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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sericultural Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Dec 2003
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Sep 2003
Volume 6, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 6, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
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Microsporidian Disease of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)
Singh, Tribhuwan ; Saratchandr, Beera ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 1, 2003, Pages 1~9
The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is prone to infection of various pathogenic organisms. Pebrine, one of the deadliest disease of silkworm caused by highly virulent parasitic microsporidian, Nosema bombycis has been understood since long. Infections of the disease range from chronic to highly virulent and can result in complete loss to the sericulture industry. Several strains and species of microsporidians have since been isolated from the infected silkworms; the disease is becoming increasingly more and more complex. Epizootiology, development of immunodiagnostic kit, use of chemotherapy and thermotherapy techniques has been addressed for identification and control of the disease. A technique of delayed mother moth examination, which plays a decisive role in the detection of the disease and harvestation of stable cocoon crop, has been described. An attempt has been made to review briefly the literature available on various aspects of the pebrine disease in order to develop efficient model(s) for the prevention and control of the disease and to suggest future avenues of investigation in the field of pebrine disease management.
Influence of Systemic Fungicide on the Hematology of Silkworm Bombyx mori L. Infected with Beauveria bassiana
Kumar, Virendra ; Nataraju, B. ; Thiagarajan, T. ; Dandin, S.B. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 1, 2003, Pages 11~14
Systemic fungicides viz., Bavistin and Beyleton are reported to have curative effect against the infection of Beauveria bassiana in silkworm Bombyx mori L. To understand the influence of the systemic fungicides on the disease suppression/development, hematological studies were carried out. There was an increase in the percent total hemocyte count, granulocyte and plasmatocyte in silkworm treated with the systemic fungicides. It possibly indicates the influence of systemic fungicide on the hemocyte mediated defense system leading to the higher resistance and suppression of disease development.
Effect of Feeding Different Maturity Leaves and Intermixing of the Leaves on Commercial Characters of Bivoltine Hybrid Silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)
Rahmathulla, V.K. ; Raj, Tilak ; Himanthraj, M.T. ; Vindya, G.S. ; Devi, R.G.Geetha ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 1, 2003, Pages 15~19
The study evaluated the influence of feeding different maturity leaves i.e., tender, medium, coarse and mixed leaves of three different maturity during late larval stages of new bivoltine race
. The data were compared with shoot feeding and control batches in which conventional feeding method was followed. The most of the larval and cocoon characters were recorded significantly higher in tender leaves fed batches followed by T4 batch (2 times tender and 1 time coarse leaves). Lowest melting percentage (1.494%) was recorded in T4 and highest (4.69%) was recorded in coarse leaf (T3) fed batches. Significantly higher post cocoon parameters viz., average filament length, non-breakable filament length, renditta and raw silk percentage were recorded in tender loaves fed batches.
Implications of Temperature and Humidity on the Moulting Patterns and Moulting Survival in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.
Lakshminarayana, P. ; Naik, S.Sanker ; Reddy, N.Sivarami ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 1, 2003, Pages 21~25
The implications of temperature
and relative humidity
on the moulting pattern, moulting duration and moulting survival were studied in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Larvae of two pure silkworm breeds, Pure Mysore (PM) and NB
and their hybrid,
were reared under experimental conditions under natural day photoperiodic (LD 12:12) condition. Two developmental marker events in the fourth moulting, settling for moult (SM) and completion of moult (CM) occurred at or around the middle of the photophase. The computed mean vector (equation omitted), based on the circular statistics also confirmed the above. Temperature and humidity did not alter the moulting rhythmicity much. However, extreme temperature and humidity conditions reduced moulting survival in PM and
. Further, moulting survival reduced below the economic level in
. The temperature and humidity together seem to exert synergic impact on the moulting survival of the silkworm Bombyx mori, at least in
Colloidal Textile Dye-Based Dipstick Immunoassay for the Detection of Infectious Flacherie of Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.
Sivaprasad, V. ; Nataraju, B. ; Renu, S. ; Datta, R.K. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 1, 2003, Pages 27~31
Infectious flacherie of silkworm Bombyx mori is caused by B. mori infectious flacherie virus (BmIFV) and causes severe crop loss to sericulturists. In the present study, a colloidal textile dye-based dipstick immunoassay is developed for the detection of infectious flacherie in silkworms. Colloidal textile dye (blue D2R) with Aλ
at 620 nm was sensitised with 500
/ml of purified anti-BmIFV IgG. The dye-antibody reagent detects purified antigen up to 10 ng/ml and BmIFV infection in diseased larval extracts
and faecal matter extracts
by forming clear blue dot within 30 min. It was observed to be stable for three months period at
. The efficacy of textile dye-based dipstick immunoassay was on pay with HRP-based dipstick immunoassay and fluorescent antibody test, and better than latex agglutination and ouchterlony tests in the detection of BmIFV The dye-based dipstick immunoassay method provides a simple, sensitive and less expensive test for the detection of BmIFV infection in silkworms.s.
