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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sericultural Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Dec 2009
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Sep 2009
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
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Seasonal Occurrence and Control of Silkworm Diseases, Grasserie, Flacherie and Muscardine and Insect Pest, Uzi fly in Andhra Pradesh, India
Reddy, Bontha Kasi ; Rao, Jemmy Venkata Krishna ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 18, issue 2, 2009, Pages 57~61
) survey was conducted on the incidence of silkworm diseases namely, Grasserie, Flacherie, Muscardine and Uzi fly, a silkworm pest with 150 sericulture farmers in the districts of Chittoor and Anantapur in Andhra Pradesh. The data revealed that grasserie and flacherie incidence were maximum in summer season and minimum in winter season whereas muscardine was observed high in winter season in both the areas and rarely in rainy season in Chittoor and Anantapur districts. An improvement of 11.16 and 7.6 kg cocoons/100 dfls were recorded in the batches of PM xCSR2 Diseases free layings(Dfls) reared in rearing houses disinfected with 2% bleaching powder and Ankush, a plant based bed disinfectant applied as per schedule, respectively. The Uzi fly incidence was suppressed by 61.02% in batches where the integrated package was adopted for control of Uzi fly infestation.
Comparison on Antioxidative Capacity of Various Silkworm Strains
Ryu, Kang-Sun ; Kang, Pil-Don ; Jung, I-Yeon ; Kim, Kee-Young ; Sohn, Bong-Hee ; Lee, Heui-Sam ; Kim, Hyun-Bok ; Lee, Kwang-Gil ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 18, issue 2, 2009, Pages 63~67
To increase utilities as functional materials, 173 strains of silkworm genetic resources in the form of silkworm powder were evaluated for antioxidative capacity, with minilum L-100 device and ARAW-KIT (anti-radical ability of water soluble substance). Silkworm powder was prepared with freezing method from silkworms at 5th instar 3rd day larvae. All strains of silkworm powder were prepared with 80% methanol extraction. The data of pupation rate, longevity of silkmoth with origin and voltinism were used for data base of silkworm genetic resources. The weight of a silkworm larva with freezing method at 5th instar 3rd day was measured. The average of antioxidative capacity of 173 silkworm strains was 429.68 nmol. The analysis of correlation among variables was significant, showing negative correlation of the antioxidative capacity with longevity of silk moth and weight of 5th instar silkworm larva. The strains from the tropic, Europe and some other origins were comparatively high. In conclusion, short longevity and low weight of 5th instar silkworm larvae showed comparatively effective antioxidative capacity.
Basic Seed Stock Maintenance and Multiplication in Indian Tropical Tasar Silkworm Antheraea mylitta Drury-A Strategic Approach
Reddy, Rangareddygari Manohar ; Suryanarayana, Nagabathula ; Ojha, Nand Gopal ; Hansda, Ganga ; Rai, Suresh ; Prakash, Nanjappa Basappa Vijaya ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 18, issue 2, 2009, Pages 69~75
Daba ecorace of Antheraea mylitta Drury (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), the semi domesticated Indian tropical tasar silkworm being reared outdoor; the egg and silk yields are dependent of genotype environment interaction. The insufficient maintenance and multiplication of its P4 seed stock need a coherent as well as scientific strategy to safeguard breed potential, being commercially applied ecorace. The sort-out lines of P4 stock studied over five generations highlighting on commercial trait up gradation suits for a tropical crop season, revealed enhanced performance. The line with high pupal parents (T2) shown improved fecundity (12.9%) and the line with high shell parents (T3) recorded higher shell weight (40.0%) and silk ratio (24.1%). While, the line of high pupal female and high shell male (T4) reveal enhancement in fecundity (9.0%), egg hatching (14.1%), shell weight (50.0%), silk ratio (35.2%) and absolute silk yield (52.0%) indicating the need and role of varied basic seed stock lines. The approach could improve economically vital egg fecundity and cocoon shell weights besides balancing them in same line for commercial operation. The progressive show of lines (T1 to T4) along successive generations (G1 to G5), in spite of passing through seed crop (Jul-Aug) and commercial crop (Sep-Nov) seasons emphasize their compatibility. The study infers that the strategic plan of combining preferred parental phenotypes, methodical selection for desired commercial trait(s) through generations with best possible genotype environment interaction has enriched P4 stock with elevation in needy trait(s) besides assuring choice of suitable lines for seasons and regions and timely replenishment of basic seed of Daba ecorace.
