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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sericultural Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Dec 2013
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Sep 2013
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jul 2013
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
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Identification, Characterization, and DNA Sequencing of Nosema bombi in Bumblebees from Gangwon Province, Korea
Kwak, Kyu-Won ; Yoon, Hyung-Joo ; Choi, Youngcheol ; Park, Kwanho ; Hwang, Jaesam ; Kim, Hyunae ; Nam, Sunghee ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 219~227
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2013.27.2.219
The purpose of this study was to quickly and effectively identify the Nosema disease of bumblebees in Gangwon Province in Korea. Bumblebees are crucial pollinators of various crops, and microsporidia are the critical pathogens of these hosts. When bumblebees are infected with Nosema bombi, their abdomens can become distended. Paralyzed and infected workers often become sluggish and die early. We have identified the morphology of the microsporidium by light and electron microscopy, and found it to have fairly small oval spores, as has been described previously in many other articles. For the specific and sensitive diagnosis of the microsporidian parasite N. bombi in bumblebees, we have developed an improved method of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for expeditious diagnosis. Two pairs of primers were tested on N. bombi and the related microsporidia Nosema apis and Nosema sp., both of which infect Bombus ignitus and Bombus hypocrita sapporoensis. Furthermore, we have verified and analyzed the 16SrRNA sequence data of N. bombi in bumblebees by using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) server at the National Center for Biotechnology Information.
Effect of Silk Fibroin Hydrolysate on the Apoptosis of MCF-7 human Breast Cancer Cells
Chon, Jeong-Woo ; Jo, Yoo-Young ; Lee, Kwang-Gill ; Lee, Heui-Sam ; Yeo, Joo-Hong ; Kweon, HaeYong ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 228~236
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2013.27.2.228
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide. Recently anticancer agents have been developed using natural substances. To evaluate the anticancer effect of hydrolysates of silk fibroin (HSF), we investigated the effect of HSF on cell viability and apoptosis of a breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, induced through the mitochondrial pathway. The result showed that HSF decreased cell viability in MCF-7 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, resulting in an increase in the sub-G1 phase cell population. HSF increased the level of the pro-apoptotic Bax protein and decreased the levels of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. In addition, HSF induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through a mitochondria-dependent pathway by increasing levels of cytochtome c, and cleavage of PARP. Taken together, these findings suggest that HSF inhibits the proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through a mitochondria and caspase dependent apoptotic pathway.
1-Deoxynojirimycin Content and Blood Glucose-Lowering Effect of Silkworm (Bombyx mori) Extract Powder
Ryu, Kang-Sun ; Lee, Heui-Sam ; Kim, Kee-Young ; Kim, Mi-Ja ; Sung, Gyoo-Byung ; Ji, Sang-Deok ; Kang, Pil-Don ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 237~242
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2013.27.2.237
We investigated the 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) content of extracts from silkworm larvae at each developmental stage within three silkworm varieties. We also compared the content of the following polyhydroxylated alkaloids in the silkworm extracts: 1-DNJ, fagomine, and 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB). In addition, we evaluated the glucose-lowering effects of silkworm extract powder in db/db mice. The 1-DNJ content was the highest in Yeonnokjam
d larvae and Hansaengjam
d larvae, which contained 18.4 mg/100 g dry weight and 18.3 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively. The
d larvae exhibited a higher content of 1-DNJ than that of
d larvae among all varieties. The glucose-lowering effects of silkworm extracts and Yeonnokjam powder were tested on db/db mice, and the blood glucose levels were found to decrease significantly in the YR70 group. Silkworm extracts (180 mg/kg, 90 mg/kg, 45 mg/kg, and 22.5 mg/kg) and acarbose (50 mg/kg) were administered orally for 4 wk. Changes in water intake were not statistically significant between control and silkworm extract-treated groups. Compared to the control group, blood glucose levels in the silkworm extract powder-treated group decreased in the 22.5 mg/kg/d group after being administered for 4 wk. This decrease was statistically significant. Furthermore, biochemical changes in the AST(Aspartate aminotransferase), ALT(Alanine aminotransferase), TCHO(Total Cholesterol), TG(Triglyceride), LDL(Low density lipoprotein), and HDL(High density lipoprotein) levels in blood were not observed. However, statistically significant decreases in blood GLU in the 22.5 mg/kg/d group compared to that of the control group occurred. In addition, the epididymal fat weight of the silkworm extract powder-treated group decreased significantly in both the 22.5 mg/kg/d group and 180 mg/kg/d group compared to that of the control group, but there were no statistically significant changes in perirenal fat weight. These results demonstrate that silkworm extracts inhibit changes in blood glucose levels in model diabetic mice.
