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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
International Journal of Industrial Entomology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sericultural Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Dec 2003
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Sep 2003
Volume 6, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 6, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
Selecting the target year
Studies on Analysis of Combining Ability in the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.
Singh, Ravindra ; Rao, D.Raghavendra ; Kariappa, B.K. ; Premalatha, V. ; Dandin, S.B. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 2, 2003, Pages 107~113
Analysis of combining ability is a widely used biometrical tool to select promising parents and hybrids, to determine the kinds and relative magnitudes of genetic variability among hybrids as well as to forecast yield attributes in early breeding generations both in plants and animals. Various statistical approaches like Jinks and Hayman (1953), Griffing (1956), Kempthorne (1957) etc. have been extensively applied in plants. These approaches have also been tried in the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L. In the present review, an attempt has been made to collect most of the studies carried out on combining ability in silkworm at one place and make it available to the scientists engaged in sericultural research.
Physiological and Biochemical Modulations during Oviposition and Egg laying in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.)
Singh, Tribhuwan ; Saratchandra, Beera ; Raj, H.S.Phani ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 2, 2003, Pages 115~123
Oviposition and egg laying is an important physiological and behavioural event in the life cycle of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (L). Oviposition and egg laying is dependent on a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors viz., neural, hormonal, environmental, physical, behavioral etc for the perpetuation of population. Although, the virgin female moths have fully developed embryos but active egg laying begins under the influence of mating which provides essential copulation stimulus for oviposition. After mating drastic biochemical changes occurred that incites egg laying under the influence of optimum environmental conditions. Weight of pupae as well as larval density has significant role on oviposition and egg laying behaviour in the silkworm wherein high pupal weight and inadequate rearing space affects not only the biology, morphology and physiology but also the oviposition and egg laying. Surface topography, plane of inclination, mating length, age of male moth, temperature and photoperiod etc has significant effect on reproductive physiology of silkworm. An attempt has been made in this review article to elucidate briefly the works carried out on mating behaviour, direct and indirect copulation stimulus, vitellogenesis, influence of environmental factors besides effect of weight of pupae and or pharate adult and larval density on oviposition and egg laying behavior in the silkworm, B. mori and its significance in silkworm seed production.
Biological Control Strategy of Uzi Fly in Sericulture
Singh, R.N. ; Saratchandra, Beera ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 2, 2003, Pages 125~132
Uzi fly (Exorista bombycis Louis) is one of the major larval endo-parasitoid of silkworm (Bombyx mori). It causes extensive damage to sericulture industry. The application of synthetic organic pesticides has tremendous impact on minimizing pest population but their overuse and frequent misuse and high sensitivity towards the silkworms, has forced the entomologists to search for alternatives to chemical control, which is safe to silkworm, environment and farm workers. Biological control continues to offer exciting possibilities for the control of fly pest population. It is environmentally safe alternative to chemical control and offering a long-term protection. Several potential hymenopteran parasitoids have been screened. Among successful natural enemies, Nesolynx thymus, Trichomalopsis apanteloctena, Trichopria sp., Brachymeria lasus, Pediobius sp., Spalangia sp., Spilomicrus karnatakensis and Dhirhinus sp. are important. It is essential to predict accurately the efficacy of these natural enemies in a new habitat prior to its introduction. The important desirable attributes of these potential parasitoids viz., host searching capacity, specificity, power of increase and fitness and adaptability of the parasitoid in new environment has been recorded. Results of the host parasitoid interaction indicate that the aging of the host function as a factor that influence the host finding efficiency of the parasitoid. It is highly scored with 15-20 hrs old pupa of the host. However, aging of the parasitoid does not significantly affect it. The sex ratio is female biased which is advantageous from biological control point of view, Biological suppression methods involving conservation and utilization of natural enemies have been discussed in detail.
Efficacy of Different Seed Kernels against Root Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita in Mulberry
Chowdary, N.B. ; Mukherjee, Sanchayita ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 2, 2003, Pages 133~138
Five seed kernel namely, Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), Pongamia (Pongamia glabra L. Pierre), Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.), Mahua (Madhuca indica Gmel.) and Shikakai (Acacia cancinna De.) were tested against hatching of eggs and larval mortality of Meloidogyne incognita causing root knot disease in mulberry along with Furadan (Carbofuran) and Bionema (a bioformulation developed from Verticillium chlamydosporium) for comparison. Results revealed that highest hush-up of hatching was observed in Neem (77.40%) and Pongamia (75.99%) seed kernel extracts at 100% concentration over the check. Similarly, highest larval mortality was observed in Neem and Pongamia by 76.00% and 74.50%, respectively at 100% concentration after 72 hrs of exposure period. Pot culture studies revealed that pre-application of seed kernel powders (20 days before inoculation of nematode) found to be more effective in controlling the root knot disease than post application. In pre application of seed kernel powders, maximum reduction of root knots was observed in case of Neem seed kernel powder (54.85%) followed by Pongamia (51.9%). Similar trend was also observed in reduction of egg masses/plant and nematode population ／250 cc soil. Rest of the seed kernel extracts was found to be less effective in suppression of hatching, enhancing the larval mortality and controlling the root knot disease. However, application of Furadan and Bionema tested for the comparison were found to be more effective than seed kernel powders. The generated information seems to be useful in developing an ecofriendly integrated approach for the control of root knot nematode disease in mulberry.
