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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of information and communication convergence engineering
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The Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 7, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
Selecting the target year
Conceptual Graph Matching Method for Reading Comprehension Tests
Zhang, Zhi-Chang ; Zhang, Yu ; Liu, Ting ; Li, Sheng ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 419~430
Reading comprehension (RC) systems are to understand a given text and return answers in response to questions about the text. Many previous studies extract sentences that are the most similar to questions as answers. However, texts for RC tests are generally short and facts about an event or entity are often expressed in multiple sentences. The answers for some questions might be indirectly presented in the sentences having few overlapping words with the questions. This paper proposes a conceptual graph matching method towards RC tests to extract answer strings. The method first represents the text and questions as conceptual graphs, and then extracts subgraphs for every candidate answer concept from the text graph. All candidate answer concepts will be scored and ranked according to the matching similarity between their sub-graphs and question graph. The top one will be returned as answer seed to form a concise answer string. Since the sub-graphs for candidate answer concepts are not restricted to only covering a single sentence, our approach improved the performance of answer extraction on the Remedia test data.
An Empirical Study on Information Technology Acceptance for e-Commerce Back-office Systems in Developing Countries
Tumibay, Gilbert M. ; Kim, Chong-Su ; Sung, Kyung ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 431~436
Gains promised by the introduction of e-commerce back-office systems are not easily realized due to poor technology acceptance, especially in developing countries. This study aims to analyze factors which affect information technology acceptance in developing countries. A research model based on TAM is proposed, and it is empirically tested for the hypotheses of factors which affect the acceptance behavior. The result shows that antecedents such as user training influence the technology acceptance in different ways. This study may help accelerate the adoption of back-office systems in developing countries.
Development of University-Industry Cooperation in the Republic of Kazakhstan
Abishev, Olzhas ; Lee, Joon-Won ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 437~441
With a dramatically increased demand from technology and software industries for higher competence, university-industry cooperation is becoming an increasingly important subject. This cooperation has previously been shown to be for advantage of the industries as well as a suitable tactics to in early stage recruit students. This paper has investigated the relationship and cooperation between universities and industries trough exploratory research (case studies) and comprehensive interviews with relevant contacts at different IT (Information Technology) companies and Universities in Kazakhstan. From the information collected from these interviews, we'll examine and conclude what makes this cooperation beneficial for both parties as well as the issues that arose. Based on these interview results, recommendation for industries as well as universities to improve their cooperation will be presented. Concerning these recommendations of investigated practices and case studies, this document identifies a range of actions to enhance the relationship between universities and industries as well as identify a number of examples of good practice which universities and industries may wish to consider in their cooperation planning.
A Novel Preprocessing Algorithm for Fingerprint
Nam, Jin-Moon ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 442~448
This paper proposes a fingerprint image processing algorithm to accurately extract minutiae in the process of fingerprint recognition. We improved the matching accuracy of low quality fingerprint images by using effective ridge vector and ridge probability. The proposed algorithm improves the clarity of ridge structures and reduces undesired noise. We collected thumb print images from 10 individuals 5 separate times each, in total using 50 thumbprints. We registered one of the five thumbprint images from each individual to match the registered one with the other four thumbprint images, and alternated the registered thumbprint image. We matched thumbprints 20 times for each individual. In total, we conducted 200 matches for the thumbprints from the 10 individuals. We improved the verification accuracy and reliability compared to conventional methods.
Compact and Wideband Fylfot-Shaped Planar Monopole Antenna
Shim, Jae-Ruen ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 449~452
In this paper, a novel compact and wideband fylfot-shaped planar monopole antenna is proposed. The fylfot-shaped is suggested to reduce the volume of a general crossed planar monopole antenna. The volume of the proposed antenna is about 1/4 of a general crossed planar monopole antenna under the conditions where the wideband characteristics are maintained. This technique is suitable for the design of wideband planar monopole antenna which needed a small volume.
