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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Dec 2004
Volume 14, Issue 5 - Oct 2004
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Aug 2004
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Jun 2004
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Apr 2004
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Feb 2004
Selecting the target year
Study of Thermostable Chitinase Enzymes from Indonesian Bacillus K29-14
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 647~652
Thermophilic microorganisms capable of producing chitinase enzymes were screened from samples collected from several crater and geothermal areas. The chitinolytic microorganisms were grown in a selective medium containing colloidal chitin. The Bacillus K29-14 isolate was found to exhibit the highest chitinase and chitin deacetylase activities. When grown in a chitin-containing medium, the isolate produced extracellular chitinase after 24 h of incubation. The optimum temperature and pH for the chitinase were
and pH 7, respectively, while those for the chitin deacetylase were
and pH 8, respectively. The thermostable chitinase and chitin deacetylase also retained 80- 90% of their activity after incubation for 5 h at
. The divalent cations
, increased the chitinase activity, while
, inhibited the enzyme. The chitin deacetylase was also activated by the presence of
and inhibited by
. A zymogram analysis revealed several forms of chitinase, with a 67 kDa form being the major enzyme.
Improved Plant Growth from Seed Bacterization Using Siderophore Overproducing Cold Resistant Mutant of Pseudomonas fluorescens
Katiyar, Vandana ; Goel, Reeta ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 653~657
The cold resistant mutants of P. fluorescens strain
and ATCC13525 were developed which could grow equally well at
. All the mutants were tested for siderophore production, of which
(ATCC13525 mutant) was selected, as there was a 16.8-fold increase when compared to its wild-type. Under in vitro conditions,
showed better growth promotion both in wheat (29.1% increase in root length) and mung bean (51.5% increase in root length) at
. Greenhouse trials showed a significant increase in root (13.84cm) and shoot (15.0cm) length of
-treated mung bean seeds, indicating increased rhizocompetence of the mutant. Ferric citrate was a better iron source than ferric hydroxide for plant growth.
Macrophage Stimulating Activity of Exo-Biopolymer from Submerged Culture of Lentinus edodes with Rice Bran
Yu, Kwang-Won ; Shin, Kwang-Soon ; Choi, Yang-Mun ; Suh, Hyung-Joo ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 658~664
To find a new utilization of rice bran, nine higher fungi were examined for the production of exo-biopolymer with macrophage stimulating activity from rice bran. Among the exo-biopolymers produced from submerged cultures, Lentinus edodes showed the highest activity, followed by Grifola frondosa, Schizophyllum commune, and Coriolus versicolor. L. edodes also had the most potent macrophage stimulating activity in a liquid culture rather than in a solid culture. In order to improve rice bran utilization and the yield of exo-biopolymer with macrophage stimulating activity, the treatment of Rapidase effectively increased the macrophage stimulating activity (about 30% increase), whereas the other enzymes (Econase, Viscozyme, Ultraflo, Celluclast, and Thermylase) treatments did not increase the macrophage stimulating activity. Exo-biopolymer with macrophage stimulating activity from L. edodes contained mainly neutral sugars (58.7%) with considerable amounts of uronic acid (32.2%) and a small amount of proteins (9.1%). Component sugars of exo-biopolymer consisted of mainly arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, and xylose (0.95:0.81:0.96:1.00:0.39, respectively). When the exo-biopolymer was treated with
, and pronase, the
treatment and pronase digestion had little effect, whereas
oxidation significantly decreased the macrophage stimulating activity (47.6% reduction at
). Therefore, the carbohydrate moiety in exo-biopolymer from L. edodes plays an important role in the expression of the macrophage stimulating activity.
Optimization of Culture Conditions for D-Ribose Production by Transketolase-Deficient Bacillus subtilis JY1
Park, Yong-Cheol ; Seo, Jin-Ho ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 665~672
D-Ribose is a five-carbon sugar used for the commercial synthesis of riboflavin, antiviral agents, and flavor enhancers. Batch fermentations with transketolase-deficient B. subtilis JY1 were carried out to optimize the production of D-ribose from xylose. The best results for the fermentation were obtained with a temperature of
and an initial pH of 7.0. Among various sugars and sugar alcohols tested, glucose and sucrose were found to be the most effective for both cell growth and D-ribose production. The addition of 15 g/l xylose and 15 g/l glucose improved the fermentation performance, presumably due to the adequate supply of ATP in the xylose metabolism from D-xylulose to D-xylulose-5-phosphate. A batch culture in a 3.7-1 jar fermentor with 14.9 g/l xylose and 13.1 g/l glucose resulted in 10.1 g/l D-ribose concentration with a yield of 0.62 g D-ribose/g sugar consumed, and 0.25 g/l-h of productivity. Furthermore, the sugar utilization profile, indicating the simultaneous consumption of xylose and glucose, and respiratory parameters for the glucose and sucrose media suggested that the transketolase-deficient B. subtilis JY1 lost the glucose-specific enzyme II of the phosphoenolpyruvate transferase system.
