (
) concentration was found at higher level in the plant shoot than in the root probably due to occurrence of the Fenton reaction resulting in PPCPs removal.
Analysis of optimum grid determination of water quality model with 3-D hydrodynamic model using environmental fluid dynamics code (EFDC)
Yin, Zhenhao ; Seo, Dongil ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 2, 2016, Pages 171~179
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2015.137
This study analyzes guidelines to select optimum number of grids to represent behavior of a given water system appropriately. The EFDC model was chosen as a 3-D hydrodynamic and water quality model and salt was chosen as a surrogate variable of pollutant. The model is applied to an artificial canal that receives salt water from coastal area and fresh water from a river from respective gate according to previously developed gate operation rule. Grids are subdivided in vertical and horizontal (longitudinal) directions, respectively until no significant changes are found in salinity concentrations. The optimum grid size was determined by comparing errors in average salt concentrations between a test grid systems against the most complicated grid system. MSE (mean squared error) and MAE (mean absolute error) are used to compare errors. The CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy) number was used to determine the optimum number of grid systems for the study site though it can be used when explicit numerical method is applied only. This study suggests errors seem acceptable when both MSE and MAE are less than unity approximately.
Characterisation of the pyrolysis oil derived from bael shell (aegle marmelos)
Bardalai, Monoj ; Mahanta, Dimbendra Kumar ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 2, 2016, Pages 180~187
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2015.142
In the present work, bael shell (aegle marmelos) is used as the feedstock for pyrolysis, using a fixed bed reactor to investigate the characteristics of the pyrolysis oil. The product yields, e.g., liquid, char and gases are produced from the biomass at different temperatures with the particle size of 0.5-1.0 mm, at the heating rate of
. The maximum liquid yield, i.e., 36.23 wt.%, was found at
. Some physical properties of the pyrolysis oil such as calorific value, viscosity, density, pH, flash point and fire point are evaluated. The calorific value of the bael shell pyrolysis oil was 20.4 MJ/kg, which is slightly higher than the biomass, i.e., 18.24 MJ/kg. The H/C and O/C ratios of the bio-oil were found as 2.3 and 0.56 respectively, which are quite higher than some other bio-oils. Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) and Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) analyses showed that the pyrolysis oil of bael shell is mostly composed by phenolic and acidic compounds. The results of the properties of the bael shell pyrolysis oil reveal the potential of the oil as an alternate fuel with the essential upgradation of some properties.
Photodegradation of 17α-ethynylestradiol in nitrate aqueous solutions
Ren, Dong ; Bi, Tingting ; Gao, Shumei ; Li, Xukun ; Huang, Bin ; Pan, Xuejun ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 2, 2016, Pages 188~195
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2016.008
-Ethynylestradiol (EE2) has gotten growing concerns due to its widely detected in the environment and high estrogenic potency. However, the knowledge on the photochemical behaviors of EE2 in natural waters is still limited. Herein, the photodegradation and estrogenic potency variation of EE2 induced by nitrate were studied using a sunlight simulator consisted by a 300 W medium pressure mercury lamp and 290 nm cut-off filters. It was found that EE2 could be photodegraded at a rate of
in pure aqueous solutions, and the photodegradation of EE2 could be significantly promoted by nitrate. The photodegradation removal rate of EE2 was increased from 9% in Milli-Q water to 85% in 2.0 mM nitrate solutions. Reactive species scavenging experiments demonstrated that the photogenerated
contributed about 55% to EE2 degradation. Fe(III), Cl- and dissolved humic acid (DHA) could inhibit the photodegradation of EE2 by competing the incident light and photogenerated
had no influence on EE2 photodegradation. EE2 was determined to be phototransformed into organic chemicals without estrogenic potency by GC-MS and MCF-7 cell proliferation toxicity tests. These findings could extend our knowledge on the photochemical behaviors of steroid estrogens and provide information for ecological risk assessment.
