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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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Korean Society of Sericultural Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Dec 2009
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Sep 2009
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
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Occurrence of Unfertilized Eggs in the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)
Saheb, N.M. Biram ; Singh, Tribhuwan ; Saratchandra, Beera ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 18, issue 1, 2009, Pages 1~7
Quality of seed in the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.) is determined by many important factors, wherein unfertilized eggs play an important role. Unfertilization of eggs are caused by several reasons such as, abnormality in the sexual organs of the male and female, abnormal development of the micropylar end of the egg, unfavorable environmental conditions during spinning, cocoon preservation, imperfect handling of moths, mating, ovipostion, cold storing of pupae / moths and indiscriminate use of male moths etc. Though the presence of unfertilized eggs would in no way affect the fertilized ones and their quality directly, the frequency of their occurrence underrates the quality and brings down the hatching percentage. Lower the occurrence of unfertilized eggs, higher is the rating of seed quality. Of the various intrinsic and extrinsic factors and events involved in egg deposition of an adult silk moth, mating is an instinct and a biological obligation for the ultimate perpetuation of the species and a must to provide stimulus for oogenesis and bring about biochemical changes in the spermatophore of the silkworm in order to ensure the presence of sufficient number of normal sperms and testicular fluid in the female reproductive organ, activating ovulation and accelerating oviposition behavior and egg deposition. An attempt has been made in this article to briefly elucidate the characteristics of unfertilized eggs, causes of their occurrence and its impact as well as the significance in silkworm seed production.
Effect of Phytoecdysteroid on Disease Incidence, Melting and Economic Characters of the Mulberry Silkworm
Kar, Mithilesh ; Rao, P. Sudhakara ; Kishore, S. ; Kumar, T. Selva ; Gopal, Nisha ; Nayaka, A.R. Narasimha ; Chandrasekaran, K. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 18, issue 1, 2009, Pages 8~12
A study has been made to know the effect of a phytoecdysteroid 'Sampoorna' on uniform maturation of silkworms during spinning and its effect on diseased silkworms infected by major silkworm disease viruses, Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) and Bombyx mori infectious flacherie virus (BmIFV). In the present investigation, the effect of the phytoecdysteroid "Sampoorna" on Grasserie disease caused by BmNPV have shown an average cocoon melting of 11.91% with a disease incidence of 5.83%. The values of 't' test for different treatments of BmNPV indicated low survival rate and cocoon traits were drastically reduced. Another major disease Flacherie caused by BmIFV has shown considerable levels of larval disease incidence (22-32%) and cocoon melting (3-7.67%) with an average melting of 12.95% and 20.24% disease incidence. There is a drastic reduction in survival rate, cocoon yield and other economic traits. The control batches were indicated negligible values for disease incidence and cocoon melting with Sapoorna application and without the inoculation of the two disease-causing viruses. The application of Sampoorna on already infected batches with major pathogens triggered high mortality and disease incidence and melting percentage was also significantly increased with reduced economic traits. Hence, it is suggested that application of Sampoorna in infected batches should be done only in the extreme conditions of rearing. Application of Sampoorna on healthy batches led to uniform maturation and improvement in productivity with the added advantage of better quality cocoons and labour saving.
Chemical Composition of Main Cordyceps species in Korea
Hong, In-Pyo ; Nam, Sung-Hee ; Sung, Gyoo-Byung ; Lee, Kwang-Gil ; Cho, Soo-Muk ; Seok, Soon-Ja ; Hur, Hyeon ; Lee, Min-Woong ; Guo, Shun-Xing ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 18, issue 1, 2009, Pages 13~17
The caterpillar-shaped Chinese medicinal mushroom (DongChongXiaCao) looks like a worm in the winter and like a grass in the summer. The fruiting body has been regarded as popular folk or effective medicines used to treat human diseases such as asthma, bronchial and lung inflammation, and kidney disease. The fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris, C. pruinosa and Paecilomyces tenuipes that formed on the living silkworm (Bombyx mori) host were used in this examination. This study was carried out to investigate the soluble sugar, amino acid and fatty acid profiles in the fruiting-bodies. Soluble sugars such as glycerol, glucose, mannitol and sucrose were mainly found in the fruiting bodies of C. militaris, C. pruinosa and P. tenuipes. Total soluble sugar content was 29.23 mg/g in C. militaris, 8.61 mg/g in C. pruinosa and 24.00 mg/g 1in P. tenuipes on dry weight basis. Total free amino acid content was 14.09 mg/g 1in C. militaris, 34.60 mg/g in C. pruinosa and 17.09 mg/g in P. tenuipes. The content of oleic acid in fatty acids was above high more than 30% regardless of species.