Purification and Characterization of Arylphorin of the Chinese Oak Silkmoth, Antheraea pernyi
Park, Snag-Bong ; Kim, Jeong-Wha ; Kim, Soohyun ; Park, Nam-Sook ; Jin, Byung-Rae ; Hwang, Jae-Sam ; Seong, Su-Il ; Lee, Bong-Hee ; Park, Eunju ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 1, 2003, Pages 33~44
The arylphorin was purified from the pupal haemolymph of the Chinese oak silkmoth, Antheraea pernyi, and characterized physiologically and biochemically, The protein was purified by a simple preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and subsequent diffusive elution. The preparation was shown to be homogeneous by 7.5% native-PAGE. The native molecular weight of arylphorin was 450 kDa with a 80 kDa single subunit, suggesting hexamer, The protein contained high amounts (18.3%) of aromatic amino acids, phenylalanine (9.7%) and tyrosine (8.6%). Therefore, the protein was identified as a kind of a storage protein referred to as an arylphorin. The protein was stained by Schiff's reagent, suggesting a glycoprotein. The protein contained 4.9% (w/w) sugar and mannose and N-acetylglucosamine were major components. Also, degradation of the protein was begun by heat treatment at 90 for 20 minutes. These results showed that the A. pernyi arylphorin in the study is hexamer associated with the six subunits consisting of a 80kDa single subunit, and is different from that of Kajiura et al. (1998) in the subunit composition.
The Use of Fibroin Light Chain Gene Sequence for the Genetic Marker of the Silkworm Races
Park, Kwang-Ho ; Kang, Seok-Woo ; Kang, Pil-Don ; Goo, Tea-Won ; Hwang, Jae-Sam ; Yun, Eun-Young ; Lee, Sang-Mong ; Sohn, Hung-Dae ; Jin, Byung-Rae ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 1, 2003, Pages 45~48
We have previously cloned and characterized the complete fibroin L-chain gene from one of the silkworm races Baekok-Jam (Bombyx mori) and found two variable regions (I, intron 2 ~ exon 3; II, intron 6) with the primer sets designed to cover these variable regions. We tested the utility of these regions as genetic markers among silkworm races. For the purpose of study, Japanese race (Jam 123), Chinese race (Jam 124) and their F
hybrid Baekok-Jam were used. The PCR product size of region I was 787 bp in Jam 123, 770 bp in Jam 124 and 768 bp in Baekok-Jam. The size of region II was 470 bp in Jam 123, 428 bp in Jam 124 and 429 Up in Baekok-Jam. In the extended experiment, Jam 125 (Japanese race), Jam 126 (Chinese race) and their F
hybrid Daeseong-Jam were also analyzed. The sizes of region I and II in Jam 125, Jam 126 and Daeseong-Jam were similar to those of Jam 123, Jam 124 and Baekok-Jam. DNA sequence divergence between the two geographic races of Jam 123 or Jam 125 and Jam 124 or Jam 126 was substantial. The result suggests that the fibroin L-chain gene of F
hybrids were inherited from Chinese races. These results are concordant with cocoon shapes of tested animals, and suggested that Baekok-Jam or Daeseong-jam is more closely related to Jam 124 or Jam 126 than to Jam 123 or Jam 125. Taken these data together, the primer sets designed from two variable regions of fibroin L-chain gene would be highly useful, as the genetic markers for silkworm races, at least in Japanese and Chinese races, although an extended study including more geographic races is required.
Construction of a Transgenic Silkworm Carrying the Fibroin Gene of the Japanese Oak Silkworm, Antheraea yamamai
Park, Kwang-Ho ; Kang, Seok-Woo ; Hwang, Jae-Sam ; Goo, Tea-Won ; Yun, Eun-Young ; Lee, Sang-Mong ; Sohn, Hung-Dae ; Jin, Byung-Rae ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 1, 2003, Pages 49~55
We describe the generation of transgenic silkworm that carrying the chimeric fibroin light chain (L-chain) gene. Previously, we have cloned the complete fibroin L-chain gene from the silkworm Baekok-Jam, Bombyx mori, and the complete fibroin gene from the oak silkworm, Antheraea yamamai. The 444 bp repetitive sequence of A. yamamai fibroin gene was inserted into the exon 6 of B. mori fibroin L-chain gene to produce chimeric fibroin L-chain gene. The chimeric fibroin L-chain gene was cloned into the polyhedrin gene site of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) to yield a recombinant baculovirus as a fibroin gene targeting vector, One-day-old fifth instar female silkworm larvae were injected with the recombinant baculovirus and then mated with normal male moths. Genomic DNA from their progenies was extracted and screened for the desired targeting event by using PCR and Southern blot analysis. The analysis showed that the chimeric fibroin gene had intergrated into the L-chain gene on the genome by homologous recombination and was transmitted through generations. The transgenic silkworm carrying the chimeric fibroin gene were approximately 43.2% in
generation, and the silkworms synthesized the fusion protein in cocoons layer.
