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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
International Journal of Industrial Entomology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sericultural Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 5, Issue 2 - Dec 2002
Volume 5, Issue 1 - Sep 2002
Volume 4, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 4, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
Selecting the target year
An Integrated Approach in the Pest Management in Sericulture
Singh, R.N. ; Saratchandra, Beera ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 5, issue 2, 2002, Pages 141~151
The success of sericulture industry in India is mainly attributed to the well-planned annual sericultural activity and the systematic implementation of pest preventive and control measures. The insect spectrum of silkworm and its food plants is complex and plays a major role in limiting the production of silk. Insects cause extensive damage to plant whereas predators and parasites either kill the silkworm larvae or force them to spin flimsy cocoons. Unilateral control measure against this pest is mainly based on the use of synthetic organic insecticides. Though these approaches initially paid rich dividends, the undesirable consequences soon surfaced. Insecticide induced resurgence of gall midges, leafhopper, leaf roller, secondary pest out breaks and development of pest biotypes has led to realization of Integrated Pest Management in sericulture. Various components of IPM, viz. Host plant resistance, cultural practices, biological control, chemical control and integrating them at various technological levels have been studied. Sources of host plant resistance have been identified for some of the major insect pests. High yielding mulberry variety has been propagated and their resistances towards major pests have been recorded. Cultural practices like pruning, pollarding, judicious use of nitrogen, optimum spacing and weed management have preyed to be the powerful tools in containing pests. Natural control over the pest population build- up exerted by the wide range of parasitoids, predators and pathogens has been well documented with identification of natural enemies and studies on their potential. Augmentation, through inoculation or inundative releases of parasitic arthropods, is the most direct way of increasing the numbers of these beneficials in sericulture.
On the Breeding of “CSR18
CSR19”- A Robust Bivoltine Hybrid of Silkworm, Bombyx mori L. for the Tropics
Kumar, N.Suresh ; Basavaraja, H.K. ; Kumar, C.M.Kishor ; Reddy, N.Mal ; Datta, R.K. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 5, issue 2, 2002, Pages 153~162
Earlier breeding experiments undertaken at Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Mysore, India since a decade had resulted in the development of many productive and qualitatively superior bivoltine hybrids. However, the hot climatic conditions of tropics prevailing particularly in summer are not conducive to rear these high yielding bivoltine hybrids. This has necessitated breeding of compatible bivoltine hybrids for year-round rearing. Accordingly, the Japanese hybrid, B2Ol
BCS12 which was found to be tolerant to high temperature was used as breeding resource material. Following hybridization and selection rearing of silkworms was taken up in SERICATRON (Environmental chamber with precise and automatic control facilities for uniform maintenance of temperature and humidity) at high temperature of
5% RH in fifth instar and the control batches at
5% RH. Directional selection was resorted to the batches reared at 36
keeping pupation rate as important selection criteria. From
onwards the experiment was modified in such a way as to conduct normal rearing every alternate generation to regain the lost vitality due to continuous exposure to high temperature and high humidity stress. At
, Oval and dumb-bell cocoons were separated out and designated as CSR18 and CSR19, respectively. By utilizing these lines at
, the hybrid CSR18
CSR19 was prepared and studied for the thermotolerance by subjecting to stress condition at high temperature of 36
5% RH in fifth instar and the control batches at
5% RH. The better performance of CSR18
CSR19 (survival > 88%) at
clearly indicates the general superiority of CSR18
CSR19 with regard to high temperature tolerance over the productive hybrids and CSR18
CSR19 can perform well in varied agro-climatic conditions of the tropics with optimum qualitative and quantitative characteristics.s.
