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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 11, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 11, Issue 5 - Oct 2001
Volume 11, Issue 4 - Aug 2001
Volume 11, Issue 3 - Jun 2001
Volume 11, Issue 2 - Apr 2001
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Feb 2001
Selecting the target year
Characterization of Plasmids from Bifidobacterium sp.
Lee, Ju-Hoon ; Park, Myeong-Soo ; Lee, Ke-Ho ; Ji, Geun-Eog ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 1~6
Ten strains of plasmid-harboring Bifidobacterium sp. were isolated from the feces of adults and children, and named as Bifidobacterium sp. GE1-GE8, ST, and SH5. These plasmids were categorized into three homologous groups (pKJ50-homologous, pKJ36-homologous, and non-homologous groups) according to Southern hybridization patterns using the formerly characterized bifidobacterial plasmids, pKJ50 and pKJ36, as probes. nine strains harboring the plasmids were shown to accumulate single-stranded DNA as a replication intermediate, based on the S1 nuclease treatment and Southern hybridization. These results suggest that the strains replicate by a rolling circle mechanism. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the isolated bifidobacteria against several antibiotics were determined. Two strains, GE2 and GE3, showed relatively high MiC values against tetracycline (
) and erythromycin (
), respectively. The tetracycline resistance of GE2 disappeared when the resident plasmid of GE2 was cured by ethidium bromide. These results show that pKJ36-homologous and pKJ50-homologous plasmids are prevalent among various Bifidobacterium strains and some Bifidobacterium plasmids appear to code for antibiotic resistance.
Catabolic Plasmid-Mediated Heavy Metal Resistance in Herbicide Diuron-Degrading Pseudomonas species
El-Deeb ; Bahig A. ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 7~12
Three Pseudomonas strains (Bk8, Bk9, Bk10) selected from soil for their ability to degrade herbicide diuron were tested for their heavy metal resistance. The growth of these catabolic strains on a minimal medium with various concentrations of
revealed a minimal effect on the carbon source for the inhibitory effect of the metals. One of these strains, namely, Bk8, exhibited a high resistance to the heavy metals as compared to the two other strains. This strain harbors plasmid pBk8 (110 kb) and contains at least fur determinants encoding heavy metal resistance. Nickel and zinc resistance are encoded by genes located on the chromosome, while cadmium and mercury resistance are on plasmid pBk8. Accordingly, the characteristics of strain Bk8 suggest that it would be useful in the bioremediation of aromatic compounds in the presence of toxic heavy metals as co-contaminants.
Glucoamylase Production in Batch and Fed-Batch Solid State Fermentation: Effect of Maltose or Starch Addition
Bertolin, Telma Elita ; Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa ; Gean Delise Leal Pasquali ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 13~16
Maltose and soluble starch were used as secondary sources of carbon for glucoamylase production by Aspergillus awamori in solid state fermentation. During batch cultivation, maltose above 2.5%(w/w) repressed glucoamylase production, but, by adding either 2.5% (w/w) maltose or 1.25% (w/w) soluble starch to fed-batch cultivations, glucoamylase activity was increased by 15% and 170% over standard medium, respectively. The data showed that maltose is a weak inducer of glucoamylase production in solid stat fermentation.
Reduced Susceptibility of a Model Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biofilm to Osmotic Upshifts
Jirku Vlacimir ; Jan Masak ; Alena Cejkova ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 17~20
Whole-cell attachment by covalent linkage, thereby simulating natural and specific attachments, improves the osmotolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The enhanced osmoresistance is correlated with a decrease in the intercellular concentration of trehalose and accompanied by membrane compositional changed. The results obtained indicate that yeast cell-support (physical) contact is sensed and responded to.
