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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of information and communication convergence engineering
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The Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Aug 2015
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
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FPGA-Based Hardware Accelerator for Feature Extraction in Automatic Speech Recognition
Choo, Chang ; Chang, Young-Uk ; Moon, Il-Young ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 13, issue 3, 2015, Pages 145~151
DOI : 10.6109/jicce.2015.13.3.145
We describe in this paper a hardware-based improvement scheme of a real-time automatic speech recognition (ASR) system with respect to speed by designing a parallel feature extraction algorithm on a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). A computationally intensive block in the algorithm is identified implemented in hardware logic on the FPGA. One such block is mel-frequency cepstrum coefficient (MFCC) algorithm used for feature extraction process. We demonstrate that the FPGA platform may perform efficient feature extraction computation in the speech recognition system as compared to the generalpurpose CPU including the ARM processor. The Xilinx Zynq-7000 System on Chip (SoC) platform is used for the MFCC implementation. From this implementation described in this paper, we confirmed that the FPGA platform is approximately 500× faster than a sequential CPU implementation and 60× faster than a sequential ARM implementation. We thus verified that a parallelized and optimized MFCC architecture on the FPGA platform may significantly improve the execution time of an ASR system, compared to the CPU and ARM platforms.
Maximum Likelihood (ML)-Based Quantizer Design for Distributed Systems
Kim, Yoon Hak ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 13, issue 3, 2015, Pages 152~158
DOI : 10.6109/jicce.2015.13.3.152
We consider the problem of designing independently operating local quantizers at nodes in distributed estimation systems, where many spatially distributed sensor nodes measure a parameter of interest, quantize these measurements, and send the quantized data to a fusion node, which conducts the parameter estimation. Motivated by the discussion that the estimation accuracy can be improved by using the quantized data with a high probability of occurrence, we propose an iterative algorithm with a simple design rule that produces quantizers by searching boundary values with an increased likelihood. We prove that this design rule generates a considerably reduced interval for finding the next boundary values, yielding a low design complexity. We demonstrate through extensive simulations that the proposed algorithm achieves a significant performance gain with respect to traditional quantizer designs. A comparison with the recently published novel algorithms further illustrates the benefit of the proposed technique in terms of performance and design complexity.
A Design for a CPW-Fed Monopole Antenna with Two Modified Half Circular Rings for WLAN/WiMAX Operations
Kim, Woo-Su ; Yoon, Joong-Han ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 13, issue 3, 2015, Pages 159~166
DOI : 10.6109/jicce.2015.13.3.159
In this paper, a novel design for a triple-band coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed monopole antenna for WLAN/WiMAX operations is proposed. The proposed antenna is printed on an FR4 substrate with an area of 22.0 mm × 30.0 mm, a thickness of 1.0 mm, and a relative permittivity of 4.4. The effects of various parameters of the proposed for triple band operation is investigated. Two half circular rings and a microstrip feed line are fabricated on the substrate to achieve triple band operation and good impedance matching. Prototypes of the proposed antenna have been fabricated and tested. Experiment results reveal that the measured return loss exhibits an acceptable agreement with the simulated return loss and satisfies the impedance bandwidth requirement of -10 dB, while simultaneously covering the WLAN and WiMAX bands. In addition, the proposed antenna shows good radiation characteristics and gains in the three operating bands.
Nonlinearity Detection and Compensation in Radio over Fiber Systems Using a Monitoring Channel
Kim, Sung-Man ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 13, issue 3, 2015, Pages 167~171
DOI : 10.6109/jicce.2015.13.3.167
A radio over fiber (RoF) system is a kind of analog optical transmission system and considered as a strong candidate for the next-generation fronthaul link in the future mobile network. In RoF systems, nonlinearity compensation is essential to increase the link capacity. In this paper, we propose a nonlinearity detection and compensation scheme using a monitoring channel in RoF systems. A monitoring channel is added at the transmitter site and used for transmitting a reference signal in an RoF transmission. The nonlinearity in the RoF transmission is detected by comparing the received monitoring signal and the original reference signal at the receiver site. Finally, the nonlinearity is compensated at the receiver by giving the reverse function of the detected nonlinearity. Our results show that the proposed scheme can almost remove the error vector magnitude degradation induced by the nonlinearity in the RoF system.
Die-to-Die Parasitic Extraction Targeting Face-to-Face Bonded 3D ICs
Song, Taigon ; Lim, Sung Kyu ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 13, issue 3, 2015, Pages 172~179
DOI : 10.6109/jicce.2015.13.3.172
Face-to-face (F2F) bonding in three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs), compared with other bonding styles, is closer to commercialization because of its benefits in terms of density, yield, and cost. However, despite the benefits that F2F bonding expect to provide, it's physical nature has not been studied thoroughly. In this study, we, for the first time, extract cross-die (inter-die) parasitic elements from F2F bonds on the full-chip scale and compare them with the intra-die elements. This allows us to demonstrate the significant impact of field sharing across dies in F2F bonding on full-chip noise and critical path delay values. The baseline method used is the die-by-die method, where the parasitic elements of individual dies are extracted separately and the cross-die parasitic elements are ignored. Compared with this inaccurate method, which was the only method available until now, our first-of-its-kind holistic method corrects the delay error by 25.48% and the noise error by 175%.