A Study of Impedance Matching Circuit Design for PLC
Kim, Gi-Rae ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 453~458
This paper presents two methods of designing a Broadband Impedance Matching (BIM) circuit for maximizing a power line communication (PLC) equipment (or Modem) signal injection into its load at any power line connection port. This optimal (BIM) circuit design is achieved in two phases: Butterworth gain function and Tchebycheff gain function. According to the comparison of simulation and practical results, the performances of two gain functions on BIM are discussed.
Production Information Monitoring System for CIM in Footwear Industry
Kim, In-Ho ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 459~464
This paper presents a production information monitoring system as an infrastructure of CIM system in footwear industry. The system is composed of hardware devices of terminal, communication converter, line controller and software for manufacturing processes. A terminal like a scanner is used for shop floor data input and a line controller is used to link between terminal and server. LAN and RS485 are used for connecting hardware components and deliver their information mutually. In the system, real time production information is acquired from information resources such as group of uppers and soles. The collected production information is delivered to a line controller and analyzed. Server receives information from line controller and machines for production management. Production planning information that is machined in the server is delivered to the shop floor and used for the production management of work in process, and used for improvement of productivity in a footwear production company. The implementation of the developed system shows the effectiveness of the system.
A Study on the RTC romote system of Water Environment for Wireless Network
Sung, Kyung ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 465~468
There is to solution the environmental data which the importance is seriously taken into consideration in the the 21st century that is set up whether or not be a welfare society advanced country according to quality of life elevations through environments in question to a preferential assignment for an environmental control will decrease of measures, and be proceeded so as to be urgent. However, shall get measurement of a correct environmental pollution duty and reduction measures stopped on bases of the data which there is reliability, and decrease excessive pollution than what, and may overcome efficiency of waste of cost environmental pollution management. Environmental pollution data collected are regarded as important, and, specially, a collection of environmental data forecast a pollution circle, or to analyze future development is important very at an environmental policy decision or decision making step to be national besides pollution reductions.
Optimal Parameter Selection of Q-Algorithm in EPC global Gen-2 RFID System
Lim, In-Taek ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 469~474
Q-algorithm is proposed at EPC global Class-1 Generation-2 RFID systems to determine the frame size of next query round. In Q-algorithm, the reader calculates the frame size without estimating the number of tags. But, it uses only the slot conditions: empty, success, or collision. Therefore, it wastes less computational cost and is simpler than other algorithms. However, the constant parameter C value, which is used for calculating the next frame size, is not optimized. In this paper, we propose the optimized C values of Q-algorithm according to the number of tags within the identification range of reader through a lot of computer simulations.
Clustering Ad hoc Network Scheme and Classifications Based on Context-aware
Mun, Chang-Min ; Lee, Kang-Whan ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 475~479
In ad hoc network, the scarce energy management of the mobile devices has become a critical issue in order to extend the network lifetime. Current research activity for the Minimum Energy Multicast (MEM) problem has been focused on devising efficient centralized greedy algorithms for static ad hoc networks. In this paper, we consider mobile ad hoc networks(MANETs) that could provide the reliable monitoring and control of a variety of environments for remote place. Mobility of MANET would require the topology change frequently compared with a static network. To improve the routing protocol in MANET, energy efficient routing protocol would be required as well as considering the mobility would be needed. In this paper, we propose a new method, the CACH(Context-aware Clustering Hierarchy) algorithm, a hybrid and clustering-based protocol that could analyze the link cost from a source node to a destination node. The proposed analysis could help in defining the optimum depth of hierarchy architecture CACH utilize. The proposed CACH could use localized condition to enable adaptation and robustness for dynamic network topology protocol and this provide that our hierarchy to be resilient. As a result, our simulation results would show that CACH could find energy efficient depth of hierarchy of a cluster.
