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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sericultural Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Dec 2003
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Sep 2003
Volume 6, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 6, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
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The Current Status and Prospect of Sericultural Byproduct Industry in China
Gui, Zhongzheng ; Guo, Xijie ; Fuan, Wu ; Jianyi, Dai ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 7, issue 1, 2003, Pages 1~4
Sericulture is a traditional agro-industry, which involves mulberry cultivation and silkworm rearing, has made great contributes to the human civilization. With the development of national economy and modem technology, mulberry and silkworm are being used to develop products with functionality besides the traditional cocoon production in China. In this paper, we brief the current developing situation of sericultural byproducts with functionality in the following aspects. (1) Functional products from silkworm larvae: silkworm powder, white muscardine silkworm, isolation and purification of anti-bacterial proteins from the larvae and production of medically valuable substances by Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) vector. (2) Utilization of silkworm feces: for pillow and for isolation of chlorophyll etc. (3) Production of valuable Chinese traditional medicine like Cordyceps sinensis with pupae, functional utilization of pupa protein and chitin. (4) Silk as additives to cosmetics, silk food and medical materials. (5) Functional utilization of mulberry: cultivation of edible fungus on mulberry shoots as medium, mulberry fruit drinks, mulberry tea, etc. The prospect of sericultural byproduct industry in China is also discussed.
Genetic Basis of Screening of Molecular Markers for Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus Resistance in Bombyx mori L.
Chen, Keping ; Yao, Qin ; Wang, Yong ; Cheng, Jialin ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 7, issue 1, 2003, Pages 5~10
The nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) resistance of silkworm is controlled by a pair of dominant genes on autosome and micro-effect modificator genes on sex chromosome Z and has the phenomenon of patroclinal inheritance. Based on its hereditary characteristics, methods of preparing near isogenic lines and their
populations for screening molecular markers were designed.
Screening of RAPD Markers for Fluoride Resistance in Bombyx mori L.
Chen, Keping ; Yao, Qin ; Li, Muwang ; Wang, ong ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 7, issue 1, 2003, Pages 11~14
NF733xin, the near allele line was obtained by means of crossing and backcrossing the silkworm race T6, which contained fluoride resistance major gene, to race 733xin, which was highly susceptible to fluoride toxicity. Two hundred RAPD random primers were used in the RAPD analysis of these 3 strains. Two molecular markers, OPB-08850 and OPB-10917, were obtained. OPB-10917 was used to detect the backcross generations. It was found that all the fluoride resistant individuals in each backcross generation had the same special band. These results proved that this marker was reliable.
Studies on Sex-linked Inheritance of Quantitative Characters in Direct and Reciprocal Crosses of Silkworm Bombyx mori L.
Reddy, N.Mal ; Basavaraja, H.K. ; Dar, A.K. ; Kumar, N.Suresh ; Dandin, S.B. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 7, issue 1, 2003, Pages 15~20
The present investigation was carried out to study the possible cause for reciprocal difference in silkworm hybrids. By utilising the polyvoltine race Pure Mysore (PM) and newly evolved breeds (CSR2, CSR5, CSR16 and CSR17), the direct and reciprocal crosses of polyvoltine
bivoltine and also bivoltine hybrids were studied. The hybrids of polyvoltine
bivoltine (direct) are superior to their reciprocal crosses in respect of cocoon yield, cocoon weight and filament length. The reciprocal crosses of polyvoltine
bivoltine are superior to their direct crosses in respect of fecundity and short larval duration. No significant differences were observed in the characters like cocoon shell ratio, raw silk percentage, denier, reelability and neatness in both polyvoltine
bivoltine direct crosses and their reciprocals. The expression of cocoon characters as a function of sex revealed that direct crosses (polyvoltine
bivoltine) showed higher cocoon weight, pupal weight, shell weight and longer filament length in females than the reciprocal crosses (bivoltine
polyvoltine), where as these characters in males were almost the same in both direct and reciprocal crosses, indicating that the sex-linked genetic factor played a more important role. it was clear that difference in cocoon yield observed in reciprocal crosses of polyvoltine
bivoltine was due to the low cocoon and shell weight in females which was turn due to presence of early maturity genes (Lme) linked with sex-chromosome (X) which effect on larvae period of the silkworm. In bivoltine hybrids, i.e., both direct and their reciprocals crosses, all the characters viz., hatching percentage, larval duration, survival, cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, cocoon shell ratio, raw silk percentage, filament length, denier, reelability and neatness did not show any significant difference (except number of eggs laid by moth) which could account for presence of same maturity genes (Lm) in both direct and reciprocal crosses. it was clear that reciprocal differences occur when the hybrids are prepared from the parental strains with different voltinism.