Parasitic Behaviour of Xanthopimpla pedator Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) on Tropical Tasar Silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) Reared on Seven Forestry Host Plants in Uttarakhand, India
Bhatia, Narendra Kumar ; Yousuf, Mohammad ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 243~264
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2013.27.2.243
Antheraea mylitta Drury is a commercial silk producing forest insect in India and Xanthopimpla pedator Fabricius is its larval-pupal endoparasitoid, which causes pupal mortality that affects seed production. Effects of host plants, rearing season and their interactions on parasitic behaviour of X. pedator were studied here, as influence of these factors on biological success of X. pedator is not known. Seven forest tree species were tested as food plants for A. mylitta, and rate of pupal parasitization in both the rearing seasons were recorded and analysed. Results showed that rearing season and host plants significantly affected the rate of pupal parasitization in both the sexes. Pupal mortality was found significantly higher (14.52%) in second rearing season than the first (2.89%). Likewise, host plants and rearing seasons significantly affected length, diameter, and shell thickness of cocoons in both sexes. Out of all infested pupae, 85.59% were found male, which indicated that X. pedator chooses male spinning larva of A. mylitta for oviposition, but we could not answer satisfactorily the why and how aspect of this sex specific parasitic behaviour of X. pedator. Multiple regression analysis indicated that length and shell thickness of male cocoons are potential predictors for pupal parasitization rate of X. pedator. Based on highest cocoon productivity and lowest pupal mortality, Terminalia alata, T. tomentosa, and T. arjuna were found to be the most suitable host plants for forest based commercial rearing of A. mylitta in tropical forest areas of Uttarakhand state, where it has never been reared earlier. Sex and season specific interaction of X. pedator with its larval-pupal host, A. mylitta is a novel entomological study to find out explanations for some of the unresolved research questions on parasitic behaviour of X. predator that opens a new area for specialised study on male specific parasitization in Ichneumonidae.
Effect of Residual Lithium Ions on the Structure and Cytotoxicity of Silk Fibroin Film
Yang, Yesol ; Kwak, Hyo Won ; Lee, Ki Hoon ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 265~270
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2013.27.2.265
Dialysis is the rate-limiting step in the preparation of aqueous silk fibroin (SF) solution. However, the traditional practice of dialyzing SF solution for at least 48 h to remove LiBr is not based on empirical evidence. The aim of the present study was to systematically measure LiBr content in SF solutions dialyzed for varying lengths of time and assess the potential toxicity of residual lithium ions in cells. Complete removal of lithium ions was not achieved even after 72 h of dialysis, with a residual lithium ion content in the solution of 22.85 mg/l. SF films prepared from solutions dialyzed for 8 and 24 h had predominantly random coil or b-sheet structures, respectively. The residual lithium had little cytotoxicity in NIH3T3 fibroblast cells, but viability was compromised in cells grown on SF film prepared from solution dialyzed for 24 h.
Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Queen, Worker, and Larva of Asian Honeybee, Apis cerana
Kim, Woo Jin ; Lee, Seok Hee ; An, Saes Byeol ; Kim, Song Eun ; Liu, Qin ; Choi, Jae Young ; Je, Yeon Ho ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 271~276
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2013.27.2.271
The Asian honeybee, Apis cerana, is a native honeybee species in Korea which is important in agriculture for pollination and honey production. For better understanding of the physiology of A. cerana, high-throughput Illumina transcriptome sequencing was performed to analyze the gene expression profiles of queen, worker, and larva. A total of 219,799,682 clean reads corresponding to 22.2 Gb of nucleotide sequences was obtained from the whole body total RNA samples. The Apis mellifera reference mRNA sequence database was used to measure the gene expression level with Bowtie2 and eXpress software, and the Illumina short reads were then mapped to 11,459 out of 11,736 A. mellifera reference genes. Total of 9,221 genes with FPKM value greater than 5 of each sample group were subjected to eggNOG with BLASTX for gene ontology analysis. The differential gene expression between queen and worker, and worker and larva were analyzed to screen the overexpressed genes in each sample group. In the queen and worker sample group, total of 1,766 genes were differentially expressed with 887 and 879 genes overexpressed over two folds in queen and worker, respectively. In the worker and larva sample group, total of 1,410 genes were differentially expressed with 1,009 and 401 genes overexpressed over two folds in worker and larva, respectively.