Breeding of a New Silkworm Variety, Chugangjam, with a Sex-Limited Larval Marking and High Silk Yielding for Summer-Autumn Rearing Season
Kang, Pil-Don ; Sohn, Bong-Hee ; Lee, Sang-Uk ; Woo, Soon-Ok ; Hong, Sung-Jin ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 1, 2003, Pages 57~61
A new silkworm variety, Chugangjam, with a sex-limited larval marking and high silk yielding for summer-autumn rearing season is
hybrid between Jam 147, a Japanese race bred from P8503/8453, and Jam 148, a Chinese race from M8306/Jam 130. Jam 147, Japanese parent of the Chugangjam showed a high GCA (general combining ability) in pupation percentage and Jam 148, Chinese parent, showed a high GCA in pupation percentage and single cocoon weight. In the local adaptability test performed at 8 local areas in autumn of 2001, Chugangjam was 5% higher in cocoon yield and 8% in raw silk productivity in the 10,000 of the 3rd molted larvae, respectively, than the check variety Daesungjam.
Genetic Homogeneity of the Korean Native Bumble Bee, Bombus ardens (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Detected by Mitochondrial COI Gene Sequences
Yoon, Hyung-Joo ; Kim, Sam-Eun ; Lee, Myeong-Lyeol ; Kim, Iksoo ; Bae, Jin-Sik ; Sohn, Hung-Dae ; Jin, Byung-Rae ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 1, 2003, Pages 63~68
We investigated the sequence divergence of the geographic samples of the queen bumble bee (Bombus ardens) in Korea. A portion of mitochondrial COI gene sequences (423 bp) was analyzed for 44 individuals collected from seven localities. Sequence analysis resulted in four COI haplotypes with the maximum nucleotide divergence of only 0.5% (two bp). One haplotype (BA1) was dominant in all localities surveyed (86.4%). The finding of low sequence divergence and dominance of one haplotype appear to reflect, although limited, the life history of the B. ardens queens subjected to active dispersal and seasonal fluctuation in queen number,
Developmental Characteristics and Life History of the Korean Native Firefly, Pyrocoelia rufa
Kim, Jong-Gill ; Kim, Keun-Young ; Park, Young-Cheol ; Park, Ji-Young ; Kim, Sam-Eun ; Jin, Byung-Rae ; Lee, Sang-Mong ; Lee, Jong-Eun ; Lee, Ki-Yeol ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 1, 2003, Pages 69~72
Development and life history of the Korean native firefly, Pyrocoelia rufa, were investigated throughout the indoor rearing. Average size of egg with an oval shape was 1.7 m and the hatchability of egg of P. rufa was approximately 88.5%. The larvae were pupated at the
instar and the body length of the matured larvae was 27.1 mm. The total periods of larval stage to the end of the 5
instar were approximately 104.7 days. Average pupal period was 10.3 days and average number of eggs oviposited by a female was 87.3 eggs. The body size of female in the pupa and adult was larger than that of male. The wings of female adult were deteriorated.
Effect of Zinc Chloride on Commercial Trails of the Bivoltine Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.
Hugar, I.I. ; Kaliwal, B.B. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 1, 2003, Pages 75~79
Oral supplementation of zinc chloride to silkworm larvae in different concentrations (30, 60 and 90
/ml) to the fourth and fifth instar resulted in a significant increase in commercial traits, like larval weight, silk gland weight, cocooning percentage in lower concentrartion (30
) treated group. The female cocoon weight, shell weight and its ratio were significantly increased in 30 and 60
treated groups, male cocoon weight, and shell weight in 30
treated group and its ratio in 60 and 90
treated groups, filament length, weight and moth emergence percentage in all the treated groups and egg productivity in 90
treated group were increased significantly. The remaining groups did not show any significant changes compared with that of carrier control.