Detection of Aspergillus and Penicillium genera by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using a Monoclonal Antibody
Kwak, Bo-Yeon ; Shon, Dong-Hwa ; Kwon, Byung-Joon ; Kweon, Chang-Hee ; Lee, Ke-Ho ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 21~28
Enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for a rapid detection of fungi, Aspergillus and Penicillium genera in food, were developed and their efficiencies were approved by detecting artificially contaminated agricultural commodities. Mice were immunized with partially purified Aspergillus flavus extracellualr polysaccharide (EPS) and lymph node cells of the mice were fused with the myeloma cells for production of monoclonal antibodies. Mab 1G11, one of the antibodies, was selected and purified. A sandwich ELISA was established and its detection limit toward A. flavus EPS was 1mg/ml. Among the 59 strains tested (including 18 species of Aspergillus, 16 of Penicillium, 11 of Fusarium, 1 of Absidia, 2 of Alternaria, 2 of Candida, 2 of Cladosporium, 2 of Geotrichum, 2 of Mucor, 2 of Rhizopus, 1 of Trichoderma), species of Aspergillus and penicillium had a high reactivity with Mab 1G11 even up to 10,000 times dilution of culture broths. The other genera except Cladosporium resinae showed no reactivity, thus Mab 1G11 was specific to the genera of Aspergillus and Penicillium. The epitope of A. flavus EPS against monoclonal Mab 1G11 was on the carbohydrate moiety when 1 to 100
A. flavus EPS were put into rice, potato, and mandarin orange, the average recoveries detected by sandwich ELIA were 123, 59, and 76%, respectively. Correlation was found to be linear between the EPS, and mycelium of A. flavus and Penicillium citrinum grown in a liquid medium (r=0.87 and 0.96), and also between the EPS and colony forming unit in solid media of rice of potato (r=0.91-0.99).
Structural and Functional Importance of Two Glutamate Residues, Glu47 and Glu146, Conserved in N-Carbamyl D-Amino Acid Amodohydrolases
Oh, Ki-Hoon ; Kim, Geun-Joong ; Park, Joo-Ho ; Kim, Hak-Sung ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 29~34
The mutant enzymes of N-carbamyl-D-amino aicd amidohydrolase (N-carbamylase) from Agrobacterium radiobacter NRRL B11291, showing a negligible activity, were selected from the library generated by random mutagenesis. From the sequence analysis, these mutants were found to contain the amino acids substitutions at Cys172, Glu47, and Glu146. Previously, Cys172 was reported to be necessary for the enzyme catalysis. The chemical modification of the N-carbamylase by carboxyl group specific chemical reagent, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide(EDC), resulted in a loss of activity. The replacement of glutamic acids with glutamines by site-directed mutagenesis led to aggregation of the enzymes. Mutant enzymes fused with maltose binding protein (MBP) were expressed in soluble form, but were inactive. These results indicate that two glutamic acid residues play an important role in structure and function of the N-carbamylase. Multiple sequence alignment of the related enzymes revealed that Glu47 and Glu146 are rigidly conserved, which suggests that tese residues are crucial for the structure and function of the functionally related C-N hydrolases.
Enzyme-Linked, Biotin-Streptavidin Bacterial-Adhesion Assay for Helicobacter pylori Lectin-Like Interactions with Cultured Cells
Murillo, Guzman ; Antonia, Maria ; Ascencio, Felipe ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 35~39
A simple method for studying the lectin-like interactions between Helicobacter pylori and cultured human epithelial cell lines was developed using an enzyme-linked, biotin-streptavidin bacterial-adhesion assay. The present study suggests that this method is suitable for evaluating the participation of lectin interactions in the adhesion of H. pylori to cultured HeLa S3 and Kato III cells, both fixed and glycosidase-treated cells, as well as assessing glycoconjugated binding inhibition studies. The time-course and dose-dependent kinetics of the biotin-labeled H. pylori adhesion th the formaldehyde-fixed Hela S3 and Kato III cell lines exhibited saturation. In addition, the binding of the biotin-labeled H. pylori to the formaldehyde-fixed cultured cells was partially blocked by pre-incubation with glycoconjugates and polyclonal antibodies against a heparan sulfate binding protein from H. pylori.