Mathematical Constants for Non-Destructive Rapid Method of Leaf Area Determination in Mulberry (Morus spp.)
Singhal, B.K. ; Dhar, Anil ; Sharma, Aradhana ; Jand, Seema ; Bindroo, B.B. ; Saxena, N.N. ; Khan, M.A. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 2, 2003, Pages 139~143
Mathematical constants for multiplication with leaf length (I) or breadth (b) or l
b have been worked out for determining leaf area in promising mulberry genotypes viz., Chinese White, S-146, Chak Majra and Sujanpur Local of sub-tropical India. When pooled, the mathematical constants worked out were 8.1132, 10.1019 and 0.5992 for multiplication with leaf length, breadth and l
b, respectively, for genotypes bearing un-lobbed leaves and 6.9447, 8.2761 and 0.5009 for multiplication with leaf length, breadth and l
b, respectively for genotypes bearing lobbed leaves. Leaf area can be worked out by using any constant by multiplying either with leaf length or breadth or both (l
b). Estimated leaf areas worked out were found significantly and positively correlated with actual leaf area (r＝999
). The suggested present non-destructive method by using mathematical constants is very quick and alternative to electronic leaf area meter for spot leaf area determination in mulberry which is the only food source for mulberry silkworm in sericulture industry.
Development of Resistance to Bombyx mori Densonucleosis Virus into a Susceptible Silkworm Breed
Singh, G.P. ; Xu, Mengkui ; Chen, Yuyin ; Datta, R.K. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 2, 2003, Pages 145~149
Seeing inadequate disinfection and unhygenic condition in rearing area, use of disease resistant silkworm variety is the best option. In order to this, an attempt has been made to develop the resistance to Bombyx mori densonucleosis virus (BmDNV-2) into a susceptible silkworm breed Zhenon1 by cross breeding with a resistant silkworm breed SU12 and exposing the subsequent generations to BmDNV-2 followed by the selection of individuals from the surviving batches. After seven generation the evolved DNV-2 resistant strain showed the significantly higher resistance to BmDNV-2 than control Zhenon1. The economic characters of both of the breeds were almost on par,
Silk Fibroin Microsphere and Its Characterization
Yeo, Joo-Hong ; Lee, Kwang-Gill ; Lee, Yong-Woo ; Kweon, Hae-Yong ; Woo, Soon-Ok ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 2, 2003, Pages 151~155
Using gel filtration chromatography, high molecular silk fibroin with high purity was obtained and silk flbroin microsphere particles (SFMP) could be simply made by spray dryer method. Also, some of the physicochemical properties of SFMP and morphology were investigated. The average molecular weight of pure silk fibroin protein dissolved in calcium chloride is about 61,500g/㏖ as measured by gel permeation chromatography. SFMP was spherical in shape, and particles, sized average of 2
, were observed by SEM and particle analyzer, respectively. Obtaining microspheres particles by spray dryer method accelerated the transition from the random coil to the
-sheet structure during spray dryer treatment. It was identified by the basic fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of SFMP. The swelling ratio of SFMP is majorly dependent on the pH of the solution, not on the occurred gelation. The characteristic structure, which might be applicable to immobilization of drugs is superior to other matrix materials for the use of biomaterials with skin affinity.
cDNA Sequence and mRNA Expression of a Putative Glutathione S-Transferase from the Mole Cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis
Kim, Iksoo ; Lee, Kwang-Sik ; Jin, Byung-Rae ; Kim, Jin-Won ; Ryu, Kang-Sun ; Ahn, Mi-Young ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 2, 2003, Pages 157~162
The glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) are enzymes responsible for the protection of cells from chemical toxicants and oxidative stress. We describe here the cDNA sequence and mRNA expression of a putative GST from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis. The G. orientalis GST cDNA sequences comprised of 621 bp encoding 207 amino acid residues. The multiple sequence alignment of G. orientalis GST gene with other known insect GSTs showed several conserved residues that may be essential for the enzymatic activity of the protein. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of G. orientalis GST gene with other insect GST sequences revealed that the G. orientalis GST gene belongs to class I GST, forming a strong monophyletic group (100% bootstrap value) exclusively for class I GSTs from a diverse insect species. Northern blot analysis confirmed midgut-specific expression at transcriptional level, evidencing the midgut as a site for GST synthesis.
