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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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Korean Society of Sericultural Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Dec 2014
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Sep 2014
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
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Differential Level of Host Gene Expression Associated with Nucleopolyhedrovirus Infection in Silkworm Races of Bombyx mori
Lekha, Govindaraj ; Vijayagowri, Esvaran ; Sirigineedi, Sasibhushan ; Sivaprasad, Vankadara ; Ponnuvel, Kangayam M. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 29, issue 2, 2014, Pages 145~152
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2014.29.2.145
The variation in the level of immune response related gene expression in silkworm, Bombyx mori following infection with Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) was analyzed at different time intervals. The occlusion bodies of BmNPV orally inoculated to the two most divergent silkworm races viz., Sarupat (resistant to BmNPV infection) and CSR2 (susceptible to BmNPV infection) were subjected to oral BmNPV inoculation. The expression profile of gp 41 gene of BmNPV in the Sarupat and CSR2 races revealed that the virus could invade the midguts of both susceptible and resistant races. However, its multiplication was significantly less in the midgut of resistant race, while, in the susceptible race, the viral multiplication reached maximum level within 12 h. These findings indicate that potential host genes are involved in the inhibition of viral multiplication within larval midgut. The immune response genes arylphorin, cathepsin B, gloverin, lebocin, serpin, Hsp 19.9, Hsp 20.1, Hsp 20.4, Hsp 20.8, Hsp 21.4, Hsp 23.7, Hsp 40, Hsp 70, Hsp90 revealed differential level of expression on NPV infection. The gloverin, serpin, Hsp 23.7 and Hsp 40 genes are significantly up-regulated in the resistant race after NPV infection. The early up-regulation of these genes suggests that these genes could play an important role in baculovirus resistance in the silkworm, B. mori.
Temperature-Dependent Development of the Swallowtail Butterfly, Sericinus montela Gray
Hong, Seong-Jin ; Kim, Sun Young ; Ravzanaadii, Nergui ; Han, Kyoungha ; Kim, Seong-Hyun ; Kim, Nam Jung ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 29, issue 2, 2014, Pages 153~161
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2014.29.2.153
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of ambient thermal environments on the development of swallowtail butterflies (Sericinus montela Gray). Developmental durations and survival rates of S. montela were examined at two crucial developmental stages, embryonic and larval development, at varying temperatures ranging from
. As expected, our results indicated that increasing temperatures decreased the developmental duration and survival rate of the eggs. However, the larvae and pupae showed maximum survival rates at
, and the represented durations were similar to those of the eggs. Larval development was stage-specific, revealing that the fourth and fifth instars at the later stages were more susceptible to temperature variation. When considering both parameters, the optimal development of S. montela occurred within the temperature range of
. The lower threshold for the complete development of S. montela from eggs to eclosion of adults was calculated at
by linear regression analysis. The estimated value is similar to that of other endemic insects distributed in temperate climate zones, which indicates that S. montela belongs to a small group of swallowtails adjusted to low ambient temperatures. From the results, we predict that the full development of S. montela could be achieved within the temperature range of
. Embryonic development ceased at both test temperature extremes, and no further larval development proceeded after the third instar at
. These results suggest that embryogenesis can be significantly influenced by slight variations in the ambient thermal environment that fall below the optimal range.
Quantitative Analysis of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Content Using Silkworm Genetic Resources
Ju, Wan-Taek ; Kim, Kee-Young ; Sung, Gyoo-Byung ; Kim, Yong-Soon ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 29, issue 2, 2014, Pages 162~168
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2014.29.2.162
1-Deoxynojirimycin(1-DNJ or DNJ), a component in silkworm powder, prevents glucose from being absorbed into the bloodstream from the small intestine by inhibiting
-glucosidase activity. This study compared the functional components of 1-DNJ from various silkworm species using a gene database with those of 1-DNJ produced by silkworms bred through cross-combinations. We utilized comparisons of geographical origins and species of silkworms using a gene database and discovered that 1-DNJ activity was ranked in the following order by species, Japanese (SK-1) > Chinese (C48) > European (Rock191). 1-DNJ constituted varying percentages of silkworm organs in the following order, blood > epithelial tissue > body fat > silk glands. With regard to sex, 1-DNJ, levels were higher in males than females. However, 1-DNJ levels with respect to various genetic traits (blood color, silk color, and egg color) were consistent. In order to study 1-DNJ changes that occurred during cross breeding of the silkworm gene, we bred cross-combinations utilizing SK-1 and C48 silkworms. In conclusion, in order to provide information about the constituents of functional materials contained in silkworm powder, it is imperative that silkworm cross breeding occurs so that the database of functional materials extracted from silkworms will expand.
Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationships among Microsporidian Isolates from the Indian Tasar Silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, as Revealed by RAPD Fingerprinting Technique
Hassan, Wazid ; Nath, B. Surendra ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 29, issue 2, 2014, Pages 169~178
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2014.29.2.169
In this study, we investigated genetic diversity of 22 microsporidian isolates infecting tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta collected from various geographical forest locations in the state of Jharkhand, India, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based marker assay: random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). A type species, NIK-1s_mys was used as control for comparison. The shape of mature microsporidians was found to be oval to elongate, measuring 3.80 to
in length and 2.56 to
in width. Of the 20 RAPD primers screened, 16 primers generated reproducible profiles with 298 polymorphic fragments displaying high degree of polymorphism (97%). A total of 14 RAPD primers produced 45 unique putative genetic markers, which were used to differentiate the microsporidians. Calculation of genetic distance coefficients based on dice coefficient method and clustering with un-weighted pair group method using arithmetic average (UPGMA) analysis was conducted to unravel the genetic diversity of microsporidians infecting tasar silkworm. The similarity coefficients varied from 0.059 to 0.980. UPGMA analysis generated a dendrogram with four microsporidian groups, which appear to be different from each other as well as from NIK-1s_mys. Two-dimensional distribution based on Euclidean distance matrix also revealed considerable variability among different microsporidians identified from the tasar silkworms. Clustering of few microsporidian isolates was in accordance with the geographic origin. The results indicate that the RAPD profiles and specific/unique genetic markers can be used for differentiating as well as to identify different microsporidians with considerable accuracy.
Effects of Physiological Active Substance Extracted from Silkworm Fece
Ju, Wan-Taek ; Kim, Kee-Young ; Sung, Gyoo-Byung ; Kim, Yong-Soon ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 29, issue 2, 2014, Pages 179~184
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2014.29.2.179
Silkworm (Bombyx mori ) feces have long been used in the pharmaceutical and food industries as a natural colorant. However, there is limited data on the bioactive compounds that constitute silkworm feces. This research emphasizes the antioxidant activity of different solvent and flavonoid extracts of silkworm feces. The solvents were ethanol, butanol, and water, while the methods utilized included ultrasonification, stirrer, reflux, and reflux after ultrasonification extraction. Results showed that butanol ultrasonification extraction (BUE) yield the lowest extraction (1.75%), while the other methods yielded 7 to 14%. The total polyphenol content utilizing BUE was 3.3 mg TAE/g, while water ultrasonification extraction (WUE) yielded the highest extraction rate with 51.6 mg TAE/g. The total flavonoid content was significantly higher using ethanol reflux extraction (EUE) at 266.8 mg QRE/g BUE, which was 158.3 and 151.3 mg QRE/g. Both DPPH radical scavenging activity and SOD-like (superoxide dismutase) activity, showed significant antioxidant effects. Finally, all other extracts except for BUE had a-glucosidase inhibition at 60%. Therefore, an effective extraction method for physiologically active substances must be selected.
Screening of Domestic Silkworm Strains for Efficient Heterologous Protein Expression by Bombyx mori Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (BmNPV)
Jo, Sun Jung ; Choi, Ji-Hyun ; Kang, Ju-Il ; Lim, Jae-Hwan ; Seok, Young Sik ; Lee, Jae Man ; Kusakabe, Takahiro ; Hong, Sun Mee ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 29, issue 2, 2014, Pages 185~192
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2014.29.2.185
Recombinant proteins can be generated quickly and easily in large amounts and at low-cost in silkworm larvae by using Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV). We searched for high-permissive silkworm strains that have high production levels of heterologous proteins and are thus suitable for use as biofactories. In this study, we performed the analysis using a BmNPV vector expressing luciferase as a marker, and we confirmed protein expression by evaluating luciferase activity, determined by western blotting and luciferase ELISA, and confirmed transcription expression by semi- and quantitative real time PCR. For the selection of host silkworm strains, we first chose 52 domestic BmNPV sensitive strains and then identified 10 high-permissive and 5 low-permissive strains. In addition, to determine which hybrid of the high-permissive strains would show heterosis, nine strains derived through three-way crossing were tested for luciferase activity by western blotting, and luciferase ELISA. We found a correlation between luciferase activity and luciferase protein expression, but not transcription. There was no noticeable difference in protein expression levels between Jam313 as the high-permissive control strain and the three-way hybrid strains; however, the three-way cross strains showed lower luciferase activity compared with Jam313. In this study, luciferase protein production in the larvae of 52 domestic silkworm strains was elucidated using BmNPV.