Dynamic Respiratory Measurements of Corynebacterium glutamicum using Membrane Mass Spectormetry
Wittmann.Christoph ; Yang, Tae-Hoon ; Irene Kochems ; Elmar Heinzle ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 40~49
The present work presents a novel approach for the dynamic quantification of respiration rates on a small scale by using lysine-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21253. Cells sampeld from batch cultures at different times were incubated ina 12-ml scale bioreactor equipped with a membrane mass spectrometer. Under dynamic conditions, gas exchange across the gas-liquid phase, specific respiration rates, and RQ values were precisely measured. For this purpose, suitable mass balances were formulated. The transport coefficients for
, crucial for calculating the respiration activity, were determined as
at 400 rpm. The application of the proposed method to batch cultures of C. glutamicum ATCC 21253 revealed the maximum specific respiration rates of
in the middle of the exponential growth phase after 5 h of cultivation. When the cells changed from growth to lysine production due to the depletion of the essential amino acids theonine, methionine, and leucine,
decreased significantly and RQ increased. The respiration data exhibited an excellent agreement with previous cultivations of the strain . This confirms the potential of the developed approach to realistically reflect the metabolic activities of cells at their point of sampling. The short-term influence of added threonine, methionine, and leucine was highest during the shift from growth to lysine production, where
increased 50% within one minute after the pulse addition of these compounds. Non-growing, yet lysine-producing cells taken from the end of the batch cultivation revealed no metabolic stimulation with the addition of threonine, methionine, and leucine.
Isolation and Characterization of Antibiotic and Heavy Metal-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Different Polluted Waters in Sohag District, Egypt
Soltan, El-Sayed.M. ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 50~55
Different polluted water samples were collected from a wastewater treatment plant, agricultural drainage canals, the River Nile, and irrigation canals. The samples were examined for the enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Sohag area, Egypt over a period of one year. A total of 240 isolates were collected and tested for their resistance to 12 common antibiotics and 6 heavy metals. The isolates were found to be less resistant to norfloxacin(1.7%), ofloxacin(4.6%), amikacin(9.6%), tobramycin (10.4), carbenicillin (15.4), and gentamycin (41.3%), yet more sensitive to rifampicin (75%), kanamycin (89.6%), ampicillin (90.8%), chloramphenicol (91.7%), streptomycin (92.9%), and tetracyclin(96.3%). In contrast, 7.1%, 12.9%, 25.4%, and 53.7% of the isolates were resistant to lead, cadmium, mercury, and zinc, respectively. None of the isolates had developed a resistance to silver or molybdenum. The high frequency of metal-antibiotic double resistance existed between lead and amikacin (56.5%), cadmium and ofloxacin (72.7%), zinc and norfloxacin (100%), and mercury and carbenicillin (94.6%). The high occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in natural water could be related to the widespread use of antibiotics, with possible public health hazard.
Biodegradation of Hydrocarbons by an Organic Solvent-Tolerant Fungus, Cladosporium resinae NK-1
Oh, Ki-Bong ; Mar, Woong-Chon ; Chang, Il-Moo ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 56~60
A kerosene fungus of Cladosporium resinae NK-1 was examined for its ability to degrade individual n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and its organic solvent-tolerance was investigated by making use of the water-organic solvent suspension culture method. It grew on a wide range of solvents of varying hydrophobicities and it was found to have tolerance to various kinds of toxic organic solvents (10%, v/v) such as n-alkanes, cyclohexane, xylene, styrene, and toluene. A hydrocarbon degradation experiment indicated that NK-1 had a greater n-alkane degrading ability compared to that of the other selected strains. C. resinae NK-1, which could utilize 8-16 carbon chain-length n-alkanes of medium chain-length as a carbon source, could not assimilate the shorter chain-length n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons tested so far. The n-alkane degrading enzyme activity was found in the mycelial extract of the organism.