Expression of Heterotic Genetic Interaction among Multivoltine Recurrent Backcross/Congenic Lines for Higher Shell Weight of Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.
Verma, A.K. ; Chattopadhyay, G.K. ; Sengupta, M. ; Sengupta, A.K. ; Das, S.K. ; Urs, S.Raje ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 7, issue 1, 2003, Pages 21~27
Manifestation of heterotic genetic interaction was studied in different hybrids made between multivoltine recurrent backcross (RBL)/congenic lines (Con. L) during unfavourable season when temperature and relative humidity are >
and 86%, respectively. A few number of silkworm race or strain or breed like Nistari (N ＋ p or Np) can sustain the temperature above 3
and RH above 86%. The present heterosis study screened a hybrid i.e., CB
RBL and its reciprocal provided heterobeltiotic effect on survival by number and pupation rate at a magnitude of 20% (p < 0.01) and yield by weight of 10% (p < 0.01). Beside all the hybrids expressed heterosis over check - Nistari (N ＋ p) with better quality silk. Therefore, aforesaid hybrid may be useful for utilization at commercial level during adverse seasons of West Bengal.gal.
Effect of Phytoecdysteroid on Pure Breed Performance of Silkworm Bombyx mori L.
Trivedy, Kanika ; Dhar, Anindita ; Kumar, S.Nirmal ; Nair, K.Sashindran ; Ramesh, M. ; Gopal, Nisha ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 7, issue 1, 2003, Pages 29~36
Phytoecdysteroids with moulting hormone (MH) activity induce different responses in silkworms when used on different day of final instar, which can be manipulated for maximum benefit like early and uniform spinning behaviour, reducing crop loss and to increase cocoon yield. The results showed that application of this hormone on seed crop viz., CSR2, CSR4 and BL44 and BL67 in early stage of 5
instar i.e., at 72 hrs and 96 hrs though induced early and uniform spinning behaviour, there was an adverse effect by 9-36% on the economic characters like cocoon yield, cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight and also on fecundity etc. Application of this hormone in late stage of
instar i.e., at the onset of spinning showed non-significant variations in some of the characters like cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, cocoon shell ratio and fecundity. The physiological implications of phytoecdysteroid in hastening the maturation events and synchronization of spinning activities in different breeds are discussed.
cDNA Sequence and mRNA Expression of a Putative Alcohol Dehydrogenase from the Mole Cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis
Kim, Iksoo ; Lee, Kwang-Sik ; Jin, Byung-Rae ; Lee, Young-Sin ; Ryu, Kang-Sun ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 7, issue 1, 2003, Pages 37~44
Alcohol dehydrogenases (AHDs) are enzymes responsible for the catalysis of the reversible conversion of various alcohols to their corresponding aldehydes and ketonesis. Until now cDNA sequences of ADH gene is informed exclusively from several diptean species. We describe here the cDNA sequence and mRNA expression of a putative ADH gene from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis, and phylogenetic relationships among known insect ADHs. The G. orientalis ADH cDNA sequences comprised of 798 bp encoding 266 amino acid residues. The multiple sequence alignment of G. orientalis ADH gene and known dipteran ADHs shared 100％ identity in the nine amino acid residues that are important for the enzymatic activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Percent sequence identity ranged from 25％ to 32％ among all insect ADHs including both types of ADHs. G. orientalis ADH gene showed no clear resemblance to any dipteran species and type. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of G. orientalis ADH gene with available dipteran ADH genes including both types of ADHs further confirmed that the G. orientalis ADH gene is not clearly assigned to either type of ADHs. Northern blot analysis revealed a stronger signal in the fat body than midgut and epidermis, indicating that the fat body possibly is a main site for the synthesis of the G. orientalis ADH protein.