Structural Characteristics and Properties of Silk Fibroin/Polyurethane Blend Films
Um, In-Chul ; Kweon, Hae-Yong ; Chang mo Hwang ; Min, Byung-Goo ; Park, Young-Hwan ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 5, issue 2, 2002, Pages 163~170
In this paper, silk fibroin (SF)/polyurethane (PU) blend films were fabricated to develop a new biomaterial for biomedical applications. These blend films were prepared using formic acid as a cosolvent, and structural characteristics and properties of blend films were investigated. FTIR results suggested that there was no specific interaction between SF and PU, implying molecular immiscibility in SF/PU blend films. Furthermore, it was revealed by XRD method that the crystalline region of blend components was not perturbed by counterpart polymers. The degree of phase separation of SF/PU blend films was diminished by increasing PU content in blend. Especially, the blend with 70% content of PU showed no evidence of macro-phase separation in SEM observation. However, SF/PU blend (70/30) was revealed to be phase-separated in a lower dimension confirmed by DMTA measurement. TGA result showed that thermal decomposition temperature of blend film was slightly decreased compared to those of SF and PU polymer itself, Though mechanical properties of SF/PU blend films were not good enough due to the solvent, blood compatibility of PU can be enhanced markedly by mixing with SF for SF/PU blend film.
Application of Systemic Fungicide for Control of White Muscardine in Silkworm Bombyx mori L.
Virendrakumar, B.Nataraju ; Thiagarajan, V. ; Datta, R.K. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 5, issue 2, 2002, Pages 171~174
Two systemic fungicides, SF1 (Bavistin, a carbandazim fungicide 50% WP, Rallis India ltd., India) and SF2 (Bayleton 25% WP-Triadiamefon, a Triazole compound, Rallis India Ltd., India) were screened for control of muscardine disease in silkworm, Bombyx mori. One and two percent of SF1 and 0.05 and 0.1 % of SF2 in aqueous solution were found to be effective in in vivo condition for the control of the disease. These fungicides, on feeding through mulberry leaves continuously for two days to 4
instar silkworm larvae inoculated topically with conidia of Beauveria bassiana (4
conidia/ml) resulted in reduction in mortality due to muscardine by over 90% as against 100% mortality in inoculated control. SF1 at 1% reduced the mortality by 90% in 4
instar and 91% in final instar silkworm while at 2%, the reduction was 92% and 96%, respectively. SF2 at 0.05 and 0.1 % concentration reduced the mortality by 82 and 88% during 4
instar and by 88 and 92% during 5
Studies on the Comparative Performance of Victory-1, S-36 and Kanva-2 Mulberry Genotypes and their Impact on Silkworm Rearing under Telangana Conditions of Andhra Pradesh.
Venkataramana, P. ; Suryanarayana, N. ; Kumar, Vineet ; Sarkar, A. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 5, issue 2, 2002, Pages 175~182
A new high yielding mulberry genotype, Victory-1 (V-1) was recommended to the field for irrigated areas by Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute (CSRTI), Mysore during 1996-1997. As K-2 and S-36 mulberry genotypes are already in the field, a study on the comparative performance of V-1, 5-36 and K-2 varieties, in terms of leaf yield, yield attributes, leaf moisture and moisture retaining capacity and their impact on silkworm rearing was carried out under Telangana conditions of Andhra Pradesh during 1999-2001. Among the three genotypes the leaf yield was found to be significantly (P < 0.01) higher in V-1 (64,130 kg/ha/yr) followed by S-36 (44,064 kg/ha/yr) and K-2 (23,990 kg/ha/yr). The maximum leaf moisture was also observed in V-1 (71.84%) compared to S-36 (66.86%) and K-2 (64%). The moisture retaining ability was more in V-1 (70.17%) followed by S-36 (66.20%) and K-2 (60.08%). The yield attributes were found to be significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced in V-1 over S-36 and K-2. Silkworm rearing results (bioassay) indicated a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in larval duration and improvement in larval weight, effective rate of rearing by number and weight, single cocoon and shell weights and shell ratio in the silkworm lots fed on V-1 variety followed by S-36 and K-2. Hence, in this study, V-1 was found to be superior among the three varieties studied.