Enhanced Transformation Efficiency of an Anticoagulant Hirudin Gene into Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a Double
Kim, Myoung-Dong ; Yoo, Young-Je ; Rhee, Sang-Ki ; Seo, JIn-Ho ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 61~64
Delta-integration vectors were constructed for the purpose of achieving homologous integration of the hirudin expression cassette into the chromosome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A double
system truncated with the unnecessary bacterial genes, and consequently having a reduced insert size for integration, showed a four-fold increase in transformation efficiency at given DNA concentrations, and as a result, the constructed recombinant yeast strain had a 1.3-fold enhancement in hirudin expression level compared with a single
Cloning and Sequencing of the
Gene from Paenibacillus sp. and Its Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Jeong, Tae-Hee ; Kim, Hee-Ok ; Park, Jeong-Nam ; Lee, Hye-Jin ; Shin, Dong-Jun ; Lee, Hwang-Hee Blaise ; Chun, Soon-Bai ; Bai, Suk ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 65~71
A gene from Paenibacillus sp. KCTC 8848P encoding
was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The Paenibacillus
gene cosisted of a 2,409-bp open reading frame without a translational stop codon, encoding a protein of 803 amino acids. The presumed ribosime-binding site, GGAGG, was located 10 bp upstream from the TTG initiation codon. The deduced amino acid sequence of the
gene had a 95% similarity to the
of Bacillus firmus. The
gene was introduced into wild-type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a linearized yeast integrating vector containing a geneticin resistance gene and its product was secreted into the culture medium.
Analysis of the Formation of Protoplasts and Regeneration of Cells in Phycomyces blakesleeanus
Joe, Fukui ; Choi, Kwan-Sam ; Atsushi Miyazaki ; Tamotsu Ootaki ; Taneaki Oikawa ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 72~78
It is possible ot prepare protoplasts of the zygomycete fungus, Phycomyces blakesleeanus, by digesting the cell wall of spore germlings with commercially available chitinase and chitosanase. However, the cells without any cell walls immediately form large aggregates, and thus, it is difficult to isolate the individually separated protoplasts. Inherent problem with the formation of aggregates in preparing protoplasts could be solved by the use of bovine serum albumin (BSA). As a result, we were able to prepare a large number of single protoplsts quickly and easily. We took time-lapse photomicrographs of the formation of protoplasts, and found that there were certain regions of the cell wall of spore germlings that were sensitive to chitinase and chitosanase, although the cell wall of the original spores is known to be insensitive to these enzymes. There are two kinds of cell walls on a spore germling; one with a bound wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and the other a bound concanavalin A (ConA). Furthermore, only cells with walls which had bound WGA were able to regenerate, while those with walls with bound ConA were not able to regenerate.
Plasmid-Mediated Aniline Assimilation by Pseudomonas sp. B10
El-Deeb, Bahig A. ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 79~84
An aniline-utilizing microorganism identified as a species of Pseudomonas was isolated from soil contaminated highly with aniline and urea-herbicide. This strain was able to utilize aniline as the sole source of carbon and energy, and was shown to harbor a single large plasmid mediating the aniline assimilation. Subsequent plasmid-curing of this bacterium resulted in the abolishment of the aniline utilizing phenotype and the loss of catechol-C2,3O-oxygenase. The reestablishment of the plasmid, denoted pB10, in cured Pseudomonas sp. via filter surface mating, resulted in restoration of the aniline assimilation abilities and enzyme activity.
Isolation of a Promoter Element that is Functional in Bacillus subtilis for Heterologous Gene Expression
Maeng, Chang-Jae ; Kim, Hyung-Kwoun ; Park, Sun-Yang ; Koo, Bon-Tag ; Oh, Tae-Kwang ; Lee, Jung-Kee ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 85~91
To construct an efficient Bacillus subtilis expression vector, strong promoters were isolated from the chromosomal DNA libraries of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 4259, Thermoactinomyces sp. E79, and Bacillus thermoglucosidasius KCTC 3400. The
promoter cloned from the clostridial chromosmal DNA showed a 5-fold higher promoter strength than the
promoter in the expression of the cat gene, and its sequence was estimated as an upstream region of the predicted hypothetical gene (tet-R family bacterial transcription regulator gene) in C. acetobutylicum. As a promoter element,
exhibited putative nucleotide sequences that can bind with bacterial RNAP and the 3'end of the 16S rRNA just upstream of the start codon. In addition, the promoter activity of
was distinctively repressed in the presence of glucose. Using
as the promoter element, a glucose controllable B. subtilis expression vector was constructed and the lipase gene from Staphylococcus haemolyticus KCTC 8957P was expressed in B. subtilis. When compared with the lipase expression by the T7 promoter induced by IPTG in E. coli, the
promoter showed about a 1.5-fold higher expression level in B. subtilis than that without induction.