Impact of Fungus on Egg Shell of Tropical Tasar Silk Worm, Antheraea mylitta: An Ultra-structural Approach
Barsagade, Deepak Dewaji ; Pankule, Sushama Dilip ; Tembhare, Dnyaneshwar Bapuji ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 18, issue 2, 2009, Pages 77~82
The egg shell of the tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta is formed from the substances secreted by the follicular epithelium during the late vitellogenic stage. TEM study reveals the inner travecular and outer lamellar layer of chorion. The travecular layer is composed of the innermost wax layer, inner and outer chorionic layer. The inner and outer chorionic layers are connected to each other by vertical pillers forming of cavities. The lamellar layer is perforated by the aeropyles. SEM study reveals the differentiation of an anterior surface of the egg shell into four zones-micropylar, edge, aeropyles crown and disc zone. In the mycosis infected eggs the aeropyles and egg-shell surface are fully packed with the hyphae of the fungus, Aspergillus sydowi blocking of plastron respiration and causing the death of developing embryo so that mycosis infected eggs become sterile.
Microsporidian Multiplication and Spore Production in Various Tissues of Pupa and Adult, in Relation to Age and Development of Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.(Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)
Nanu, Madana Mohanan ; Gupta, Sunil Kumar ; Saratchandra, Beera ; Haldar, Durga Prasad ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 18, issue 2, 2009, Pages 83~89
Multiplication and spore production of three microsporidia(Nosema bombycis, Nosema sp. 1 and Nosema sp. 2) in selected tissues of pupa and adult of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. were studied in two seasons (SI, SII) with distinct temperature (SI:
) regimes. Multiplication of the microsporidia followed a logistic pattern with a lag phase, an exponential phase and a stationary phase. In SII, spore production was significantly (P<0.01) higher in various tissues. Highest spore production was observed 30 days post inoculation (p.i.) in SI and in SII, it was
days p.i. Spore production was significantly (P<0.01) higher in the gut tissues than other tissues. Nosema sp. 2 registered significantly (P<0.01) higher spore production in both the seasons compared to Nosema bombycis and Nosema sp. 1. Results indicate that the multiplication and spore production of microsporidia are tissue specific and extremely sensitive to the temperature at which the host is reared. Through this study, the precise day that the spore numbers of the microsporidia are maximized can be predicted in both pupa and adult in case the infection is initiated in the first instar.
Some Enzymes of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle and Metabolites of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Adult Isoparorchis hypselobagri(Digenea: Trematoda) During in vitro Starvation
Bera, Bireshwar ; Manna, Buddhadeb ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 18, issue 2, 2009, Pages 91~95
The presence of considerable amount of enzymes of TCA cycle isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH-NADP+, EC18.104.22.168),
-ketogluterate dehydrogenase (
-KGD, EC22.214.171.124) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH, EC126.96.36.199) in fresh control and in vitro starved adult Isoparorchis hypselobagri establish the functional TCA cycle in this fluke. The major metabolic end products are pyruvate, lactate, oxaloacetate and malate. The ratio of oxaloacetate/malate assess that oxaloacetate is reduced to malate and in this fluke the reverse TCA cycle is active. The pyruvate/lactate ratio shows pyruvate is reduced to lactate and the fluke is homolactate farmenters.
Cocoon Yield Pattern and Analysis of Water, Soil and Leaves from Mulberry Gardens Irrigated with Polluted Water Around Bangalore, India
Chandrakala, M.V. ; Maribashetty, V.G. ; Aftab Ahamed, C.A. ; Jyothi, H.K. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 18, issue 2, 2009, Pages 97~103
Sericulturists in the vicinity of Bangalore city irrigate their mulberry gardens with Vrishabhavathy stream water, which is polluted with domestic and industrial wastes from the city. To investigate the effect of pollutants on silkworm crops, a detailed field survey was conducted to study the cocoon yield pattern of the crops raised on mulberry irrigated with wastewater as against irrigation by bore/open wells. The villages along the stream were grouped into five test batches at about a distance of
km from each other. The seasonal yield data with relevant information were collected through questionnaires from 117 rearers using stream water and 35 rearers using bore/open wells, the latter serving as control group. The average yield for 100 layings was 46 to 57 kg in the control group whereas in test groups, it ranged between 34 to 51 kg in the first test group and 22 to 38 kg in the rest. The difference in yield was
kg depending on the season between control and test batches. In summer, this difference was higher, with high co-efficient of variation in test groups (
%). Further, water, soil and leaf samples were collected from selected rearers and were analyzed for zinc, copper, iron, lead and nickel. Results indicated significantly higher contents of these metals in samples from gardens using wastewater when compared control samples. Significantly (p<0.05 & p<0.01)) higher levels of zinc (
ppm) and iron (
ppm) were noticed in mulberry leaves during summer followed by winter and rainy season. The significance of high content of heavy metals in mulberry leaves and cocoon yield pattern of this area in relation to the quality of irrigation water is discussed.
