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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sericultural Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 11, Issue 2 - Dec 2005
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Sep 2005
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Jun 2005
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Mar 2005
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Parthenogenesis in Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.
Gangopadhyay Debnirmalya ; Singh Ravindra ; Kariappa B. K. ; Dandin S. B. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 10, issue 1, 2005, Pages 1~10
Parthenogenesis in mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L. acquires immense use in the development of outstanding homozygous lines with higher viability, hybrid vigour, combining ability and less phenotypic variability. It can serve as a powerful tool in controlling sex of the offsprings as well as a useful tool in selection. In fact India is the second largest silk producing country in the world next only to China and all the five types of natural silks viz., mulberry, oak tasar, tropical tasar, muga and eri are produced in India. However, little information is available on the role of artificial parthenogenesis in the development of superior silkworm breeds. This paper overviews some important studies carried out on artificial parthenogenesis, and outline of different types of parthenogenesis, methods of induction of artificial parthenogenesis, factors responsible for successful parthenogenetic development, cytogenetics of artificial parthenogenesis and role of artificial parthenogenesis in silkworm breeding. Besides, an attempt is made to describe briefly about parthenogenetic engineering which includes cloning in silkworm, artificial insemination, chimeras, hybridization, chromosomal substitution and recombinant DNA in silkworm.
Molecular Cloning and Expression of a Novel Cuticle Protein Gene from the Chinese Oak Silkmoth, Antheraea pernyi
Kim Bo Yeon ; Park Nam Sook ; Jin Byung Rae ; Kang Pil Don ; Lee Bong Hee ; Seong Su Il ; Hwang Jae Sam ; Chang Jong Su ; Lee Sang Mong ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 10, issue 1, 2005, Pages 11~17
In our research to identify gene involved in the cuticle protein, we cloned a novel cuticle protein gene, ApCP15.5, from the Chinese oak silkmoth, Antheraea pernyi, larvae cDNA library. The gene encodes a 149 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 15.5 kDa and a pI of 9.54. The ApCP15.5 contained a type-specific consensus sequence identifiable in other insect cuticle proteins and the deduced amino acid sequence of the ApCP15.5 cDNA is most homologous to Tenebrio molitor-C1B (
protein sequence identity), followed by Locusta migratoria-76 (
protein sequence identity). Northern blot and Western blot analyses revealed that the ApCP15.5 showed the epidermis-specific expression. The expression profile of ApCP15.5 indicated that the ApCP15.5 mRNA expression was detected in the early stages after larval ecdysis and larval-pupal metamorphosis, and its expression level was most significant on the first day of larval ecdysis and pupal stage. The ApCP15.5 was expressed as a 15.5 kDa polypeptide in baculovirus-infected insect cells.
Effect of Quantitative Nutrition on Adult Characters and Reproductive Fitness in Tropical Tasar Silkworm Antheraea mylitta
Rath S. S. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 10, issue 1, 2005, Pages 19~24
Nutrition is very essential for growth, development and reproduction. The quantitative impetus of nutritional factor on adult characters and reproductive fitness was studied in Antheraea mylitta by providing fresh leaves of Terminalia tomentosa for 1 to 4 times a day to
instar larvae. All the characters have improved on giving fresh diet more times over the single diet. The adult weight has strong effect on the reproductive potential i.e., female pupa and moth weight, survivability, pupation rate, emergence percentage, fecundity, fertility, egg weight and hatched out larval weight. The improvement recorded to the tune of
in larval weight gain, survivability, pupation rate, female pupa weight, moth weight and fecundity respectively when fresh diets were provided 4 times a day against single diet. The adult emergence percentage has increased from
and fertility rose from
. The weight of eggs and the larvae hatched out of it also found to be significantly higher in 4 diets a day condition. The study revealed that optimization of fresh diet frequency should be maintained to obtain higher egg production and fertility in order to get vigorous larvae to continue the generation.