Performance Analysis of CMAP-WDMA MAC Protocol for Metro-WDMA Networks
Yun, Chang-Ho ; Cho, A-Ra ; Park, Jong-Won ; Lim, Yong-Kon ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 480~488
A channel-shared modified accelerative pre-allocation wavelength division multiple access (CMAP-WDMA) media access control (MAC) has been proposed for metro-WDMA networks, as an extension of modified pre-allocation wavelength division multiple access (MAP-WDMA) MAC protocol. Similarly, CAP WDMA as an extension of accelerative pre-allocation wavelength division multiple access (AP-WDMA) MAC protocol. Performance of CMAP- and CAP-WDMA was extensively investigated under several channel sharing methods (CSMs), asymmetric traffic load patterns (TLPs), and non-uniform traffic distribution patterns (TDPs). The result showed that the channel utilization of the CMAP-WDMA always outperforms that of CAP-WDMA at the expense of longer channel access delay for channel shared case while CMAP-WDMA provided higher channel utilization at specific network conditions but always shorter channel access delay than CAP-WDMA for non-channel shared case. Additionally both for CMAP- and CAP-WDMA, determining an effective CSM is a critical design issue because TDPs and TLPs can be neither managed nor expected while CSM is manageable, and the CSM supporting the best channel utilization can be recommended.
Performance Study for Impact of Mobility Model and Position Update Interval in Geographic Routing
Dong, Lihua ; Kim, Ki-Il ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 489~495
Geographic routing has attracted many researcers with no need for routing table to forward packet in mobile ad hoc networks. Previously, some literatures have mentioned how to improve the performance via simulation results. However, they didn't address the impact of various mobility models and beacon interval, which is used to maintain recent position information for nodes. In this paper, we introduce well-known geographic routing protocol called as GPSR and conduct simulation to identify the impact of these parameters. Even though GPSR shows acceptable performance in most cases, sometimes its performance becomes worse than what we expect.
A Fast Context Modeling Using Tree-structure of Coefficients from Wavelet-domain
Choi, Hyun-Jun ; Seo, Young-Ho ; Kim, Dong-Wook ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 496~500
In EBCOT, the context modeling process takes excessive calculation time and this paper proposed a method to reduce this calculation time. That is, if the finest resolution coefficient is less than a pre-defined transfer factor the coefficient and its descendents skip the context modeling process. There is a trade-off relationship between the calculation time and the image quality or the amount of output data such that as this threshold value increases, the calculation time and the amount of output data decreases, but the image degradation increases. The experimental results showed that in this range the resulting reduction rate in calculation time was from 3% to 64% in average, the reduction rate in output data was from 32% to 73% in average.
Fast Intra-Prediction Mode Decision Algorithm for H.264/AVC using Non-parametric Thresholds and Simplified Directional Masks
Kim, Young-Ju ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 501~506
In the H.264/ AVC video coding standard, the intra-prediction coding with various block sizes offers a considerably high improvement in coding efficiency compared to previous standards. In order to achieve this, H.264/AVC uses the Rate-distortion optimization (RDO) technique to select the best intraprediction mode for a macroblock, and it brings about the drastic increase of the computation complexity of H.264 encoder. To reduce the computation complexity and stabilize the coding performance on visual quality, this paper proposed a fast intra-prediction mode decision algorithm using non-parametric thresholds and simplified directional masks. The use of nonparametric thresholds makes the intra-coding performance not be dependent on types of video sequences and simplified directional masks reduces the compuation loads needed by the calculation of local edge information. Experiment results show that the proposed algorithm is able to reduce more than 55% of the whole encoding time with a negligible loss in PSNR and bitrates and provides the stable performance regardless types of video sequences.