Characterization of a Novel cry1-Type Gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. alesti Strain LY-99
Qi, Xu Feng ; Li, Ming Shun ; Choi, Jae-Young ; Roh, Jong-Yul ; Song, Ji Zhen ; Wang, Yong ; Jin, Byung-Rae ; Je, Yeon-Ho ; Li, Jian Hong ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 18, issue 1, 2009, Pages 18~27
B. thuringiensis strain LY-99 belonging to subsp. alesti (H3a3c), was isolated from Chinese tobacco warehouse and showed significantly high toxicity to Plutella xylostella. For the identification of the cry1-type genes from B. thuringiensis LY-99, an extended multiplex PCRrestriction fragment length polymorphism (PCRRFLP) method was established by using two pairs of universal primers based on the conserved regions of the cry1-type genes to amplify around 2.4 kb cry1-type gene fragments. Then the DNA fragment was cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector and digested with EcoRI and EcoRV enzymes. Through this method, a known cry1-type gene was successfully identified from the reference strain, B. thuringiensis subsp. alesti. In addition, the RFLP patterns revealed that B. thuringiensis LY-99 included a novel cry1A-type gene in addition to cry1Aa, cry1Ac, cry1Be and cry1Ea genes. The novel cry1A-type gene was designated cry1Ah2 (Genbank accession No DQ269474). An inverse PCR method was used to amplify the flank regions of cry1Ah2 gene. Finally, 3143 bp HindIII fragment from B. thuringiensis LY-99 plasmid DNA including 5' region and partial ORF was amplified, and sequence analysis revealed that cry1Ah2 gene from LY-99 showed 89.31% of maximum sequence similarity with cry1Ac1 crystal protein gene. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence of Cry1Ah2 protein shared 87.80% of maximum identity with that of Cry1Ac2. This protein therefore belongs to a new class of B. thuringiensis crystal proteins.
Molecular Cloning of a Delta-class Glutathione S-transferase Gene from Bombus ignitus
Park, Jong-Hwa ; Yoon, Hyung-Joo ; Gui, Zhong Zheng ; Jin, Byung-Rae ; Sohn, Hung-Dae ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 18, issue 1, 2009, Pages 28~32
We describe here the cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding the glutathione S-transferase (GST) from the bumblebee Bombus ignitus. The Delta-class B. ignitus GST (BiGSTD) gene spans 1668 bp and consists of four introns and five exons that encode 216 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of approximately 24561 Da and a pI of 8.03. The N-terminal domain of BiGSTD has a conserved Ser residue, as well as conserved Lys, Pro, Glu, Ser and Tyr residues that are involved in the GSH-binding site of GST. The BiGSTD showed 60% protein sequence identity to the Bombyx mori GSTT1, 58% to Musca domestica GST, 57% to Drosophila melanogaster GST, and 55% to Anopheles gambiae GST1. BiGSTD was close to the insect-specific Delta class of GSTs in a phylogenetic tree. Northern blot analysis showed that BiGSTD is highly expressed in the fat body and midgut, and less so in the muscles of B. ignitus worker bees.
Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Vitellogenin of the Bumblebee Bombus ignitus
Lee, Kyung-Yong ; Yoon, Hyung-Joo ; Lee, Sang-Beom ; Park, In-Gyun ; Sohn, Hung-Dae ; Jin, Byung-Rae ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 18, issue 1, 2009, Pages 33~40
A vitellogenin cDNA was cloned from the bumblebee Bombus ignitus. The cDNA encoding B. ignitus vitellogenin (BiVg) is 5473 bases long with an open reading frame of 1773 amino acid residues. BiVg possesses two consensus (RXXR/S) cleavage sites and has the conserved DGXR and GL/ICG motif near its C-terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence of BiVg cDNA showed significant similarity with hymenopteran Vgs (51% identity to Apis mellifera Vg, and
to other insect Vgs). The BiVg cDNA was expressed as a 200-kDa polypeptide in baculovirus-infected insect Sf9 cells. Northern and Western blot analyses showed the expression of BiVg in fat bodies of pupae and adults. In queens, the expression of BiVg was first detected in late pupal stage fat bodies, and secreted BiVg was also observed in late pupal stage hemolymph.
Interspecific Hybridization of the Bumblebees Bombus ignitus and B. terrestris
Yoon, Hyung-Joo ; Kim, Seong-Yeol ; Lee, Kyeong-Yong ; Lee, Sang-Beom ; Park, In-Gyun ; Kim, Ik-Soo ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 18, issue 1, 2009, Pages 41~48
The large bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, indigenous to Europe and used extensively for high-value crop pollination, has been artificially introduced in several parts of the world. Here we show the interspecific hybridization between bumblebee species, B. terrestris and B. ignitus, under laboratory conditions. The mating and oviposition percentages of the interspecific hybridization of a B. terrestris queen with a B. ignitus male were higher than those of the intraspecific mating of B. ignitus. Furthermore, the competitive copulation experiment indicated that the mating of B. ignitus males with B. terrestris queens was 1.8-fold more frequent than with B. ignitus queens. The interspecific hybridization of a B. ignitus queen with a B. terrestris male produced either B. ignitus workers or the B. ignitus male phenotype, and the hybridization of a B. terrestris queen with a B. ignitus male produced B. terrestris males. Genetic tests using a portion of the mitochondrial COI gene for the parent and hybrid phenotypes indicated that mitochondrial DNA in the interspecific hybridization was maternally inherited. Our results indicated that interspecific hybridization occurred between B. ignitus and B. terrestris, which suggests that the hybridization will have a negative impact of competition and genetic pollution of native bumblebees.
Evaluation of Antibacterial Efficacy of Certain Botanicals Against Bacterial Pathogen Bacillus sp. of Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.
Pachiappan, Priyadharshini ; Aruchamy, Mahalingam C ; Ramanna, Shashidhar Kaluvarahalli ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 18, issue 1, 2009, Pages 49~52
An in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of certain botanicals viz., rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa) and leaves of amla (Phyllanthus emblica), asparagus (Asparagus racemosus), bael (Aegle marmelos), boerhavia (Boerhavia diffusa), garlic (Allium sativum) and basil (Oscimum basicilum) against bacterial pathogens viz., Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp. and Klebsiella cloacae, of silkworm, Bombyx mori. Asparagus and basil, amla and boerhavia, basil and bael at concentration of 20, 000 ppm showed higher antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp., K. cloacae respectively, both in vitro and in vivo studies.