Computational Analysis of Apolipophorin-III in Hyphantria cunea
Chandrasekar R. ; Dhanalakshmi R. ; Krishnan M. ; Kim H. J. ; Jeong H. C. ; Seo S. J. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 10, issue 1, 2005, Pages 25~33
Recently a cDNA clone of apoLp-III from Hyphantria cunea was isolated and subjected to computational analysis to compare with other available sequences. Multiple sequence alignments were carried out using the amino acid sequences of apoLp-III from six insects. It was found that the H. cunea apoLp-III has relatively high sequence identities to Spodoptera litura (
), Manduca sexta (
), Galleria mellonella (
), Bombyx mori N4 (
) but less identity to Locusta migratoria (
). The amino acid composition was compared with other insects using EXPASY tools; it shows that alanine (Ala), glutamine (Gln), leucine (Leu) and lysine (Lys) are the major amino acid components of apoLp-III in H. cunea as well as other lepidopterans. Homology modeling performed using PSI-BLAST (PDB template M. sexta) reveals that the apoLp-III molecules consist of five, long amphipathic alpha helical bundles with short loops connecting the helices and shows homology with other insects. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the orthopteran apoLp-III represented by locust was most distantly related to the lepidopteran insects.
Genomic Structure of the Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) Gene of Paecillomyces tenuipes and Paecilomyces sp.
Park Nam Sook ; Lee Kwang Sik ; Lee Sang Mong ; Je Yeon Ho ; Park Eunju ; Sohn Hung Dae ; Jin Byung Rae ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 10, issue 1, 2005, Pages 35~43
We describe here the complete nucleotide sequence and the exon-intron structure of the Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene of Paecilomyces tenuipes and Paecilomyces sp. The SOD1 gene of P. tenuipes spans 966 bp, and consisted of three introns and four exons coding for 154 amino acid residues. Three unambiguous introns in P. tenuipes separate exons of 13, 332, 97, and 20 bp, all exhibiting exon sizes identical to Cordyceps militaris SOD1 gene. The SOD1 gene of Paecilomyces sp. contains 946 bp and consisted of four introns and five exons coding for 154 amino acid residues. Five exons of Paecilomyces sp. SOD1 are composed of 13, 180, 152, 97, and 20 bp. Interestingly, this result showed that the total length of exons 2 (180 bp) and 3 (152 bp) of Paecilomyces sp. SOD1 is same to exon 2 length (332 bp) of C. militaris SOD1 and P. tenuipes SOD1. The deduced amino acid sequence of the P. tenuipes SOD1 showed
identity to C. militaris SOD1 and
to Paecilomyces sp. SOD1. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the C. militaris SOD1, P. tenuipes SOD1 and Paecilomyces sp. SOD1 are placed together within the ascomycetes group of fungal clade.
Rate of Oxygen Uptake in Antheraea mylitta in Various Stages of Development and during Diapause
Rath S. S. ; Negi B. B. S. ; Singh B. M. K. ; Thangavelu K. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 10, issue 1, 2005, Pages 45~49
Respiration in Antheraea mylitta was studied using constant pressure respirometer. Oxygen uptake in different stages of life showed that moth has highest rate of oxygen uptake as compared to larva and pupa. At each stage significant sexual differentiation was observed. Depression in the rate of oxygen uptake in diapausing pupa was found to be higher in male (
) than female (
) as compared to non-diapausing counterparts. During diapause lowest oxygen uptake was recorded in the month of February, and were in the order of February < January < December < March < November < April < May < June in male, and, February < January < December < March < April < November < May < June in female. Significant sexual differentiation in oxygen uptake was recorded throughout the period of diapause (November to June) where female pupae registered lower rate of oxygen uptake than that of male. Oxygen uptake in female pupae declined upto
in non-diapausing and
in diapausing broods over male. Highest respiratory quotient value was recorded in the moth of November (0.68 in male and 0.70 in female) and, the lowest in the month of March in male (0.54) and May in female (0.55). Percentage loss in pupa weight always remained at a significantly higher level in male (except in February and March). The lowest oxygen uptake rate and weight loss in the month of February shows that the pupae were at peak of their dormancy during this month.
Genetic Variability Within and Among Three Ecoraces of the Tasar Silkworm Antheraea mylitta Drury, as Revealed by ISSR and RAPD Markers
Vijayan K. ; Nair C. V. ; Kar P. K. ; Mohandas T. P. ; Saratchandra B. ; Urs S. Raje ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 10, issue 1, 2005, Pages 51~59
Genetic diversity within and between populations of Antheraea mylitta Drury was studied using thirty individuals from three ecoraces using 12 ISSR and 10 RAPD primers. Rally, Daba and Modal ecoraces were collected from Chattisgarh, Jharkhand and Orissa states of India respectively. The ISSR and RAPD primers generated
polymorphism among the 30 individuals. The cluster analysis grouped these individuals according to their ecorace. The intra-ecoracial heterozygosity estimated with ISSR markers were
respectively for Modal, Raily and Daba ecoraces. Like wise, with RAPD markers the intraecoracial heterozygosity was
in Raily and
in Daba ecoraces. However, the significantly low genetic differentiation (GST) (0.182 for ISSR and 0.161 for RAPD) and the high gene flow (Nm) (2.249 for ISSR and 2.60 for RAPD markers) among the ecoraces revealed that the amount of genetic diversity present among the ecoraces is not significant enough to make drastic genetic drifts among these ecoraces in the near future.