An Image Signal Processor for Ultra Small HDGrade Video Sensor with 3A in Camera Phones
Jang, Won-Woo ; Kim, Joo-Hyun ; Han, Hag-Yong ; Yang, Hoon-Gee ; Kang, Bong-Soon ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 507~515
In this paper, we propose an image signal processor (ISP) for an ultra small HD-grade video sensor with 3A (AWB, AE, and AF) in camera phones that can process 720P/30fps videos. In order to enhance the video quality of the systems, it is necessary to achieve the high performance of the 3A. The proposed AWB algorithm multiplies the adjusted coefficients of color gains to the captured data of white objects. The proposed AE method adopts the index step moving based on the difference between an averaged Y luminance and a target luminance, together with IIR filters with variable time responses. The proposed AF technique controls the focus curve to find the lens position that maximizes the integrated high frequency components in luminance values by using highpass filters. Finally, we compare the image quality captured from our system to the quality of a commercial HD camcorder in order to evaluate the performance of the proposed ISP. The proposed ISP system is also fabricated with 0.18um CMOS flash memory process.
A High-Security RSA Cryptoprocessor Embedded with an Efficient MAC Unit
Moon, Sang-Ook ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 516~520
RSA crypto-processors equipped with more than 1024 bits of key space handle the entire key stream in units of blocks. The RSA processor which will be the target design in this paper defines the length of the basic word as 128 bits, and uses an 256-bits register as the accumulator. For efficient execution of 128-bit multiplication, 32b*32b multiplier was designed and adopted and the results are stored in 8 separate 128-bit registers according to the status flag. In this paper, an efficient method to execute 128-bit MAC (multiplication and accumulation) operation is proposed. The suggested method pre-analyzed the all possible cases so that the MAC unit can remove unnecessary calculations to speed up the execution. The proposed architecture prototype of the MAC unit was automatically synthesized, and successfully operated at 20MHz, which will be the operation frequency in the RSA processor.
Improving a Forward & Backward Secure Key Management Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks
Park, Dong-Gook ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 521~524
Park proposed a forward & backward Secure key management scheme in wireless sensor networks for Process Control Systems (PCSs) or Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems . The scheme, however, is still vulnerable to an attack called "sandwich attack": two nodes captured at times
, respectively, surrenders all the group keys used between times
. In this paper, we propose a fix to the scheme, which can limit the vulnerable time duration to an arbitrarily chosen time span while keeping the forward and backward secrecy of the scheme untouched.
Design of Client/Server System for Meteorological Map Service Using Mobile Phone Sensor
Choi, Jin-Oh ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 525~529
On the limited urban area meteorological data are hard to be collected because of the cost problem. The facilities collecting the data require high installment cost. Recently, the sensor network technique comes to the fore as a solution. Furthermore a mobile phone also becomes to be recognized as a sensor. This paper studies an application to service the meteorological map using mobile phone sensor. A design results for system implementation are introduced in this paper.
A Feasibility Study of Nano-grained ZnO Piezoelectric Thin Film Fabrication
Zhang, Ruirui ; Lee, Eun-Ju ; Yoon, Gi-Wan ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 530~534
C-axis-oriented ZnO thin films were successfully deposited on p-Si (100) in an RF magnetron sputtering system. Deposition conditions such as deposition power, working pressure, and oxygen gas ratio
were varied. Crystalline structures of the deposited ZnO films were investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) technique. Results show that the deposition parameters can have a strong impact on the preferred orientations and grain sizes of the deposited ZnO films.
Edge Preserving Speckle Reduction of Ultrasound Image with Morphological Adaptive Median Filtering
Ryu, Kwang-Ryol ; Jung, Eun-Suk ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 535~538
Speckle noise reduction for ultrasound CT image using morphological adaptive median filtering based on edge preservation is presented in this paper. Speckle noise is multiplicative feature and causes ultrasound image to degrade widely from transducer. An input image is classified into edge region and homogeneous region in preprocessing. The speckle is reduced by morphological operation on the 2D gray scale by using convolution and correlation, and edges are preserved. The adaptive median is processed to reduce an impulse noise to preserve edges. As the result, MAM of the proposed method enhances the image to about 10% in comparison with Winner filter by Edge Preservation Index and PSNR, and 10% to only adaptive median filtering.