Effect of Environmental Factors on In Vivo Folding of Bacillus macerans Cyclodextrin Glycosyltransferase in Recombinant Escherichia coli
Jin, Hee-Hyun ; Han, Nam-Soo ; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk ; Park, Yong-Cheol ; Seo, Jin-Ho ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 92~96
Effect of environmental factors on the expression of soluble forms of Bacillus macerans cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase in recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysE:pTCGT1 were investigated. The amount of soluble CGTase produced in the cell was measured by determining its enzymatic activity. The soluble fractionof the enzyme was increased by lowering the culture temperature to
and medium pH to 5.8 compared to the enzyme production in LB medium at
and pH7.0. Addition of 0.2 M NaCl enhanced enzyme expression levels at the expense of cell growth. Glycine betaine that was added after 3 h of induction protected not only the cell growth from hig osmotic pressue but also hepld in vivo folding of CGTase in recombinant E. coli. Addition of 1 mM
was also effective in the expression of soluble CGTase, resulting in 15 U/ml of the enzyme activity.
Estimating the Viability of Bifidobacterium longum in Ca-Alginate Beads Against Simulated Gastroenteric Juices
Lee, Ki-Yong ; Kim, Ji-Youn ; Lee, Yoon-Jong ; Choi, Eon-Ho ; Shin, Dong-Hoon ; Heo, Tae-Ryeon ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 97~105
The viability of Bifidobacterium longum KCTC 3128, entrapped in calcium alginate beds in simulated gastroenteric juices (gastric and bile salt solution), was tested to evaluate the influences of several parameters (gel concentration, bead size, and initial cell number). The death rate of B. longum in beads after being sequentially exposed to simulated gastric juices and bile salt solution decreased propertionally with increasing both the alginate gel concentration and bead size. The number of initial cell loading in beads affected the numbers of survivors after being exposed to these solutions, while the death rate of the viable cells were not affected. From the results obtained, the influence of entrapment parameters on the survival of bifidobacteria was quantitatively and systematically evaluated by using a mathematical method.
Molecular Cloning and Characterization of the
Gene from Bifidobacterium adolescentis Int57
Park, Myeong-Soo ; Yoon, Hyeon-Jin ; Rhim, Seong-Lyul ; Ji, Geun-Eog ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 106~111
gene of Bifidobacterium adolescentis Int57 (INT57) was cloned using the shotgun method. The sequence of the
gene existing in the sequenced 3,260-bp fragment showed higher than 40% homology with other bacterial
genes. The expression in Escherichia coli suggested that the
might have a monomeric, dimeric, or tetrameric protein structure. This is probably the first peer-reviewed sequence analysis of the
gene of the genus Bifidobacterium.
Identification of Yarrowia lipolytica Y103 and Its Degradability of Phenol and 4-Chlorophenol
Lee, Jeong-Soon ; Kang, Eun-Jeong ; Kim, Min-Ok ; Lee, Dong-Hun ; Bae, Kyung-Sook ; Kim, Chi-Kyung ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 112~117
A nonconventional yeast strain Y103 capable of degrading several aromatic hydrocarbons was isolated from the wastewater of the Yocheon industrial complex. The strain Y103 was identified as Yarrowia lipolytica on the basis of its unique dimorphic and biochemical characteristics as determined by a Biolog test. Y. lipolytica Y103 was found to degrade phenol and 4-chlorophenol to produce catechol. The catechol then will be further degraded to produce 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde via meta-cleavage. These results indicate that strain Y103 degrades 4-chlorophenol, phenol, and catechol through a consecutive reaction to produce 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde. The most active degradation of phenol by Y. lipolytica Y103 occurred with a 0.5 mM phenl concentration in an MM2 medium at
and pH 7.0.