Test of Insecticidal Efficacy of Some Commercial Natural Products against Trialeurodes vaporariorum(Homoptera : Aleyrodidae), Bemisia tabaci(Homoptera : Aleyrodidae), and Spodoptera litura(Lepidoptera : Noctuidae)
Jeong, Hyung-Uk ; Kim, Man-Il ; Chang, Sung-Kwon ; Oh, Hyung-Keun ; Kim, Ik-Soo ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 18, issue 2, 2009, Pages 105~112
The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) and the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) are serious insect pests that have a wide host range including cucumber, tomato, and pepper. In this study, we tested larvicidal efficacy of several on-the-market environment-friendly agricultural materials (EFAM) to select the effective products after the target pests were stabilized in indoor rearing condition. The developmental periods of two whiteflies are as follows: in the case of T. vaporariorum, egg duration is 9.6 days and nymph is 18.9 days, and in the case of B. tabaci, egg duration is 7.4 days and nymph is 15.2 days under
with relative humidity (RH) of
and a photoperiod of 16 L:8D. The total period of T. vaporariorum was 5 days longer than B. tabaci. Among 22 EFAMs six products showed more than 60% of insecticide efficacy against T. vaporariorum BTV B, BTV D, BTV G, BTV L, BTV M, and BTV S. On the other hand, seven EFAM products showed over 60% of insecticide efficacy against B. tabaci BTV D, BTV G, BTV K, BTV L, BTV M, BTV N, and BTV U. In the case of Spodptera litura previously, 16 EFAMs were tested against
instar S. litura, and six EFAMs were found to have more than 90% efficacy. Test of these six EFAMs against entire larval stages were performed in this study. Although some of these products showed still more than 90% of insecticidal efficacy against up to
instar larvae, the efficacy of these EFAMs sharply decreased as ages increase, resulting in less than 60% of efficacy of the products at most. This result indicates the difficulty to control S. litura with the on-the-market EFAMs alone under economic injury level. Collectively, it is required to find more EFAMs, and find alternative method, and combined way of controlling to control those insect pests tested in this study.
Cloning and Spatiotemporal Expression Analysis of Bombyx mori elav, an Embryonic Lethal Abnormal Visual Gene
Wang, Geng-Xian ; Liu, Ying ; Sim, Yang-Hu ; Zhang, Sheng-Xiang ; Xu, Shi-Qing ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 18, issue 2, 2009, Pages 113~120
Embryonic lethal abnormal visual (elav) is a lethal gene in Drosophila inducing the abnormal development and function of nervous system. We cloned a Bm-elav gene by bioinformatics and biological experiment, based on sequence of ELAV protein and dbEST of Bombyx mori. The full-length of Bm-elav cDNA is 1498 bp, contains a 906 bp open read frame (ORF) encoding a precursor of 301 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 34 kDa and pI of 8.99. Bm-ELAV protein precursor contains three RNA recognition motifs (RRM) in
bit amino acid residues respectively, and belongs to RNA-binding protein family. Bm-ELAV shared varying positives, ranging from 56% to 60% (Identities from 41% to 45%), with RRM from other species of Xenopus tropicalis, Apis mellifera, Tribolium castaneum, Branchiostoma belcheri and Drosophila. Gene localization indicated that Bm-elav is a single-copy gene, gene mapping within 12-chromosome from 7916.68 knt to 7918.16 knt region of nscaf2993. Spatiotemporal expressions pattern analysis revealed that Bm-elav expressed higher in most tested tissues and developmental stages in whole generation, such as silk gland, fat body, midgut, hemopoietic organ and ovary, but almost no expression in terminated diapause eggs. This suggested that the expression of Bm-elav in early developmental embryonic stages might induce abnormal development like in Drosophila. Cloning of the Bm-elav gene enables us to test its potential role in controlling pests by transferring the gene into field lepidopteran insects in the future.