Response of Mulberry Brown Leaf Spot Fungus Myrothecium roridum to Different Plant Extracts
Chattopadhyay, S. ; Institute, Traning ; Majil, M.D. ; Pratheesshkumar ; Das, K.K. ; Saratchandra, B. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 5, issue 2, 2002, Pages 183~188
Anti-fungal potential of 5 plant extracts viz., Eucalyptus citriodora, Allium sativum, Cassia sophera, Chromolaena odorata and Datura metel on the growth of mulberry brown leaf spot pathogen Myrothecium roridum were examined. Except fur the aqueous extract of Allium bulb, ethanolic leaf extract of all other plants more efficiently reduced the colony growth of the fungus on potato-dextrose-agar, Of which, Allium and Eucalyptus extracts were more effective. Initiation of radial growth of M. roridum on solid media was deferred maximum 6 days by ethanolic Eucalyptus extract and 4 days by aqueous Allium extract at
. In the liquid media amended with Eucalyptus extract (
) complete inhibition of sporulation was noticed upto 8 days, and initial inhibition of mycelial bio-mass generation was considerably diminished with time and reduction was 1.3 fold 14 days after application. While, complete inhibition of mycelial growth for 6-14 days was recorded with
commercial eucalyptus oil. However, rejuvenation of growth appeared when fungus was re-inoculated in fresh media. Post-inoculate application of different doses Of Eucalyptus and Allium extracts significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the disease severity in pot-ted mulberry. However, persistence of the effect up to 28 days was apparent at
and effectively was on par with carbendazim (1 mg.ml
). Almost equal control ability of 1.0 mg.ml
Eucalyptus extracts can be achieved by ca. 10 times lowered dose of commercial eucalyptus oil. It seems, the toxic principle of E. citrodora to M. roridum is fungistatic in nature and may have essential oil based origin.
Effect of Systemic Fungicide on Total Hemocyte Count and Hemolymph Biochemical Changes in Silkworm, Bombyx mori L., infected with Beau-veria bassiana
Mallikarjuna, M. ; Nataraju, B. ; Thiagarajan, V. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 5, issue 2, 2002, Pages 189~194
Silkworm diseases are major constraint in silk cocoon production. Among silkworm diseases, white muscar-dine is highly contagious and most common in winter and rainy seasons. It is suggested that hemocytes involve in defense against invasion of Beauveria bassi-ana and systemic fungicide/chemicals prevent the proliferation of fungi in the hemolymph or preventing the growth of the fungi in the body cavity through enhancing the hemocyte mediated defense response. In the present study the influence of systemic fungicide on hematological changes in silkworms infected with Beauveria bassiana was reported. It is observed that the total hemocyte counts increased in the hemolymph up to 5 days post inoculation in systemic fungicide treated batches while in the inoculated control the increase was up to 3 days indicating the positive hemocyte mediated response in silkworm treated with systemic fungicide. After 2 days in the inoculated control as the multiplication and growth of mycelia increased, defense capacity of the silkworm was decreased. The biochemical changes were also observed in the hemolymph of silkworm infected with B. bassiana. In silkworm infected with Beauveria bassi-ana, the total protein content increased whereas total carbohydrate and total lipids decreased as the infection progresses. In the case of systemic fungicide treated batches the increase in total protein content was comparatively higher and decrease in total carbohydrate and lipids were comparatively lower than the inoculated control.
Pheophytin Content and Fibrinolytic Activity of Silkworm Feces in the Different Larval Stages of Silkworms
Ahn, Mi-Young ; Ryu, Kang-Sun ; Kim, Iksoo ; Kim, Jin-Won ; Lee, Heui-Sam ; Lee, Yong-Ki ; Kim, Eun-Sun ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 5, issue 2, 2002, Pages 195~199
In order to find potential anticancer agents, we extracted pheophytin in the silkworm feces from various larval stages by water, chloroform and methanol extraction. The cytotoxicity of the pheophytin extracts of various silkworm feces was measured in the CT-26 cells originated from murine metastatic colon cancer, by dye uptake assay. The cytotoxicity of those pheophytins in 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars was better than remaining larval stages. The in vitro anticoagulant and fibyinolytic activities of ethanol extract from varietal mulberry leaves, mulberry branches and silkworm feces and pheophytin extracts from silkworm feces obtained at various larval stages were evaluated in order to find effective therapeutic drugs for the treatment of myocardial and cerebral thrombosis. The fibrinolytic activity was tested using the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) was measured for blood clotting activity. With regards to the fibrinolytic system, ethanol extracts of silkworm feces were better than varietal mulberry leaves and mulberry branches. The pheophytin extracts from 7th days of 5th instar contained the highest percentage of pheophytin and good fibrinolytic activity,
Effects of Silkworm Extract on Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats
Han, Sang-Mi ; Suk, Young-Sik ; Baek, Ha-Ju ; Park, Hyun-Ro ; Han, Myung-Sae ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 5, issue 2, 2002, Pages 201~204
This study was undertaken to find effects of ethanol extracts from Bombyx mori on the hyperglycemia induced by streptozotocin in rats. Blood glucose level of rats increased depending on experimental days after streptozotocin treatment. But there was no difference in blood glucose level between the rats injected with ethanol extracts of B. mori and normal rats. There was no significant difference in the kidney fibrosis between the rats injected with ethanol extrscts of B. mori and normal rats at all ages examined. The transforming growth factor-
) protein was detected in the glomerulay endothelial cells and tubular epithelial cells of streptozotocin rats at 14 days of age. In the rats injected with ethanol extracts of B. mori to the kidneys, the
protein was detected very faintly. The
mRNA of streptozotocin rats increased at 14 days of age, and this was higher than the rats injected with ethanol extrscts of B. mori. Taken these together, the results suggest that the ethanol extracts of B. mori ameliorate hyperglycemia of the rats induced by streptozotocin.