Development of Leaf Spot (Myrothecium roridum) and Dispersal of Inoculum in Mulberry (Morus spp.)
Kumar, P.M.Pratheesh ; Pal, S.C. ; Qadri, S.M.H. ; Gangwar, S.K. ; Saratchandra, B. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 2, 2003, Pages 163~169
Studies were conducted on the effect of pruning time, host age, conidial dispersal and weather parameters on the incidence and severity of mulberry leaf spot (Myrothecium roridum). The disease severity (%) increased with increase in shoot age irrespective of pruning date. Maximum disease severity was observed in plants pruned during first week of April and minimum disease severity in plants pruned during first week of March. Significant (P ＜ 0.01) influence of date of pruning, shoot age and their interaction was observed on severity of the disease. Apparent infection rate (r) was significantly higher during the plant growth period from day 48 to day 55. Average apparent yale was higher in plants pruned during first week of April and least in plants pruned during first week of July. The disease infection was negatively correlated to distance from the inoculum source. Leaf spot severity (%) was influenced by weather parameters. Multiple regression analysis revealed contribution of various combinations of weather parameters on the disease severity. Linear prediction model $(Y ＝ －81.803＋1.176x_2＋0.765x_3) with significant
was developed for prediction of the disease under natural epiphytotic condition.
Evolution and Identification of Thermo-Tolerant Hybrids in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.
Begum, A.Naseema ; Rekha, M. ; Basavaraja, H.K. ; Ahsan, M.M. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 2, 2003, Pages 171~178
Four thermo-tolerant lines of silkworm, Bombyx mori, (L.) viz., A HT, B HT (Chinese type) and F HT, G HT (Japanese type) were evolved by utilizing the breeding resource material (identified from initial screening at a temperature of 31
and relative humidity 85
5%) through conventional breeding. These tolerant lines were crossed with productive breeds and forty four hybrids were evaluated on eight economic traits by the Multiple Trait Evaluation Index Method. Ten hybrids were short-listed based on the average evaluation index value larger than 50 for eight economic traits studied. The identified ten hybrids recorded higher index values (＞ 50) for most of the traits studied. Single hybrid G
CSR12 indicated average index value larger than 50 for six traits viz., pupation number (58), cocoon weight (67), shell weight (65), average filament length (74), raw silk % (69), reelability % (51) except for shell ratio % (41). The standard deviation of the cocoons in the above hybrid was 8.41 in the hybrid cocoon length and width measurement. However, two selected hybrids viz., A
CSR5 and G
CSR13 recorded average index value larger than 50 for all the traits viz., pupation number (57, 60), cocoon weight (50, 54), shell weight (56, 57), shell ratio percentage (59, 53), average filament length (55, 60), raw silk percentage (63, 67) and reelability percentage (53, 53). The standard deviation of the cocoons in the two selected hybrids viz., A
CSR5 and G
CSR13 was 8.41 and 8.06 respectively in the cocoon length and width measurement.
-ELISA for the Detection of Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus of Silk-worm, Bombyx mori L.
Sivaprasad, V. ; Nataraju, B. ; Baig, M. ; Samson, M.V. ; Datta, R.K. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 2, 2003, Pages 179~181
-ELISA and direct antigen coating-ELISA (DAC-ELISA) were evaluated in the detection of purified Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) and nuclear polyhedrosis virus infection in silkworm larvae inoculated with BmNPV polyhedra. Although nanogram levels of BmNPV was detected in both DAC- and
-ELISA, similar concentrations of antigen was detected in case of F(ab’)
-ELISA even at higher dilution of antibody (up to 1 : 20 K). One hundred percent nuclear polyhedrosis infection was detected 6 hrs after inoculation in BmNPV infected silkworm larvae by
-ELISA. On the other hand, detection of 100% infection was observed only three days after inoculation in DAC-ELISA. In this study, it was observed
-ELISA was more sensitive than DAC-ELISA in the detection of purified BmNPV as well as nuclear polyhedrosis infection in silkworm larvae.