Characteristics of Silk Sericin Extracted from Sericinjam
Kweon, Hae-Yong ; Yeo, Joo-Hong ; Kim, Kee-Young ; Kim, Yong-Soon ; Song, Ha-Seok ; Kim, Su-Jin ; Woo, Soon-Ok ; Han, Sang-Mi ; Lee, Kwang-Gill ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 18, issue 2, 2009, Pages 121~124
We investigated sericin extracted from sericinjam, which was inbred at National Academy of Agricultural Science, Suwon, Korea. Sericinjam sericin is composed of 5 fractions: 250 kDa, 120 kDa, 90 kDa, 70 kDa and 40 kDa. Amino acid analysis showed that the major amino acids of sericinjam sericin were Ser, Gly, Asp, Glu, Thr and Ala. Infrared spectra showed that sericinjam sericin has
-sheet structure. Thermal property of sericin was investigated using DSC and then they showed characteristic degradation peak at around
Isolation and Identification of Entomopathogenic Fungus from the Pine Wilt Disease Vector, Monochamus alternatus Hope(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Korea
Shin, Tae-Young ; Choi, Jae-Bang ; Bae, Sung-Min ; Cha, Ye-Rim ; Oh, Jeong-Mi ; Koo, Hyun-Na ; Woo, Soo-Dong ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 18, issue 2, 2009, Pages 125~129
Entomopathogenic fungi were isolated directly from a cadaver of adult Monochamus alternatus supporting fungal sporulation, using a semi-selective medium and then screened several fungal colonies. The pathogenicity of each fungus was tested using oak longicorn beetle, Moechotypa diphysis, as substitutive insect. As the result, only one of them showed high pathogenicity against M. diphysis, with up to 100% mortality within 21 days of inoculation. Selected fungus was named as MaW1 and identified by Beauveria bassiana using microscopic examination and DNA analysis. Pathogenicity was also evaluated to M. alternatus.
Study on Productivity and Genotype Structure by Several Enzyme Loci of Silkworm(Bombyx mori L.) Parthenoclones Obtained by Thermal and Combined(Low-High Temperature) Method
Vasileva, Jolanda Bogdanova ; Staykova, Teodora Atanasova ; Tzenov, Panomir Ivanov ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 18, issue 2, 2009, Pages 131~134
The purpose of this study was to establish whether there are differences in the productivity of the same silkworm(Bombyx mori L.) parthenoclones, obtained by two different methods-thermal and combined, as well as to study their genotype structure by several enzyme loci. It was established that all individuals of parthenoclones Joana, Joana(
), Pohi and Pohi(
), are homozygous by the studied esterase and phosphoglucomutase loci, which substantiated the clones' genetic stability. By comparative analysis of some biological and technological properties, it was found that parthenoclone Pohi(
) obtained by low-high temperature activation is characterized by higher values of these properties as compared to parthenoclone Pohi obtained by thermal parthenogenesis. Comparing the two methods of inducing ameiotic parthenogenetic development, we would recommend that parthenoclone Joana is sustained by thermal parthenogenesis, and parthenoclone Pohi-by the combined method (low-high temperature).
Effect of Secondary Nutrients on the Leaf Yield and Biochemical Constituents of Terminalia tomentosa
Sinha, U.S.P. ; Prasad, J. ; Das, S. ; Ojha, N.G. ; Vijay Prakash, N.B. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 18, issue 2, 2009, Pages 135~138
Studies on the effect of different secondary nutrients in different doses on the leaf yield and biochemical constituents of Terminalia tomentosa revealed that secondary nutrients have promotary effect in increasing the leaf yield and foliar constituents of Terminalia tomentosa. Among all the treatments under study, foliar application of magnesium sulphate (2g/plant, w/v) is the best in respect of leaf yield and biochemical constituents of T. tomentosa. This treatment gave 29.15% increase in leaf yield over control. Chemoassay results further confirmed significant improvement in biochemical constituents. Except crude fibre, moisture, minerals, crude protein and total carbohydrate increased significantly over control.
Royal Jelly Protein and Lipid Composition in Apis cerana indica F.
Shinkhede, Milind Manohar ; Tembhare, Dnyaneshwar Bapuji ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 18, issue 2, 2009, Pages 139~142
The histological and transmission electron microscopic studies revealed the synthesis activity predominantly in the hypopharyngeal glands of the nurse bees. The biochemical analysis of both, the hypopharyngeal gland extract and royal jelly elucidated unequivocally the proteins and lipids as the major constituents. Further the SDS-PAGE of hypopharyngeal gland extract showed about 17 protein bands, perhaps 14.10, 20.00, 29.00 and 43.00 kDa predominantly while that of royal jelly revealed only two protein bands of 29.00 and 43.00 kDa molecular weight suggesting them as the major royal jelly proteins (MRJP). The lipid profile of royal jelly consists of triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL and VLDL.