Effect of Foliar Treatment of KCl on Chlorophyll, Total Sugars, Soluble Protein, In Vivo Nitrate Reductase Activity and Leaf Yield in Mulberry (Morus alba L. CV.S1)
Das, C. ; Ghosh, M.K. ; Das, B.K. ; Misra, A.K. ; Mukherjee, P.K. ; Urs, S.Raje ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 7, issue 1, 2003, Pages 45~49
Foliar treatment with different concentrations of potassium chloride (KCl) to mulberry plants resulted in higher level of total chlorophyll, total sugars, soluble protein, in vivo nitrate reductase activity (NRA), net photosynthetic rate (NPR), pWUE and leaf yield. Optimal concentration was found to be 10.0 mM KCl with limited irrigation provided in the mulberry plantation planted in 90
90 cm spacing. The deleterious effect of soil moisture stress condition has been found to be overcome by KCl foliar spray twice at 15 days interval. Regression and correlation coefficients were analyzed, and a strong positive correlation was found between chlorophyll and total sugars, soluble protein and in vivo nitrate reductase activity, leaf dry weight and net photosynthetic rate and pWUE and net photosynthetic rate.
cDNA Cloning of a Putative Alcohol Dehydrogenase from the Silkworm, Bombyx mori
Kim, Iksoo ; Park, Yong-Soo ; Sohn, Hung-Dae ; Jin, Byung-Rae ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 7, issue 1, 2003, Pages 51~57
A cDNA encoding a putative alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) class III was cloned from the silkworm, Bombyx mono The full length cDNA is 1,385 nucleotides long and contains an open reading frame of 1,128 bp encoding 376 amino acid residues. The B. mon ADH III protein sequence was aligned with ADH III known from various organisms. Interestingly, the protein sequence of B. mon ADH III showed 87% and 85% identity to ADH III from marine fish Sparus aurata and Branchiostoma floridae, respectively, whereas rather low sequence identity (83%) to Drosophila melanogaster ADH III was observed. Northern blot analysis revealed that B. mon ADH III mRNA is expressed in all tissues from larva examined: fat body, midgut, epidermis, silk gland and ovary, with the highest level found in the fat body.
Performance of Newly Evolved Bivoltine Silkworm Hybrids of Bombyx mori with Reference to Hybrid Vigour
Reddy, N.Mal ; Basavaraja, H.K. ; Kumar, N.Suresh ; Joge, P.G. ; Kalpana, G.V. ; Dandin, S.B. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 7, issue 1, 2003, Pages 59~63
In the present study, hybrid vigour in terms of heterosis and over dominance of newly evolved bivoltine hybrids and their reciprocals raised from the promising newly evolved bivoltine breeds were calculated for the important parameters like pupation, cocoon yield, cocoon weight, shell weight, shell ratio, raw silk percentage, filament length and neatness. Through there was no significant difference among the hybrids for the characters pupation, cocoon yield and cocoon weight, the magnitude of heterosis and over dominance were varied significantly for these characters. However, significant differences were observed between new hybrids and control hybrid for the characters like cocoon shell weight, cocoon shell ratio, filament length and raw silk percentage. The results indicate that majority of new hybrids have shown higher heterosis and over dominance than control hybrid. The data also indicate that highest mean heterosis of all new hybrids was recorded for cocoon yield followed by filament length. Whereas highest mean over dominance was recorded for cocoon yield followed by cocoon weight. Negative mean heterosis and over dominance were recorded for the trait cocoon shell ratio. Based on the results, the importance of three hybrids viz., CSR2
CSR5 and CSR3
CSR6 and their reciprocals (CSR4
CSR2 and CSR6
CSR3) which exhibited significant heterosis and over dominance, for commercial exploitation was discussed.
Early and Uniform Maturation in Silkworm Bombyx mori L. by Phytoecdysteroid Extracted from a Plant of Family Caryophyllaceae
Trivedy, Kanika ; Nair, K.Sashindran ; Ramesh, M. ; Gopal, Nisha ; Kumar, S.Nirmal ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 7, issue 1, 2003, Pages 65~68
One of the biggest problems encountered during the last phase of silkworm rearing is non-uniform maturation of the silkworms especially during cooler months. Phytoecdysteroid (20-hydroxy ecdysone) was extracted in large-scale from a plant belongs to Caryophyllaceae and fed to silkworm larvae to test the effect of phytoecdysteroid. About 80％ of the silkworms were ready for mounting by 18 hrs after treatment (when the treatment is done for uniform spinning), whereas in control batch only 37％ worms were ready for mounting by the same time.