Evaluation and Identification of Promising Bivoltine Hybrids of Silkworm, Bombyx mori L., for Monsoon and Spring Season of Uttar Pradesh
Jaiswal, Kamal ; Goel, Rachna ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 2, 2003, Pages 183~190
An attempt was made to identify superior bivoltine silkworm hybrid suitable for monsoon and spring season of Uttar Pradesh. Breeds with superior cocoon characters and their more popularity in an area were major parameters on basis of which breeds from different regions were selected. Six bivoltine hybrids of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) of different geographical regions were reared in monsoon (three hybrids) and spring season (three hybrids) during 2000-2002 i.e., for three years at Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow. Their performances were analyzed statistically for nine characters. The analysis made on a number of traits viz., hatching percentage, larval duration, pupation rate, yield /10000 larvae (by no.), yield /10000 larvae (by weight), cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, cocoon shell ratio, showed the superiority of one bivoltine hybrid out of the three bivoltine hybrids studied in each season.
was found to be superior in major cocoon parameters in both the seasons i.e., monsoon and spring season of Uttar Pradesh.
Evaluation of Different Bed Disinfectants against the Spread of Common Diseases in Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.
Irfan Illahi ; S. D. Sharma ; K. Chrasekharan ; B. Nataraju ; M. Balavenkatasubbaiah ; T. Selvakumar ; V. Thiagarajan ; S. B. Dandin ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 2, 2003, Pages 191~196
Silkworm body and rearing seat disinfection is an integral part of effective silkworm rearing as it prevents the spread of various diseases through secondary contamination in the rearing bed. Many bed disinfectants are recommended by various research institutes in India. In the present study, eight bed disinfectants viz., Vijetha, Labex, Resham Jyothi, Sanjeevini, Suraksha, Reshamkeet Oushadh, Dithane M45 and Captan recommended by various Sericultural Research Institutions in the country against the spread of common diseases of silkworm were tested to determine their comparative efficacy. For the study, all the treatment batches were introduced with fixed number of specific diseased larvae so as to maintain a constant source of pathogen in the bed and then followed by treatment with respective bed disinfectants. Percent mortality/infection due to each disease was recorded to determine efficacy of bed disinfectant treatment against respective disease. The results show that all the bed disinfectants tested have considerable efficacy against the spread of various diseases in the rearing bed. However, Vijetha was distinctly superior in its efficacy against all four major diseases of silkworm. The study emphasize the role of bed disinfectants in silkworm rearing and the fact that they should be judiciously selected based on the efficacy of the bed disinfectant and the type of disease prevalent in a particular season and area.
Effect of High Temperature and High Humidity on the Quantitative Traits of Parents, Foundation Crosses, Single and Double Hybrids of Bivoltine Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.
Kumar, N.Suresh ; Basavaraja, H.K. ; Reddy, N.Mal ; Dandin, S.B. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 2, 2003, Pages 197~202
The hot climatic conditions prevailing particularly in summer are not conducive to rear these high yielding bivoltine hybrids throughout the year, In order to select efficiently the breeds with high temperature tolerance, it is very important to analyze critically the impact of high temperature on many silk yielding attributes of silkworm races. Keeping the above in view, the present study was undertaken to determine the effect of high temperature
and high humidity
on the rearing performance of pure races, foundation crosses, single hybrids and double hybrids of bivoltine silkworm, Bombyx mori L. The robust bivoltine breeds, CSR18, CSR19, 8HT and 5HT, eight foundation crosses, eight single hybrids and eight double hybrids involving these breeds were chosen as materials in this study.
Sooty Mould Infection on Mulberry-Management
Reddy, C.Rajagopal ; Reddy, P.Lakshmi ; Misra, Sunil ; Reddy, K.Dharma ; Sujathamma, P. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 2, 2003, Pages 203~205
Black sooty mould fungus was observed on the upper side of the mulberry leaves caused by the Capnodium sp. This fungus develops with the utilization of the honeydew dropped by the whiteflies. Few selected insecticides like Monocrotophos, Chloropyriphos and Nuvan were tried to control the whitefly incidence and followed by the application of Maida (wheat flour paste) and Starch solution separately to control the incidence of the Capnodium on mulberry. It is found that a significant control of the whitefly incidence with the application of Nuvan (2
/L) and followed by Chloropyriphos (2
/L) and Monocrotophos (1.6
/L) and also a significant control of sooty mould infection were recorded with Starch and Maida application
Breeding of Near Isogenic Lines of Silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)
Li, Muwang ; Xu, Anying ; Hou, Chengxiang ; Zhang, Yuehua ; Huang, Junting ; Guo, Xijie ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 6, issue 2, 2003, Pages 207~210
Four different backcrossing methods were designed and 23 near isogenic lines (NILs) of 22 linkage groups were obtained using Hb as recurrent parent, the mutant gene lines which held markers as donor parents. Eleven of them had been mated with the recurrent parent for 10 times, and the others for 7∼8 times. The NILs of other 6 linkage groups are under way and had been backcrossed to the recurrent for 3∼4 times. These NILs will act important roles in the construction of molecular linkage map and gene location and positional cloning.