Heat Stability and Glucose-Lowering Effect of 1-Deoxynojirimycin from Silkworm (Bombyx mori) extract Powder
Ryu, Kang-Sun ; Lee, Heui-Sam ; Kim, Kee-Young ; Kim, Mi-Ja ; Kang, Pil-Don ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 277~281
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2013.27.2.277
Silkworm powder, which contains 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), is a promising complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Korea. Silkworm powder was produced from Yeonnokjam pupae at d 3 of the 5th instar at the National Academy of Agricultural Science. The powder was derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl), and the DNJ-FMOC content was measured by HPLC. We investigated the content of 1-DNJ in the silkworm powder and its glucose-lowering effect when it was treated at different temperatures. The content of 1-DNJ was the lowest at
, while it was constant at other temperatures. The silkworm extract powder was orally administered to diabetic mice (20 mg/kg/d) for 4 wk. Water intake did not significantly change when compared with the control group (T0). The blood glucose levels significantly decreased when mice where administered silkworm powder treated at
(T60) compared to the control group, but no difference was observed between the groups T100 and T150. Moreover, the blood levels of TG significantly decreased compared with the control group. Based on these results, we surmise that the properties of the silkworm extract powder were stable upon heating at
but not at
Secondary Contamination is the Main Source for Spread of Nosema bombycis Resulting in Outbreak of Pebrine Disease in Bombyx mori L.
Chakrabarty, Satadal ; Saha, A.K. ; Manna, B. ; Kumar, S. Nirmal ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 282~288
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2013.27.2.282
In nature, the population of Nosema bombycis (Microsporidia) causing pebrine disease is small and their development is extremely slow and only few ultimately producing spores. Pebrine infected silkworm, Bombyx mori larvae collected from sericulture field were alive till
generation though the concentration of N.bombycis spore was very high (
). All larvae were died during
generation with extremely high concentration of pebrine spores (
) and mostly contain long polar tube (LT). Alternately, all larvae were died immediately (at
generation) when it was artificially inoculated with same concentration of N.bombycis spores harvested from field (
) though concentration of spores harvest was very less (
) and mostly contain short polar tube (ST). Artificially pebrine infected male moth when mated with healthy female moth took six generations to develop pebrine disease and all larvae were died at the
stage with very less spore harvest (
). Survival percentage was increased in all generations (~92.0% at
generation) when silkworm rearing was conducted under new integrated disease management system.
Anti-atopic Effects of the Silkworm Feces Extracts in the NC/Nga Mice
Ju, Wan-Taek ; Kim, Hyun-Bok ; Kim, Kee-Young ; Sung, Gyoo-Byung ; Kim, Yong-Soon ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 289~297
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2013.27.2.289
This study was evaluated the antiatopic activity of silkworm feces extracts in DNCBinduced NC/Nga atopy mice. It was found that each level of IgE and histamine in blood was significantly decreased in the silkworm feces extracts treatment groups, compared with the DNCB-induced atopy control group. When the silkworm feces extracts was applied to the atopy mice, it could be observed that its skin recovered to normal condition with the skin surface being clean and smooth without any tissue. The results suggest that the application of silkworm feces extracts effect on atopic model through a inhibition of histamine emissions with reducing the levels of blood IgE in NC/Nga atopy mice.
Synthesis of Silica using Silk Sericin without Hydrolysis of Tetraethyl Orthosilicate
Lee, Ji Young ; Lee, Ki Hoon ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 298~302
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2013.27.2.298
In this study, the effect of sericin on synthesis of the silica was investigated. Using the mixture of sericin solution and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), it was confirmed that silica could be synthesized in the presence of sericin, which was verified by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer (NMR) analysis. The TGA and FT-IR data revealed that silica-sericin complex was formed as a final product. Based on the TGA result, the content of silica and sericin in the complex would be 87 and 13%, respectively. The degree of silica condensation was higher than the natural biosilica. It could be concluded that sericin can induce the synthesis of silica directly from TEOS, which is similar to silicatein from marine sponges.
Growth and Osteoblastic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Silk Scaffolds
Cho, Hee-Yeon ; Baik, Young-Ae ; Jeon, Suyeon ; Kwak, Yoon-Hae ; Kweon, Hae Yong ; Jo, You Young ; Lee, Kwang Gill ; Park, Young Hwan ; Kang, Dongchul ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 303~311
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2013.27.2.303
In this study, we compared the efficiency of osteoblast differentiation media (ODM) containing three distinct reagent combinations in osteoblastic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) in monolayer culture. In addition, we analyzed growth and differentiation of hBMSCs on silk scaffolds and examined the bone-forming activity of a nanofibrous silk scaffold in a tibia diaphysis defect model of a rat hind limb with intramedullary nailing. Although all three ODM increased alkaline phosphatase activity to a comparable extent, the ODM containing bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) was found to be significantly less effective in promoting mineral deposition than the others. Growth of hBMSCs on sponge-form silk scaffolds was faster than on nanofibrous ones, while osteoblastic differentiation was apparent in the cells grown on either type of scaffold. By contrast, bone formation was observed only at the edge of the nanofibrous scaffold implanted in the tibia diaphysis defect, suggesting that use of the silk scaffold alone is not sufficient for the reconstitution of the long bone defect. Since silk scaffolds can support cell growth and differentiation in vitro, loading MSCs on scaffolds might be necessary to improve the bone-forming activity of the scaffold in the long bone defect model.