Effect of His192 Mutation on the Activity of Alginate Lyase A1-III from Sphingomonas Species A1
Yoon, Hye-Jin ; Choi, Yong-Jin ; Osamu Miyake ; Wataru Hashimoto ; Kousaku Murata ; Bunzo Mikami ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 118~123
The alginate lyase A1-III gene of Sphingomonas species A1 is composed of 1,077 nucleotides, encoding a protein (359 amino acids) with a molecular mass of 40,322 Da. Recombinant A1-III expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited the same full enzymatic activity as native A1-III. In order to identify the critical residue for activity, a site-directed mutation was introduced into the A1-III gene (H192A, His192->Ala). Recombinant A1-III (H192A) exhibited a significant decrease in enzyme activity (one-thirty thousandth of that of A1-III), without any conformational change, as detected by the CD spectra in the far UV region. Also, the chemical modification of wild-type A1-III with methyl 4-nitro benzene sulfonate resulted in a 40% decrease from the initial activity, whereas the same modification of A1-III (H192A) produced no change in the activity. The role of His192 on the catalytic process was also explored based on a model of A1-III docked with mannuronic acid into the active site.
In Vitro Activities of 2,2'-Dipyridyl Against Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, and Gardnerella vaginalis
Ryu, Jae-Sook ; Min, Duk-Young ; Kim, Myeong-Cheol ; Kim, Nam-Sik ; Shin, Myeong-Heon ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 124~130
The in vitro activities of 2,2'-dipyridyl, an iron-chelator, against clinical isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, and Gardnerella vaginalis was evaluated and compared with those of four other vaginal suppositories, ornidazole, clotrimazole, povidone-iodine, and
(Methylbezethonium Chloride mixed with 9-aminoacrydine undecylenate and hydrochloric acid N-myristyl-3-hydroxy butyl amine). The 2,2'-dipyridyl killed T. vaginalis and G. vaginalis at concentrations of
, respectively, however, ths agent was less active against C. albicans (80% of which was inhiited at
). The inhibition of these three pathogens by 2,2'-dipyridyl was similar to clotrimazole. In addition, the effect of 2,2'-dipyridyl on the ultrastructure of T. vaginalis, C. albicans, an G. vaginalis was examined. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that 2,2'-dipyridyl induced modifications of the cellular contents and cell envolope concumitant with the degradation of the three pathogens. These results suggest that 2,2'-dipyridyl has an inhibitory effect on C. albicans and G. vaginalis, as well as T. vaginalis.
Carbon Catabolite Repression (CCR) of Expression of the XylanaseA Gene of Bacillus stearothermophilus No.236
Ha, Gyong-Sik ; Choi, Il-Dong ; Choi, Yong-Jin ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 131~137
Previous work has identified that only the catabolite responsive element A (creA; previously called cre-2) out of two potential cre sequences (cre-1: nucleotide +160 to +173 and cre-2: +173 to +186), recognized within the coding region of the xylanaseA gene (xynA) of Bacillus stearothermophilus No.236, was actually, was actually involved in the carbon catabolite repression(CCR) of xynA expression in B. subtilis. However, the level of CCR of xynA expression in the original B.stearothermophilus No.236 strain (70-fold repression). Therefore, to search for an additional cre element in the promoter region, the upstream region of the xynA gene was subcloned by chromosome walking, and as a result, another potential cre element (nucleotide -124∼-137; designated creB) was recognized in this region. The cre-like sequence revealed a high homology to the cre consensus sequence. The xylanase activity of B. subtilis MW15 bearing pWPBR14 (containing creA and creB) cultured in a medium containing xylose as the sole carbon source was about 7.7 times higher than that observed for the same culture containing glucose. B. subtilis MW15 bearing pWPBR23 (containing only creA) produced an activity about 2.4 times higher. This pattern of CCR was confirmed using derivatives of xynA::aprA fusion plasmids. Furthermore, a measurement of the amounts of the xynA transcript showed a similar pattern as that for the production of xylanase. In addition, the synthesis of xylanase in B. subtilis QB7115 [a catabolite control protein A (ccpA) mutant strain] carrying pWPBR14 was almost completely relieved from glucose repression. Together, these results lead to a conclusion that the CCR of the expression of the xynA gene is mediated by CcpA binding at creA and creB sites in B. subtilis.