Optimization of membrane fouling process for mustard tuber wastewater treatment in an anoxic-oxic biofilm-membrane bioreactor
Chai, Hongxiang ; Li, Liang ; Wei, Yinghua ; Zhou, Jian ; Kang, Wei ; Shao, Zhiyu ; He, Qiang ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 2, 2016, Pages 196~202
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2015.093
Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has previously been used by water industry to treat high salinity wastewater. In this study, an anoxic-oxic biofilm-membrane bioreactor (AOB-MBR) system has been developed to treat mustard tuber wastewater of 10% salinity (calculated as NaCl). To figure out the effects of operating conditions of the AOB-MBR on membrane fouling rate (
), response surface methodology was used to evaluate the interaction effect of the three key operational parameters, namely time interval for pump (t), aeration intensity (
) and transmembrane pressure (TMP). The optimal condition for lowest membrane fouling rate (
) was obtained: time interval was 4.0 min, aeration intensity was
and transmembrane pressure was 19.0 kPa. And under this condition, the treatment efficiency with different influent loads, i.e. 1.0, 1.9 and
was researched. When the reactor influent load was less than
, the effluent could meet the third discharge standard of "Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard". This study suggests that the model fitted by response surface methodology can predict accurately membrane fouling rate within the specified design space. And it is feasible to apply the AOB-MBR in the pickled mustard tuber factory, achieving satisfying effluent quality.
Efficient removal of 17β-estradiol using hybrid clay materials: Batch and column studies
Thanhmingliana, Thanhmingliana ; Lalhriatpuia, C. ; Tiwari, Diwakar ; Lee, Seung-Mok ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 2, 2016, Pages 203~210
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2016.003
Hybrid materials were obtained modifying the bentonite (BC) and local clay (LC) using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) or the clay were pillared with aluminum followed by modification with HDTMA. The materials were characterized by the SEM, FT-IR and XRD analytical tools. The batch reactor data implied that the uptake of
-estradiol (E2) by the hybrid materials showed very high uptake at the neutral pH region. However, at higher and lower pH conditions, slightly less uptake of E2 was occurred. The uptake of E2 was insignificantly affected changing the sorptive concentration from 1.0 to 10.0 mg/L and the background electrolyte (NaCl) concentrations from 0.0001 to 0.1 mol/L. Moreover, the sorption of E2 by these hybrid materials was fairly efficient since within 30 mins of contact time, an apparent equilibrium between solid and solution was achieved, and the data was best fitted to the PSO (pseudo-second order) and FL-PSO (Fractal-like-pseudo second order) kinetic models compared to the PFO (pseudo-first order) model. The fixed-bed column results showed that relatively high breakthrough volume was obtained for the attenuation of E2 using these hybrid materials, and the loading capacity of E2 was estimated to be 75.984, 63.757, 58.965 and 49.746 mg/g for the solids BCH, BCAH, LCH and LCAH, respectively.
Monitoring of fecal contamination in a partly restored urban stream in Seoul, Korea
Seo, Eun-Young ; Jung, Dawoon ; Yong, Seung-Cheon ; Park, Rho Young ; Lee, Young-Ok ; Ahn, Tae-Seok ;
Environmental Engineering Research, volume 21, issue 2, 2016, Pages 211~218
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2015.049
Cheonggye-cheon is a partly restored urban stream located in central Seoul. We monitored fecal contamination using three different fecal indicators, total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC) and E. coli, to assess differences in each indicator on days of varying weather conditions. Presumptive TC, FC and E. coli colonies were identified by their 16S rRNA sequences. The results showed that enumeration of E. coli provided a better reflection of fecal contamination of the stream than TC and FC. The main sources of contamination were the inflow of fecal-polluted groundwater from the vicinity of a subway line and two inflowing streams. The fecal contamination was worsened on days with heavy rain because untreated sewage from a collecting facility flowed into the stream. Moreover, growth potential of fecal indicator (E. coli) in situ induced by algal exudates was measured. Our results suggest that an appropriate standard based on E. coli rather than TC and FC should be established for improving water quality management strategies of Cheonggye-cheon in the future.