Studies on the Development of a Microbial Cryoprotectant Formulation Using a W/O/W Multiple Emulsion System
Bae, Eun-Kyung ; Cho, Young-Hee ; Park, Ji-Yong ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 673~679
A microbial cryoprotectant formulation using a W/O/W multiple emulsion system was developed. The psychrotolerant microorganism, B4, isolated from soil in South Korea, was observed by the drop freezing method, in which the microorganism sample inhibited ice nucleation activity. The antifreeze activity was eliminated when the microorganism sample was treated with protease, indicating that the antifreeze activity was due to the presence of antifreeze protein. The result of the l6S rDNA sequencing indicated the B4 strain was most closely related to a species of the genus Bacillus. Culture broth of B4 strain (Bacillus sp.) and rapeseed oil containing 1 % polyglycerine polyricinolate (PGPR) were used as core and wall material, respectively. The most stable W/O emulsion was prepared at a core/oil ratio of 1:2. The highest W/O/W emulsion stability was achieved when the primary emulsion to external aqueous phase containing 0.5% caster oil polyoxyethylene ether
ratio was 1:1. Microcrystalline cellulose showed better W/O/W emulsion stability than other polymer types. The viability of cells in a W/O/W emulsion was higher than free cells during storage at
. An acidic pH and UV exposure decreased the viability of free cells, but cells in W/O/W emulsion were more stable under these conditions.
Weissella confusa Strain PL9001 Inhibits Growth and Adherence of Genitourinary Pathogens
Lee, Yeon-Hee ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 680~685
The capability of lactic acid bacteria (LABs) to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and vaginal epithelial cells is an important factor in the formation of a barrier to prevent the colonization of pathogenic bacteria. In addition, the ability to coaggregate with pathogens and production of antimicrobial agents also allow LABs to fight against pathogens. In this work, Weissella confusa PL9001 was tested for its ability to inhibit the growth and adherence of genitourinary pathogens, including Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), isolated from the urine of hospitalized female patients. W. confusa PL9001 was found to coaggregate with the four pathogens, as observed with a light microscope and scanning electron microscope. In competition, exclusion, and displacement tests, the adherence of the pathogens to T24 bladder epithelial cells was also inhibited by W. confusa PL9001. Accordingly, these results suggest that W. confusa PL9001 is potentially useful for both preventive and therapeutic treatment of genitourinary infections.
Comparison of Properties of Polyclonal Anti-N-Acetylchitooligosaccharides and Anti-Chitooligosaccharides Antibodies Produced for ELISA
Shim, Youn-Young ; Shon, Dong-Hwa ; Kwak, Bo-Yeon ; Yu, Jae-Hoon ; Chee, Kew-Mahn ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 686~692
To develop the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the analysis of N-acetylehitooligosaccharides (NACOS) and chitooligosaccharides (COS), specific antibodies (Abs) were produced, and their properties were compared. N-acetylehitohexaose (NACOS6), chitohexaose (COS6), and COS mixture (COSM) conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used to immunize rabbits. By the use of specific Abs and NACOS6-horseradish peroxidase (HRP), COS6-HRP, and COSM-HRP conjugates, competitive direct ELISA (cdELISA) was developed. The detection limits of NACOS6 by the anti-NACOS6 Ab and COS6 by the anti-COS6 and the anti-COSM Abs in the cdELISAs were about 0.2, 2, ana 2 ng/ml (ppb), respectively. In the cdELISA, the anti-NACOS6 Ab was found to recognize NACOS3-NACOS6, but not N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), NACOS2, and COSs; the anti-COS6 Ab recognized COS2-COS6 and COSM, but not glucosamine (GlcN) and NACOSs. The recognition pattern of the anti-COSM Ab was almost the same as that of the anti- COS6 Ab, except that the former recognized COS2 and COS3 slightly better than the latter.