Spacing Effect of the Intervening Sequences between Ribosome Binding Site and the Initiation Codon on Expression of Bacillus thuringiensis
Roh, Jong-Yul ; Li, Ming-Shun ; Chang, Jin-Hee ; Park, Jae-Young ; Shim, Hee-Jin ; Woo, Soo-Dong ; Boo, Kyung-Saeng ; Je, Yeon-Ho ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 1, 2003, Pages 81~85
To verify importance of the intervening sequence between the ribosome binding site (RBS) and the initiation codon for expression of Bacillus thuringiensis
-endotoxin, the pProMu, containing SphI and NcoIsites between RBS and the initiation codon of the cry1Ac gene, and the deletion derivatives of pProMu were constructed and transformed into the B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki
strain. The pProMu-ΔSphIhad identical six bases of intervening sequence to pProAc though the arrangement of sequence was different. Other mutants containing pProMu had 1 or 10 or 14 bases between RBS and the initiation codon. Among deletion mutants, only ProMu-ΔSphI/CB only produced 130 kDa typical bipyramidal crystals like those seen for ProAc/CB. However, ProMu/CB,
, and ProMu-ΔSphI＋NcoIdid not produce Cry1Ac crystals. In conclusion, the results suggest that 6-base intervening sequence was important for expression of cry1-type class gene. Furthermore, spacing effect of the intervening sequences may play an important role in expression of individual crystal proteins in B. thuringiensis without doubt.
Molecular Cloning and Expression of a cDNA Encoding Putative Chemosensory Protein from the Mole Cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis
Kim, Iksoo ; Lee, Kwang-Sik ; Ryu, Kang-Sun ; Kim, Jin-Woo ; Ahn, Mi-Young ; Lee, Heui-Sam ; Sohn, Hung-Dea ; Jin, Byung-Rae ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 1, 2003, Pages 87~92
We describe here the cloning, expression and characterization of a cDNA encoding a putative chemosensory protein (CSP) from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis. The G. orientalis chemosensory protein cDNA sequences comprised of 384 bp with 128 amino acid residues. The G. orientalis chemosensory protein showed 75.4% protein sequence identity to the Locusta migratoria CSP, Northern blot analysis revealed that signal was stronger in head than leg and cuticle, indicating that the head part containing antennae is a main site for G. orientalis chemosensory protein synthesis. The cDNA encoding G. orientalis chemosensory protein was expressed as approximately 12 kDa polypeptide in baculovirus-infected insect cells.
Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding Putative Calreticulin from the Silkworm, Bombyx mori
Kim, Seong-Ryul ; Lee, Kwang-Sik ; Kim, Iksoo ; Kang, Seok-Woo ; Nho, Si-Kab ; Sohn, Hung-Dae ; Jin, Byung-Rae ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 1, 2003, Pages 93~97
We describe here the cloning of a cDNA encoding putative calreticulin (CRT) from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The CRT cDNA comprised of 1,194 bp encoding 398 amino acid residues. B. mori. CRT has a HDEL sequence at the end of the C-domain. The B. morl, CRT showed 88% protein sequence identity to the G. mellonella CRT, 71 % to A. aegypti CRT, and 63% to H. sapiens CRT, Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the deduced amino acid sequences of the B. mori CRT formed a highly inclusive subgroup with other insect CRTs. Northern blot analysis exhibited an expression of the B. mori CRT gene in the fat body, evidencing the fat body as a major site for CRT synthesis.
cDNA Sequence of a Novel Immulectin Homologue from the Silkworm, Bombyx mori
Kim, Seong-Ryul ; Lee, Kwang-Sik ; Kim, Iksoo ; Kang, Seok-Woo ; Nho, Si-Kab ; Sohn, Hung-Dae ; Jin, Byung-Rae ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 1, 2003, Pages 99~102
A cDNA of novel immulectin homologue (BmIML), a C-type lectin, was cloned from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The immulectin cDNA is an open reading frame of 921 bp encoding 307 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence from the BmIML cDNA contains two C-type carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs). The BmIML was most similar (61 % protein sequence identity) to the M. sexta immulectin-1, whereas BmIML showed relatively lower identity to the B. mori lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (25% protein sequence identity). These features of BmIML indicate that BmIML is a novel member of C-type lectin superfamily. Northern blot analysis revealed that the BmIML is specifically expressed in the fat body of B. moli larvae.
Systemic Fungicide Application for the Control of White Muscardine in Silkworm Rearing
Dutta, Monalisa ; Nataraju, B. ; Sharma, S.D. ; Chandrasekharan, K. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 1, 2003, Pages 103~106
Among silkworm diseases, white muscardine is the most virulent and contagious disease caused by Beauveria bassiana and common during winter and rainy seasons. The disease is managed at present by practicing the silkworm body and rearing seat disinfection to prevent the spread of white muscardine during silkworm rearing as the available methods do not cure the silkworms against white muscardine. The use of systemic fungicide was suggested recently to control white muscardine. The present study investigated the practicability of application aspect of systemic fungicide as spray, It is observed that 3 times feeding of systemic fungicide through mulberry leaf, fed immediately after third, fourth moult and on
day of final instar as most effective in suppressing the multiplication of the fungus in silkworm. Spraying of the systemic fungicide on mulberry in the rearing house, air-dried and feeding was suggested as suitable application method. Alternately the spraying of the systemic fungicide on mulberry in mulberry garden 6 hrs prior to feeding was also suggested as a method for the control of white muscardine in silkworm rearing.