Anti-Allergic and Anti-Asthmatic Activity of Helioscopinin-A, a Polyphenol Compound, Isolated from Euphorbia helioscopia
Park, Kwan-Ha ; Koh, Dong-Soo ; Lee, Seung-Ho ; Jung, Ill-Min ; Kim, Kyung-Hyun ; Lee, Chul-Hoon ; Kim, Kye-Hoon ; Lim, Yoong-Ho ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 138~142
During the course of searching for anti-allergic substances from unexplored plant sources, an inhibitor of leukotriene
-induced tracheal contraction was isolated from Euphoribia helioscopia. This isolated polyphenol compound, known as helioscopinin-A, showed a certain inhibitory activity on capillary permeability in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis responses of rats and also on antigen-induced bronchial constriction in an experimental asthma model of guinea pigs. The compound at a high concentration weakly inhibited histamine release from isolated mast cells of rats. It is suggested that this compound is an anti-allergic and anti-asthmatic which exerts its activity through antagonism on leukotrene
-induced responses. A partial inhibition of allergic mediator relase may also bee involved.
Characteristics of B Cell Mitogen Isolated from Korean-Style Fermented Soybean Paste
Lee, Bong-Ki ; Kwak, Yi-Sub ; Jang, Yun-Soo ; Kim, Joo-Deuk ; Chung, Kun-Sub ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 143~152
Korean-style fermented soybean paste (KFSP), Doenjang, is a traditional food that is consumed as a protein source in Korea. Recently, efforts to identify biolgocial response modifiers (BRMs) have been focused on food products. Accordingly, this study which isolated abiologically active substance form KFSP, named KFSP-BRM, ws defined to be aheat-stable carbohydrate with a molecular weight of 2,000 kDa. The biological activity of KFSP-BRM was not inactivated by treatment with an anti-LPS antibody. The oral as well as intraperitoneal treatment of mice with KFSP-BRM significantly enhanced the number of B cells expressing surface significantly enhanced the number of B cells expressing surface immunoglobulins (IgM and IgG). Subsequently, an increased level of immunoglobulins in the sera was also observed. In vitro. KFSP-BRM was found to upregulate the production of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 by mactro phages and B cells but not the production of IL-2 by T cells. In conclusion, these data demonstrate the presence of a BRM in KFSP, which may provide an additional benefit to those consuming it is a food. KFSP-BRM is a novel B cellmitogen distinct from fresh soybean lectin or B cell mitogens, such as LPS and Streptococcus protein A. The major biological effects of KFSP-BRM would appear to be anincreased production of IL-1 and IL-6 by macrophages and B cells, thereby enhancing the function of mature B cells.
Membrane Transporter Genes in Cephabacin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster of Lysobacter lactamgenus
Nam, Doo-Hyun ; Lim, Si-Kyu ; Chung, Min-Ho ; Lee, Eung-Seok ; Sohn, Young-Sun ; Dewey, D.Y. Ryu ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 153~159
In order to clone the peptide synthetase gene form Lysobacter lactamgenus IFO 14,288, the gene fragments were amplified using primers for the adenylation domain and the thionylation domain of the peptide synthetase genes in other organisms by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The resulting 0.5-kb fragment was cloned in a pGEM-T vector, and the nucleotide sequences were determined. Six different PCR products were obtained; three were identified to be a part of L-
-aminoadipyl-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV) synthetase and three to be other peptide synthetases. Using each of the two different classes of PCR products as mixed probes, a cosmid library of L. lactamgenus chromosomal DNA constructed in a pHC79 vector was screened by an in situ hybridization procedure, and one positive clone was selected which was bound by peptide synthetase gene fragments as well as ACV synthetase gene fragments. The partial sequence analysis formt he obtained pPTS-5 cosmid showed th presence of more than two open reading frames. These were for two putative membrane transporters, which were homologous with several integral membrane proteins including the ABC transporter ATP-binding protein of E. coli (YbjZ) and the metal ion uptake protein of Bacillus subtilis (YvrN). A 45% homology was also found between the two transporter proteins at the carboxy terminus. Through a hydropathy analysis and transmembrane analysis. 4-5 transmembrane domains were found in these two proteins. When the genes were expressed in Escherichia coli, the gene products inhibited the hose cell growth, probably due to the disturbance of the membrane transport system.