Full-Chip Power/Performance Benefits of Carbon Nanotube-Based Circuits
Song, Taigon ; Lim, Sung Kyu ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 13, issue 3, 2015, Pages 180~188
DOI : 10.6109/jicce.2015.13.3.180
As a potential alternative to the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, many researchers are focusing on carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) for future electronics. However, existing studies report the advantages of CNFETs over CMOS at the device level by using small-scale circuits, or over outdated CMOS technology. In this paper, we propose a methodology of analyzing CNFET-based circuits and study its impact at the full-chip scale. First, we design CNFET standard cells and use them to construct large-scale designs. Second, we perform parasitic extraction of CNFET devices and characterize their timing and power behaviors. Then, we perform a full-chip analysis and show the benefits of CNFET over CMOS in 45-nm and 20-nm designs. Our full-chip study shows that in the 45-nm design, CNFET circuits achieve a 5.91×/3.87× (delay/power) benefit over CMOS circuits at a density of 200 CNTs/µm. In the 20-nm design, CNFET achieves a 6.44×/3.01× (delay/power) benefit over CMOS at a density of 200 CNTs/µm.
Touch Screen Sensing Circuit with Rotating Auto-Zeroing Offset Cancellation
Won, Dong-Min ; Kim, HyungWon ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 13, issue 3, 2015, Pages 189~196
DOI : 10.6109/jicce.2015.13.3.189
In this paper, we present a rotating auto-zeroing offset cancellation technique, which can improve the performance of touch screen sensing circuits. Our target touch screen detection method employs multiple continuous sine waves to achieve a high speed for large touch screens. While conventional auto-zeroing schemes cannot handle such continuous signals properly, the proposed scheme does not suffer from switching noise and provides effective offset cancellation for continuous signals. Experimental results show that the proposed technique improves the signal-to-noise ratio by 14 dB compared to a conventional offset cancellation scheme. For the realistic simulation results, we used Cadence SPECTRE with an accurate TSP model and noise source. We also applied an asymmetric device size (10% MOS size mismatch) to the OP Amp design in order to measure the effectiveness of offset cancellation. We implemented the proposed circuit as part of a touch screen controller system-on-chip by using a Magnachip/SK Hynix 0.18-µm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process.
Detection and Recognition of Illegally Parked Vehicles Based on an Adaptive Gaussian Mixture Model and a Seed Fill Algorithm
Sarker, Md. Mostafa Kamal ; Weihua, Cai ; Song, Moon Kyou ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 13, issue 3, 2015, Pages 197~204
DOI : 10.6109/jicce.2015.13.3.197
In this paper, we present an algorithm for the detection of illegally parked vehicles based on a combination of some image processing algorithms. A digital camera is fixed in the illegal parking region to capture the video frames. An adaptive Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is used for background subtraction in a complex environment to identify the regions of moving objects in our test video. Stationary objects are detected by using the pixel-level features in time sequences. A stationary vehicle is detected by using the local features of the object, and thus, information about illegally parked vehicles is successfully obtained. An automatic alarm system can be utilized according to the different regulations of different illegal parking regions. The results of this study obtained using a test video sequence of a real-time traffic scene show that the proposed method is effective.
CRF-Based Figure/Ground Segmentation with Pixel-Level Sparse Coding and Neighborhood Interactions
Zhang, Lihe ; Piao, Yongri ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 13, issue 3, 2015, Pages 205~214
DOI : 10.6109/jicce.2015.13.3.205
In this paper, we propose a new approach to learning a discriminative model for figure/ground segmentation by incorporating the bag-of-features and conditional random field (CRF) techniques. We advocate the use of image patches instead of superpixels as the basic processing unit. The latter has a homogeneous appearance and adheres to object boundaries, while an image patch often contains more discriminative information (e.g., local image structure) to distinguish its categories. We use pixel-level sparse coding to represent an image patch. With the proposed feature representation, the unary classifier achieves a considerable binary segmentation performance. Further, we integrate unary and pairwise potentials into the CRF model to refine the segmentation results. The pairwise potentials include color and texture potentials with neighborhood interactions, and an edge potential. High segmentation accuracy is demonstrated on three benchmark datasets: the Weizmann horse dataset, the VOC2006 cow dataset, and the MSRC multiclass dataset. Extensive experiments show that the proposed approach performs favorably against the state-of-the-art approaches.
Performance Comparison of Two Ellipse Fitting-Based Cell Separation Algorithms
Cho, Migyung ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 13, issue 3, 2015, Pages 215~219
DOI : 10.6109/jicce.2015.13.3.215
Cells in a culture process transform with time and produce many overlapping cells in their vicinity. We are interested in a separation algorithm for images of overlapping cells taken using a fluorescence optical microscope system during a cell culture process. In this study, all cells are assumed to have an ellipse-like shape. For an ellipse fitting-based method, an improved least squares method is used by decomposing the design matrix into quadratic and linear parts for the separation of overlapping cells. Through various experiments, the improved least squares method (numerically stable direct least squares fitting [NSDLSF]) is compared with the conventional least squares method (direct least squares fitting [DLSF]). The results reveal that NSDLSF has a successful separation ratio with an average accuracy of 95% for two overlapping cells, an average accuracy of 91% for three overlapping cells, and about 82% accuracy for four overlapping cells.