Optical Flow Estimation of a Fluid Based on a Physical Model
Kim, Jin-Woo ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 539~544
An estimation of 3D velocity field including occluded parts without maxing tracer to the fluid had not only never been proposed but also impossible by the conventional computer vision algorithm. In this paper, we propose a new method of three dimensional optical flow of the fluid based on physical model, where some boundary conditions are given from a priori knowledge of the flow configuration. Optical flow is obtained by minimizing the mean square errors of a basic constraint and the matching error terms with visual data using Euler equations. Here, Navier-Stokes motion equations and the differences between occluded data and observable data are employed as the basic constrains. we verify the effectiveness of our proposed method by applying our algorithm to simulated data with partly artificially deleted and recovering the lacking data. Next, applying our method to the fluid of observable surface data and the knowledge of boundary conditions, we demonstrate that 3D optical flow are obtained by proposed algorithm.
Analysis of Tubular Structures in Medical Imaging
Kim, Jin-Woo ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 545~550
A method fully utilizing multiscale line filter responses is presented to estimate the point spread function(PSF) of a CT scanner and diameters of small tubular structures based on the PSF. The estimation problem is formulated as a least square fitting of a sequence of multiscale responses obtained at each medical axis point to the precomputed multiscale response curve for the ideal line model. The method was validated through phantom experiments and demonstrated through phantom experiments and demonstrated to accurately measure small-diameter structures which are significantly overestimated by conventional methods based on the full width half maximum(FWHM) and zero-crossing edge detection.
Signal Generation for Automatic Control of a Monitoring Camera
Kim, Jin-Tae ; Oh, Jeong-Su ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 551~555
This paper proposes a signal generation method for automatic control of a monitoring camera. Using the control signal, the monitoring camera can track a moving object and keep it near the image center for a longer time. The proposed method is estimated in the experiments that automatically move a maker located at the specified position to the image center.
Analyses of Spectral Behaviors of Semiconductor Lasers under Weak Optical Injection Locked to External Light Injected
Kim, Jung-Tae ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 556~560
We have investigated the spectral characteristics of semiconductor lasers locked to the external light injected from a modulated laser. study on FM sideband injection locking has shown that when SLs are locked to the target sidebands of the directly modulated ML, the presence of the unselected sidebands influences the resulting microwave signals. The unselected signals can produce the unwanted beat signals around the desired beat signal, which degrade the overall system performance. This analysis way to generate Giga HZ signal generation.
Development of a Cryptographic Dongle for Secure Voice Encryption over GSM Voice Channel
Kim, Tae-Yong ; Jang, Won-Tae ; Lee, Hoon-Jae ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 561~564
A cryptographic dongle, which is capable of transmitting encrypted voice signals over the CDMA/GSM voice channel, was designed and implemented. The dongle used PIC microcontroller for signals processing including analog to digital conversion and digital to analog conversion, encryption and communicating with the smart phone. A smart phone was used to provide power to the dongle as well as passing the encrypted speech to the smart phone which then transmits the signal to the network. A number of tests were conducted to check the efficiency of the dongle, the firmware programming, the encryption algorithms, and the secret key management system, the interface between the smart phone and the dongle and the noise level.
Development of Construction Site Safety Monitoring System based on the USN
Ahn, Jeong-Kil ; Kim, Dong-Hyeon ; Lee, Yang-Sun ; Kim, Ji-Woong ; Cho, Sung-Eeon ; Cho, Sung-Joon ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 565~569
This paper proposed the safety helmet monitoring system based on USN(Ubiquitous Sensor Networks) to secure the wear of helmet for labor on the construction area. As one of the most significant gear to assure labor's safety, The safety helmet would have the extend of labor's injuries minimized whether one wears or not when an accident takes place. At this point, we have developed and demonstrated the system which is able to check who wear the safety helmet properly for labors, composed of safety helmets with sensor node, router nodes, sink node and management program. Moreover, we could show optimized parameters for the proposed USN system as doing experiment and demonstration, we expected that this system would make for labor wear the safety helmet properly on the construction area as well as prevent economic injury caused by an accident with not wearing for labors.