Comparison of the Chemotaxis Potential of Bacteria Isolated from Spinach Roots and Nonrhizosphere Soil
Kim, Jong-Shik ; Masao Sakai ; Lee, Si-Kyung ; Yahng, Chahng-Sook ; Tatsuhiko Matsuguchi ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 160~163
In order to investigate the role of bacterial chemotaxis in root colonization, the chemotaxis potential of bacteria isolated from spinach roots was compared with that of bacteria from nonhizosphere soil, with reference to the plant age (1,000 isolates), soil moisture conditons (1,400 isolates), and part of the root (200 isolates). The % CT (% occurrence of chemotaxis (+) isolates among total bacterial isoltes) of the root isolates significantlyfluctuated during the plant growth period, reaching a maximum after 10-15 days of growth. At this time period, the maximum % CT for the root isolates was around 70-80% CT under a soil moisture 50% WFP (% volume of water-filled pores in total soil pores), and then gradually reduced with an increasing % WFP. The results of the chemotaxis potential of each of the 100 islates from the spinach roots and nonrhizosphere soil under various % WFP demonstrated that the % CT of the root isolates were significantly higher than those of solates from the nonrhizosphere soil under a wide range of soil moisture content (35-80% WFP). Furthermore, the % CT value (80%) from the upper root was significantly higher than tht (55%) from the lower root. Compared with the % CT values of the roots, the values from the nonrhizosphere soil did not significantly vary relative to the plant age of % WFP. These results indicate that chemotaxis would appear to be a major factor in bacterial root colonization.
Prediction of the Secondary Structure of the AgfA Subunit of Salmonella enteritidis Overexpressed as an MBP-Fused Protein
Won, Mi-Sun ; Kim, So-Youn ; Lee, Seung-Hwan ; Kim, Chul-Jung ; Kim, Hyun-Su ; Jun, Moo-Hyung ; Song, Kyung-Bin ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 164~166
To examine the characteristics of the recombinant thin aggregative fimbriae of Salmonella, the AgfA subunit gene was amplified from Salmonella enteritidis using a PCR. The maltose binding protein (MBP)-AgfA fusion protein was overproduced in E. coli and purified. The secondary structure of AgfA was then elucidated from the difference CD spectra. An estimation of the secondary structure of AgfA using the self-consistent method revealed a mostly
A Preliminary Study on the Hypoglycemic Effect of the Exo-Polymers Produced by Five Different Medicinal Mushrooms
Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Yang, Byung-Keun ; Jeong, Sang-Chul ; Hur, Nam-Jung ; Surajit Das ; Yun, Jong-Won ; Choi, Jang-Won ; Lee, Yong-Se ; Song, Chi-Hyun ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 11, issue 1, 2001, Pages 167~171
The Hypoglycemic effect of exo-polymers (EPs) produced from submerged mycelial cultures of five types of mushrooms on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were investigated in this study. The five experimental groups were fed with EPs (50 mg/kg body weight) for 7 days. Significant reduction in plasma glucose, total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG) levels were observed in rats fed with Lentinus edodes and Cordyceps militaris EPs. Plasma glucose and TC were also reduced by administration of Phellinus linteus EPs, but the TG level was not changed significantly. The EPs of three mushroom species also demonstrated a marked reduction in the level of plasma glutamate-pyruvate transminase (GPT). The result proves the hypoglycemic activity of EPs of three fungal group in STZ-induced diabetic rats and indicates their potential in the control of diabetes mellitus.