Examination of Genetic Relationships of Silkworm Stocks in Korea by Additive Isozyme Analysis
Sohn, Bong-Hee ; Kim, Hyun-Su ; Kang, Pil-Don ; Lee, Sang-Uk ; Seong, Su-Il ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 5, issue 2, 2002, Pages 205~211
Previously, genetic relationships among 321 silkworm races preserved in the Department of Sericulture and Entomology, NIAST, RDA were studied using six isozymes comprising 20 loci. As a part of additional studies, three additional isozymes with 7 loci [phos-phoglucomutase (PGM), glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), malete dehydrogenase (MDH)] from hemolymphs, midgets, and eggs were employed to reevaluate the previous dendrogram (UPGMA method). Although the current study supported the recognition of the previously identified major groups, some minor changes were apparent among the selected 47 forms. The current study showed that the polymorphic loci of GPI from eggs and MDH from hemolymph appear to be responsible characters for generating a new major group in the genetic relationship. Interpreting the data with current additive isozymes may represent more robust genetic relatioships among 321 silkworm races preserved in Korea, until further evidence is available.
Consumption and Conversion Efficiency of Food in New Elite Bivoltine Hybrid Silkworm, Bombyx mori L. under Restricted Feeding Levels
Mathur, Vinod B. ; Rahmathulla, V.K. ; Bhaskar, O.Vijaya ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 5, issue 2, 2002, Pages 213~216
Food consumption and conversion efficiency of new bivoltine hybrids (CSR2
CSR4 and CSR2
CSR5) were studied under restricted feeding levels (10, 20 and 30% less quantity of mulberry leaves). The data were compared with a control fed with standard quantum of feed as per the recommendation. The nutritional indices parameters i. e. ingests, digesta, approximate digestibility (%) and reference ratio were recorded higher in control batches compared to less feed batches while nutritional efficiency parameters i. e., ECI and ECD to cocoon and shell were recorded significantly higher in restricted feeding level batches. This increase is attributed due to the physiological adaptation under nutritional stress condition.
Deproteinized Mulberry Leaf Juice - A New Media for Growth of Microorganisms
Chowdary, N.B. ; Naik, V.Nishitha ; Sharma, D.D. ; Govindaiah ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 5, issue 2, 2002, Pages 217~220
Mulberry being a foliage crop is grown extensively for feeding of silkworms and are also used for cattle feeding. These loaves are highly nutritious, which contain various mineral elements and bio-molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and other essential amino acids, etc. In the present study, deproteinized mulberry leaf juice was used for preparation of the medium for cultivation of various types of microbes. Results revealed that deproteinized mulberry leaf juice medium is best for isolation of fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes and this medium can be substituted with synthetic media, which are haying the costly ingredients for isolation and identification of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. Further, this deproteinized mulberry juice medium can also be used in mass multiplication of useful/beneficial microbes to enhance soil microflora to improve soil fertility and to avoid root diseases. Perspective enterprises can take up the mass multiplication/large-scale production of useful microbes such as Trichoderma, Rhizobium, Pseudomonas and Bacillus to use in mulberry and in other agricultural crops using deproteinized mulberry leaf juice.