An Implementation of Project-Based Learning for Routing Design Course
Lee, Sang-Gon ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 570~575
This paper describes an implementation of project-based learning in routing design course. The total students who enrolled in the class were 48 and were divided into groups of 3~4 students. At the beginning of the course, a survey was conducted to check the student's level of back ground knowledge acquired from the prerequisite courses. At the end of the curse, we also conducted a survey to evaluate the effect of project-based learning. According to the end of course survey, the course was helpful to identify the problems to solve by themselves, to develop the problem solving ability, and to understand the global picture of the subject by integrating knowledge of each chapter into a project. The survey also shows that students recognized the importance of the teamwork skill throughout the project activity.
Activities of Natural Plant Extracts against HIV-1
Eum, Jin-Seong ; Park, Young-Doo ; Hong, Seong-Karp ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 576~579
Anti-HIV-1 activities for the extracts (buthanol, hexane, chloroform, and water) of medicinal plants widely used in the folk medicine were evaluated for screening of anti-AIDS agents. The activities of the extracts to inhibit HIV-1 replication were also analyzed. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) of inhibition activity of the p24 production for chloroform extract of Saphora flavescens, chloroform extract of Herba ephedrae, and hexane extract of Pachyma hoelen Rumph showed 5.8, 29.9, and 37.3 2g/ml, respectively, as good activities. Hexane extract of Sophora flavescens, buthanol extract of Tulipa edulis, hexane extracts of Tulipa edulis, Herba ephedra, and Pachyma hoelen Rumph in the 50% cytotoxic concentration (
) in inhibition activities of recombinant HIV-1 RT showed 12.9, 19.5, 11.6, 12.0, and 36.8 % at concentration of 200
/ml, respectively, as good activities. From these results, chloroform extract of Saphora flavescens, chloroform extract of Herba ephedrae, and hexane extract of Pachyma hoelen Rumph were very effective against HIV-1 among all extracts tested. Therefore, we expect these plants will be a useful for anti- HIV-1 therapeutics in future.
Study on Characteristics of Harmful Algal Blooms in the South Sea of Korea by using Satellite and In-Situ Data
Denny, Widhiyanuriyawan ; Kim, Dae-Hyun ; Chung, Yong-Hyun ; Yoon, Hong-Joo ;
Journal of information and communication convergence engineering, volume 7, issue 4, 2009, Pages 580~585
Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), caused by Cochlodinium polykrikoides that causative fishery mortality, impact on aquaculture and economic loss appear particularly in summer and fall seasons in the Korean seas. It was studied on characteristics of HABs in the South Sea of Korea by using satellite and in-situ data. The in-situ data encompassed oceanic and meteorological data from July to October 2002-2008 and satellite data from July to October 2002-2006. Chlorophyll concentrations were calculated using Seaviewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor images by an Ocean Color (OC4) algorithm, and HABs were estimated using the Red tide index Chlorophyll Algorithm (RCA). The HAB occurrences were dominant when water temperature was
in August. The frequency of the individual numbers during 2002-2008, the HABs more than 1000 cells/ml (alert condition), were 73.57 %. In meteorological data from July to September during 2002-2008, the average precipitation, the mean air temperature, the mean wind speed and direction, and the sunshine were 9.31 mm/day,
, 2.34 m/s and easterly, and 1-11 h, respectively. Our results suggest that the upwelling is caused by southwesterly wind in summer season and the Tsushima Warm Current which have influenced on the dispersion and moving of HAB (chlorophyll). In addition, the fresh water from Nakdong River, as the source of nutrients, also influences the occurrence of HABs.