Anti-Candida Activity of YH-1715R, a New Triazole Derivative
Park, Kang-Sik ; Kang, Heui-Il ; Lee, Jong-Wook ; Paik, Young-Ki ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 693~697
YH-1715R, (2R,3R)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(3-methoxy-1,2,4-isothiazol-3-yl-thio)-1-( 1H-1,2,4-triazol-l-yl)-2-butanol, a new triazole derivative obtained by the structural modification of fluconazole, was found to exhibit potent anti-Candida activity against a wide variety of Candida albicans (C. albicans) (MIC: 0.4-12.5 mg/l). To investigate the mode of action of YH-1715R, its effect on ergosterol biosynthesis in cell-free extracts and whole cells of C. albicans was examined. The inhibitory activity of YH-1715R was approximately ten-fold higher than that of fluconazole. To determine the primary action mechanism of YH-1715R, its inhibitory activity against lanosterol
-DM), a major target for azole, was measured using gas-liquid chromatography. YH-1715R and fluconazole were found to inhibit 14a-DM with an
M and 0.01
M, respectively, plus the mode of inhibition of YH-1715R and fluconozole was noncompetitive with a
M and 0.0975
Characterization and Food Application of a Potentiometric Biosensor Measuring
Park, In-Seon ; Kim, Dong-Kyung ; Kim, Nam-Soo ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 698~706
-Lactam antibiotics such as penicillin G, amoxicillin, and ampicillin were determined by a potentiometric biosensor system which exploited penicillinase immobilized on Immobilon cellulose nitrate membrane and a flat-bottomed pH electrode-as the biological component and transducer. The optimum reaction buffer for maximum sensitivity was found as 2 mM of sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.2). The detection limit of the biosensor could be extended to 1
of the analytes by increasing the enzyme loading for immobilization to 100 units/
. The model samples spiked with each of the standard penicillins were measured for their biosensor responses and HPLC peak area, resulting in the relative responses of 82.1-103.5% and 79.5-106.1% for the biosensor method along with HPLC analysis, respectively. This result showed a good precision of the current biosensor method for screening the penicillin compounds.
Comparative Study of Seeding and Culture Methods to Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells on Biodegradable Scaffold
Kim, Dong-Ik ; Park, Hee-Jung ; Eo, Hyun-Seoun ; Suh, Soo-Won ; Hong, Ji-Hee ; Lee, Min-Jae ; Kim, Jong-Sung ; Jang, In-Sung ; Kim, Byung-Soo ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 707~714
How to improve the cell culture method on scaffolds is important in the tissue engineering fileld. In this study, we optimized seeding and culture methods to vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) on biodegradable polymer scaffold. The primary culture of VSMCs obtained from canine external jugular vein was accomplished by applying the explant-derived method. The primary cultured VSMCs were seeded into scaffolds and then cultured by using various different methods; static or dynamic seeding, static or dynamic culture. The difference in proliferative response of VSMCs was analyzed with an alamar blue assay. Cell-polymer construct was examined by histochemical method and scanning electron microscopy. Mesh type scaffold (
) was made of polyglycolic acid (PGA) suture thread. The PGA mesh type scaffold was 45% in porosity, and 0.03 g in weight. The primary cultured VSMCs were confirmed with immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal anti-
-smooth muscle actin. The density and distribution of proliferated VSMCs within the scaffold and cellular adherence on the surface of the scaffold showed better results in the static seeding condition than in the dynamic condition. Under the same condition of seeding method as the static condition, the dynamic culture condition showed enhanced proliferation rates of the VSMCs when compared to the static culture condition. In conclusion, to improve the VSMCs proliferation in vitro, static seeding is better than the dynamic condition. In the culture condition, however, culture under the dynamic status is better than the static condition. This was a pilot study to manufacture artificial vascular vessel by tissue engineering.
Potential Antioxidant Peptides in Rice Wine
Rhee, Sook-Jong ; Lee, Chung-Yung J. ; Kim, Mi-Ryung ; Lee, Cherl-Ho ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 715~721
Many food protein hydrolysates have been shown to have antioxidant activities, and recent research focuses on low molecular peptides produced during hydrolysis of food protein. Korean rice wine contains about 60-70% of protein at dry base and originates from raw materials. It has been suggested that the protein is transformed into low molecular weight peptides, and have antioxidant activity during fermentation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the pre-purified and purified peptides found in Korean rice wine and to identify the responsible peptides. The wine extract of Samhaeju, a traditional Korean rice wine made by low temperature fermentation, was evaporated at
. The two methods employed in the evaluation of antioxidant activity were the DPPH radical scavenging method and the beta-carotene bleaching test. The pre-purified samples showed 808 AAC (Antioxidant Activity Coefficient) and 56.5% AOA (Antioxidant Activity), which were higher than
-tocopherol (572 AAC and 78% AOA). The rice wine extract was separated by reversed-phase HPLC. The protective effect of the four most antioxidant active fractions were tested for t-butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidation of healthy human erythrocytes and the byproduct was determined by malondialdehyde formation. Fraction No.5 showed 35% lower MDA concentration as compared to the control. The peptides were further purified using consecutive chromatographic methods and 4 antioxidant peptides were isolated. The amino acid sequences of the peptides were identified as Ile-His-His, Val- Val-His(Asn), Leu-Val-Pro, and Leu(Val)-Lys-Arg-Pro. The AAC value of the synthetic form of the identified peptides was the highest for Ile-His-His.