Variability in Specific Leaf Weight in Mulberry Germplasm and Its Inheritance Pattern
Sarkar, A. ; Mogili, T. ; Chaturvedi, H.K. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 7, issue 1, 2003, Pages 69~73
Specific leaf weight (SLW), defined as the mass of tissue per unit leaf area has been found to be an important physiological parameter as it indicates the relative thickness of leaves. Greater SLW provides more photosynthetic potential per unit area of leaf and hence it is frequently been considered as correlated with photosynthesis in several plant species. Collections of 165 mulberry (Morus sp.) germplasm accessions, both Indian and exotic in origin were evaluated for their variability with respect to SLW. The mean specific leaf weight ranged from 35.3 to
. The distribution of SLW was found to be normal. High heritability (97.08%) and a small difference between genotypic and phenotypic variance demonstrates the genetic control over SLW. Significant heterotic effect with respect to SLW was observed in crosses when parents with high and low SLW were chosen.
Mineral Compositions in the Feces of Some Silkworms
Kim, Iksoo ; Kang, Pil-Don ; Jang, Sung-Kee ; Ryu, Kang-Sun ; Kim, Doh-Hoon ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 7, issue 1, 2003, Pages 75~78
This study was carried out to investigate the mineral content of the feces of the
instar larvae in a few silkworm species such as a parent domestic silkworm (Jam134), a hybrid (Kumok-jam), the Japanese oak silkworm, and the Chinese oak silkworm. The major minerals of all silkworms throughout all
instar larval period are K, P, Mg and Ca, and the result is consistent with the previous study of the mineral content in the mulberry leaves. Although the calcium content decreased sharply at
day of the
instar, the crude protein content significantly increased at the same age in both domestic silkworms, suggesting a direct relationship between feeding behavior of the silkworms at the larval period and mineral/protein contents. However, this trend was not observed in both oak silkworms. In the comparison of the mineral content among silkworm species, two domestic silkworms were significantly higher in the calcium content compared with two oak silkworms, and the hybrid Kumok-jam was further higher significantly than the feces of parental Jam 143. Excluding the calcium content, overall no significant content variation in other minerals was observed among four silkworm species studied in this study.
Comparative Study of Commercial Characters of Cocoon Produced by Ripe and Unripe Bivoltine Larvae (Bombyx mori L.) Mounted at Different Maturation Levels
Rahmathulla, V.K. ; Haque, S.Z. ; Geetha Devi, R.G. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 7, issue 1, 2003, Pages 79~82
To study the effect of mounting fully ripe and unripe silkworms at different maturation percentage, the ripe and unripe silkworms were mounted separately and observed the cocoon and reeling characters. The significant difference in the cocoon and reeling parameters was observed between all ripe and unripe batches except for summer season. The silkworms collecting together and mounting at a time can be recommended only in summer season and at certain level during rainy season.
Effect of Certain Insecticides in Controlling Pesudodendrothrips mori in Mulberry
Misra, Sunil ; Reddy, C.Rajagopal ; Sivaprasad, V. ; Reddy, K.Dharma ; Chandrashekhariah ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 7, issue 1, 2003, Pages 83~86
Mulberry plantations are prone to several kinds of insect pests including the thrips, Pesudodendrothrips mori. The thrips infestation affects the qualitative and quantitative characters of mulberry leaf, which in turn affects the silkworm cocoon crop. In the present study, four commercial insecticides viz., Rogor, Quinalphos, Confidor and Methyl parathion were tested for their efficacy in the control of P. mori thrips. These insecticides were observed to kill 68-80％ within 24 hrs in vivo and 100％ after 12 hrs post-treatment in vitro. Confidor (0.05％) and Quinalphos (0.2％) were most effective in controlling the thrips incidence. The insecticide-sprayed mulberry leaves did not show any adverse effect on the rearing of silkworms.
Screening of Silkworm Breeds for Tolerance to Bombyx mori Nuclear Polyhedro Virus (BmNPV)
Sivaprasad, V. ; Chandrasekharaiah ; Ramesh, C. ; Misra, S. ; Kumar, K.P.K. ; Rao, Y.U.M. ;
International Journal of Industrial Entomology, volume 7, issue 1, 2003, Pages 87~91
BmNPV (Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus) causes nuclear polyhedrosis in silkworms. The tolerance of silkworms to BmNPV is controlled by polygenes. This paper reports on the relative tolerance of silkworm breeds among the germplasm maintained at Andhra Pradesh State Sericultural Research ＆ Development Institute (APSSRDI), Hindupur, India. The silkworm larvae out of second moult were per orally inoculated with BmNPV polyhedra
and reared upto spinning. The response to BmNPV had been categorized into apparent tolerance, real tolerance and susceptibility. Among the 145 silkworm breeds screened, 18 bivoltines and 16 polyvoltines were found to have real tolerance to BmNPV.