Strategies of Caffeine Loading into Silk Fibroin Film for Weight Loss Patch
Yun, Na Kyong ; Lee, Ki Hoon ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 312~316
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2013.27.2.312
Caffeine is a thermogenic agent that can be used in weight loss products. In order to achieve a sustained release of caffeine, silk fibroin (SF) film was uses as carrier. It has been shown that the loading method of caffeine into SF film affected the uniform distribution of caffeine in the SF film. When caffeine was added directly into SF solution, gelation has been occurred immediately and prevented the uniform distribution of caffeine. On the other hand, caffeine was dissolved in methanol in order to load the caffeine in SF film and crystallize the SF film at the same time. However, due to the fast evaporation of methanol, caffeine was recrystallized on the surface of SF film rather than penetrating into the film. Finally, caffeine was loaded into pre-crystallized SF film and uniform distribution of caffeine could be achieved. There was an initial burst of caffeine during the first 15 min, but after that a sustained release was achieved.
Survey of Awareness and Concept of Insects in Korea
Bae, Sung-Min ; Choi, Jae-Bang ; Shin, Tae-Young ; Woo, Soo-Dong ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 317~321
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2013.27.2.317
To investigate the degree of individuals' concept and awareness of insects, a survey study was conducted with students and adults living in Korea. The misconception rate for insects was about 50% for both students and adults, but it was lower for students and people who had experienced insect-related events than for adults and those who had not. The highest misconception rate was obtained in answer to a question about the basic structure of an insect. Most people had a high awareness of insects. Significant differences and correlations for the awareness of insects were found between students and adults, men and women, people who had experienced insect-related events and those who had not. The experience of an insect-related event most influenced awareness of insects. These results suggest that increasing people's interest in insects and utilizing insects in treatment situations may be beneficial for the field of mental healthcare.
Operation Modes Can Affect the Activity of Immobilized Enzyme onto Silk Fibroin Nanofibrous Membrane
Oh, Hanjin ; Lee, Ki Hoon ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 322~325
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2013.27.2.322
In the present study, we report that the selection of operation mode is important to take the full advantage of nanofibrous membrane in enzyme immobilization. Silk fibroin nanofibrous membrane has been prepared by electrospinning, and a-chymotrypsin was immobilized as a model enzyme. When the immobilized enzyme was operated in the membrane reactor mode, the Michaelis constant, Km, was lower and the Vmax was higher compared to the batch reactor mode. No concentration gradient was observed in the membrane reactor mode and the immobilized enzyme was stable even after 7 times of re-use. Our results suggests that the enzyme immobilized nanofibrous membrane should be operated in the membrane reactor mode rather than in the bath reactor mode.
Effect of Salts on Gelation Time of Silk Sericin Solution
Oh, Hanjin ; Lee, Ji Young ; Lee, Ki Hoon ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 326~328
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2013.27.2.326
Sericin undergoes gelation by the structural transition from random coil to b-sheet transition. In the present study, the gelation time of sericin solution was investigated in the presence of NaCl, KCl and
. The addition of salts delayed the gelation time, and
had the most pronounced effect, which delayed about 8 h at maximum. The gelation time increased with the concentration of salt. The transition of secondary structure of sericin was retarded in the presence of salt. The effect of salts on the gelation time of sericin might be due to the solvation effect of relevant cation.
Activity and Stability of Immobilized Enzyme on Silk Sericin Bead
Oh, Hanjin ; Lee, Ki Hoon ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 329~332
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2013.27.2.329
In present preliminary report, we showed the possibility of silk sericin (SS) in enzyme immobilization. SS beads were prepared and enzymes were immobilized on it. The specific activity of immobilized a-chymotrypsin retained more than 87% compared to the free enzyme. The immobilized a-chymotrypsin has better stability against ethanol especially those immobilized on SS beads coagulated in methanol. Immobilized trypsin and lipase had also comparable apparent activity compared to free enzyme. Our result indicates that SS could be a good candidate for enzyme immobilization support due to its hydrophilicity.