Combining Ability of Diallel Crosses of Bivoltine Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.
Babu M. Ramesh ; Chandrashekharaiah Chandrashekharaiah ; Lakshmi H. ; Prasad J. ; Goel A. K. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 10, issue 1, 2005, Pages 61~64
General and specific combining ability effects of six bivoltine breeds of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) were evaluated for six quantitative characters through diallel method wherein parents,
and reciprocals are involved. The breeds
were found to be the best general combiners for most of the traits studied. The high estimates of specific combining ability (sca) variance (
) compared to general combining ability (gca) variance (
) indicated the predominant role of non-additive gene action in the control of all the characters. Positive sca effects for majority of the traits were expressed by the combinations
out of 15 crosses. Among the 15 reciprocal crosses studied, the combination
showed positive reciprocal effects for all the six traits. With both the parents
being good general combiners the hybrid
showing high sca effects is recommended for commercial use.
Relationship Between Heat Unit Requirement and Growth and Yield of Mulberry, Morns indica L.
Sarkar A. ; Rekha M. ; Keshavacharyulu K. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 10, issue 1, 2005, Pages 65~68
Growth and development of a plant over a growing season is closely related to the daily accumulation of heat. Heat unit measured by accumulated growing degree days (GDD) is becoming increasingly popular to estimate the growth of a plant or even in insect. GDD or heat accumulation per day is measured by calculating average daily temperature and then subtracting the base temperature below which growth does not occur. Heat accumulation per day is added for the desired period and accumulated GDD is determined. The present study was conducted in five seasons in an established garden with K-2, S-36 and V-1 mulberry varieties belonging to Morus indica L. grown under completely irrigated condition at the farm of CSRTI, Mysore during 2001 - 2002. Plants were pruned in each season and the growth of the plant measured by total shoot length and fresh leaf yield was recorded at an interval of 5 days starting from 30 days of pruning (DAP) to 70 days when all the plants were pruned. The accumulated GDD for the corresponding days were recorded and used for analysis. Accumulated growing degree days (GDD) have been found to be perfectly correlated with both growth and yield in all the seasons in all the varieties studied. The high
values indicated a strong relationship between the accumulated GDD and, growth and yield of mulberry.
Efficacy of Disinfectants against Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus and Microspordia of Tasar Silkworm, Antheraea mylitta D.
Singh G. P. ; Sahay Alok ; Roy D. K. ; Sahay D. N. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 10, issue 1, 2005, Pages 69~72
Bleaching powder solution (1 to
), slaked lime solution (0.1 to
) and formalin (1 and
) were tested for their efficacy against cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus and Nosema mylittansis spores to control virosis and pebrine respectively in tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta in indoor rearing condition. All the disinfectants tested were found effective in suppressing the infection of virosis and pebrine significantly. Complete inactivation of Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (AmCPV) was recorded when treated with
slaked lime for 20 min and
formalin for 30 min. Similarly treatments of
bleaching powder solution for 20 min and
formalin for 30 min were found effective in complete inactivation of N. mylittanis spores.
Cloning and Characterization of the Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) cDNA from the Spider, Araneus ventricosus
Choi Young Soo ; Choo Young Moo ; Li Jianhong ; Sohn Hung Dae ; Jin Byung Rae ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 10, issue 1, 2005, Pages 73~77
A Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cDNA was cloned from the spider, Araneus ventricosus. The A. ventricosus SOD1 (AvSOD1) cDNA contains an open reading frame of 495 bp encoding 165 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 17,114 Da and pI of 6.55, and possesses the typical metal binding ligands of six histidines and one aspartic acid common to SOD1s. The deduced amino acid sequence of the AvSOD1 cDNA showed
identity to Ceratitis capitata SOD1, and
to SOD1 sequences of both Drosophila melanogaster and Chymomyza amoena. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of AvSOD1 transcripts in all tissues examined.