An Analysis of Likability of Insects in Korea
Bae, Sung Min ; Jun, Young Soon ; Shin, Tae Young ; Woo, Soo Dong ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 29, issue 2, 2014, Pages 193~197
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2014.29.2.193
To investigate the degree of individuals` likability of insects, a survey was conducted with students and adults living in Korea. Overall, for insect-related questions, positive responses were higher than negative ones. Among the positive responses, the personal rearing of insects scored lower than others. The unconditional dislike of insects scored highest in the negative responses. A significant differences and correlations were found between males and females, students and adults, people experienced in insect-related events and those who were not. In particular, previous experience in insect-related events significantly influenced insect likability. Subjects preferred coleopteran and lepidopteran insects to others. However, this preference of insects differed by gender: Male participants preferred coleopteran insects to lepidopteran insects, while female participants preferred lepidopteran insects to coleopteran ones. No significant differences in the preference of insects were found by participants` job, residence, or experience in insect-related events. These findings suggest that gender is the most important factor to consider in selecting insects to be used as therapeutic tools in mental health care.
Hybridization and Use Of Grapes as an Oviposition Substrate Improves the Adaptation of Olive Fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Artificial Rearing Conditions
Sohel, Ahmad ; Viwat, Wornoayporn ; Polychronis, Rempoulakis ; Emily A., Fontenot ; Ul Haq, Ihsan ; Carlos, Caceres ; Hannes F., Paulus ; Marc J.B., Vreysen ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 29, issue 2, 2014, Pages 198~206
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2014.29.2.198
The olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) is the key pest for olive cultivation worldwide. Substantial effort has been invested in the development of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest. One of the limitations to develop SIT technology for olive fruit fly is the low ability of wild females to lay eggs in other medium than olive fruits, and their slow adaptation to oviposition in artificial substrates. In the present study, fruit grapes were used as an alternative egg collection medium to harvest eggs and young larvae from freshly colonized wild strains originating from France, Italy, Spain and Croatia. The larvae were allowed to develop into the fruits until the second instar, before they were extracted out and further reared on a standard artificial diet. Furthermore, F1 to F4 female flies were alternatively offered wax bottles to oviposit. Finally, the performance of hybrid strains created from crosses between wild and long colonised flies was assessed. The results showed that females of all 4 wild strains readily oviposited eggs in grapes and from the F2 generation onward, females from all strains were adapted to laying eggs in wax bottles. No difference was observed in eggs and pupae production among all strains tested. The findings are discussed for their implications on SIT application against olive fruit fly.
Optimal Conditions for the Expression of Glycoprotein E2 of Classical Swine Fever Virus using Baculovirus in Insect Cells
Bae, Sung Min ; Lee, Seung Hee ; Kwak, Won Suk ; Ahn, Yong Oh ; Shin, Tae Young ; Woo, Soo Dong ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 29, issue 2, 2014, Pages 207~213
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2014.29.2.207
The structural proteins of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) consist of nucleocapsid protein C and envelope glycoprotein
(E0), E1 and E2. Among them, E2, the most immunogenic of the CSFV glycoproteins, induces a protective immune response in swine. In this study, to determine the optimal expression conditions of glycoprotein E2 using baculovirus system, we investigated the influence of insect cells and media to the expression of recombinant E2. Recombinant virus containing glycoprotein E2 coding gene was constructed with bApGOZA DNA. Expression of the glycoprotein E2 was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis using anti-CSFV E2 monoclonal antibodies. Expression of glycoprotein E2 in Sf21 cells was first observed after 3 days and reached a maximum on the 5th day after infection. Furthermore, the highest levels of glycoprotein E2 expression were observed at multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 5. When three different insect cell lines (Sf21, High-Five and Se301) were tested, High-Five cells showed the highest production. In addition, four different serum-free and serum-supplemented media, respectively, were tested for the expression of glycoprotein E2 and the budded virus (BV) titers. As a result, serum-supplemented medium provided the best conditions for protein production and the BV yield.
Antibody derived from insect glycosaminoglycan
Ahn, Mi Young ; Hwang, Jae Sam ; Yoon, Hyung Joo ; Yun, Eun Young ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 29, issue 2, 2014, Pages 214~219
DOI : 10.7852/ijie.2014.29.2.214
We prepared antibodies from insect glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and assayed the titer. Nine polyclonal antibodies against insect GAGs were raised for development of an ELISA in biological fluids (mice serum). The 3th booster collection of antiserum of BALB/c mice as a primarily antibody was assayed for titer determination by ELISA method. In sandwich ELISA of GAGs derived from Isaria sinclairii or other insects, antiserum from insect GAGs gave satisfactory results for so potent antibody(100: 1~1000:1) raising (manufacturing) agent in range of 10 ng/ml.