Effect of Leptin on the Expression of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Chemokine KC mRNA in the Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages
Lee, Dong-Eun ; Kim, Hyo-Young ; Song, In-Hwan ; Kim, Sung-Kwang ; Seul, Jung-Hyun ; Kim, Hee-Sun ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 722~729
Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone and its plasma levels correlate with total body fat mass, however, it also plays a regulatory role in immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. Chemokine is known as a chemoattractant cytokine in inflammatory reaction, but its role in leptin reaction has not been well studied. In this study, the direct effect of leptin on the expression of chemokine mRNAs and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chemokine KC mRNA in mouse peritoneal macrophages was investigated. Leptin did not induce the expression of lymphotactin, RANTES, eotaxin, MIP-1
, MIP-2, MCP-1, IP-10, TCA-3, and KC mRNA in mouse peritoneal macrophages, and had no direct effect on the expression of these LPS-induced chemokine mRNAs except KC mRNA. The synergistic effect of leptin on the expression of LPS-induced KC mRNA occurred late in the time course of response to LPS. The increased expressions of Ob-Rb mRNA and leptin receptor protein were detected during the LPS treatment. Leptin produced a substantial increase in the stability of the LPS-induced KC mRNA, and the synergistic effect of leptin on LPS-induced KC mRNA expression was further augmented by cycloheximide (CHX). Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) did not block the synergistic effect of leptin on LPS-induced KC mRNA expression in mouse peritoneal macrophages. These data suggest that although leptin has no direct effect on the expression of lymphotactin, RANTES, eotaxin, MIP-1
, MIP-2, MCP-1, IP-10, TCA-3, and KC mRNA in mouse peritoneal macrophages, the synergistic effect of leptin on the expression of LPS-induced KC mRNA has the possibility that LPS might induce the expression of the Ob-Rb receptor or an unknown gene(s) that sensitizes macrophages to the synergistic function of leptin. Therefore, further studies are necessary to examine leptin as a regulatory factor of chemokine production.
Isolation, Physiological Characterization of Bacteriophages from Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Activated Sludge and Their Putative Role
Lee, Sang-Hyon ; Satoh, Hiroyasu ; Katayama, Hiroyuki ; Mino, Takashi ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 730~736
This study aims at characterizing the bacteriophages isolated from activated sludge performing enhanced biological phosphorous removal (EBPR) to understand the interactions between the phage-host system and bacterial community. Sixteen bacterial isolates (E1-E16) were isolated as host bacterial strains from EBPR activated sludge for phage isolation. Forty bacteriophages based on their plaque sizes (2 plaques on E4, 4 on E8, 11 on E10, 5 on E14, 18 on E16) were obtained from filtered supernatant of the EBPR activated sludge. Each bacteriophage did not make any plaque on bacterial strains tested in this study except on its own host bacterial strain, respectively, indicating that the bacteriophages are with narrow host specificity. However, fourteen of the forty bacteriophages obtained in this study lost their virulent ability even on their own host bacteria. All of the lytic phages showed similar one-step growth patterns and had long latent period (about 9 hours) to reproduce their phage particles in their host bacterial cells. On the other hand, their probable burst sizes (6 to 48 per host cell) were large enough to actively lyse their host bacterial cells. Therefore, it could be implied that bacteriophages are also important members of the microbial community in EBPR activated sludge, and lytic phages directly decrease the population size of their host bacterial groups in EBPR activated sludge by lysis.
Simultaneous Detection and Differentiation of Vairimorpha spp. and Nosema spp. by Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
Choi, Ji-Young ; Je, Yeon-Ho ; Kim, Jong-Gill ; Choi, Young-Cheol ; Kim, Won-Tae ; Kim, Keun-Young ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 737~744
A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed for the simultaneous detection and differentiation among Vairimorpha spp. and Nosema spp. and identification of Vairimorpha necatrix from Lepidoptera insects. Three sets of primers were selected from different genomic sequences to specifically amplify an 831 bp amplicon within the SSU rRNA gene, specific for both Vairimorpha spp. and Nosema spp. (MSSR primer); a 542 bp amplicon within the SSU rRNA gene, specific for Vairimorpha spp. (VSSU primer); and a 476 bp amplicon within the actin gene, specific for Vairimorpha necatrix (VNAG primer). Using the primers in conjunction with multiplex PCR, it was possible to detect Vairimorpha spp. and Nosema spp. and to differentiate between them. The sensitivity of this PCR assay was approximately 10 spores per milliliter. It is proposed that the multiplex PCR is a sensitive, specific, and rapid tool that can serve as a useful differential diagnostic tool for detecting Vairimorpha spp. and Nosema spp. in Lepidoptera insect.
A Collaborative Study on Korean Standard JE Vaccine for Potency Assay
Kim, Jae-Ok ; Shin, Jin-Ho ; Baek, Sun-Young ; Min, Kyung-Il ; Min, Bok-Soon ; Ryu, Seung-Rel ; Kim, Byoung-Guk ; Kim, Do-Keun ; Ahn, Mi-Jin ; Park, Mi-Kyung ; Song, Hye-Won ; Lee, Chung-Keel ; Lee, Seok-Ho ; Park, Sue-Nie ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 745~750
The objective of this collaborative study was to establish a Korean standard of Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine (mouse brain-derived, formalin-inactivated) for potency assay. A candidate preparation proposed as a Korean standard was provided by GreenCross Vaccine, and six laboratories, including one national control laboratory and five manufacturers of JE vaccine, participated in the study. The potency of the candidate preparation and a reference standard obtained from Japan was estimated by mouse immunogenicity assay using the in vitro plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). The results of 72 assays conducted by the 6 laboratories showed that the overall mean potency estimate of the candidate preparation was 2.455 log median plaque reduction neutralization antibody titer per 0.5-ml dosage administered twice in mice at 7-day intervals, and that the mean potency ratio of the candidate preparation relative to the reference standard was 1.074. The potency estimates were quite variable among laboratories irrespective of the preparation. The variability of assays assessed by Z scores and coefficient of variation (CV) were in general within the level of acceptance (Z scores within
). Therefore, we concluded that the candidate preparation would be suitable as a national standard for testing the potency of JE vaccine (inactivated).
Purification and Properties of Non-Cariogenicity Sugar Produced by Alkalophilic Bacillus sp. S-1013
Ryu, Il-Hwan ; Kim, Sun-Sook ; Lee, Kap-Sang ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 751~758
The NCS(Non-Cariogenicity Sugar) from Bacillus sp. S-1013 was purified by cold acetone and methanol precipitation, and DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange and Sephadex G-100 column chromatographies, to yield an amorphous yellow syrup. The melting point and
and +53, respectively. Instrumental analyses such as FT-IR,
showed that the NCS contained an O-H group, C-H, C=O,
, anomeric carbon, anomeric proton, N-acetylgalactose, fucose, and neuramic acid, thus, the NCS was determined to be a trisaccharide of Fuc(
Anti-Cariogenicity of NCS (Non-Cariogenicity Sugar) Produced by Alkalophilic Bacillus sp. S-1013
Ryu, Il-Hwan ; Kim, Sun-Sook ; Lee, Kap-Sang ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 759~765
The NCS inhibited the activity of glucosyltransferase which was produced by Streptococcus mutans JC-2, and the rate of inhibition at $100\muM<$ and
were 74.0% and 99.8%, respectively. It was stable in alkali condition, but unstable in acid condition. It was also stable up to
. The kinetic study of the inhibition by NCS was carried out by Lineweaver-Burk plot and Dixon plot. It was non-competitive inhibition, determined by the two plots and
respectively. The NCS did not show cytotoxicity against human gingival cells at
M) concentrations. It had less cytotoxicity than chlohexidin, which has usually been used as the agent of anticaries. To evaluate the industrial applicability of the NCS, human pluck tooth was used. The inhibitory rates of tooth calcification and calcium ion elution by the NCS were 41 % and 2.5 times, respectively. These results suggested that NCS from Bacillus sp. S-1013 is an efficient anticaries agent.
C-Ring Cleavage of Isoflavones Daidzein and Genistein by a Newly-Isolated Human Intestinal Bacterium Eubacterium ramulus Julong 601
Wang, Xiu-Ling ; Kim, Ki-Tae ; Lee, Je-Hyeon ; Hur, Hor-Gil ; Kim, Su-Il ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 766~771
Julong 601, a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium strain capable of cleaving the C-ring of isoflavones daidzein and genistein, was isolated from human feces. BLAST search revealed that its complete 16S rDNA gene sequence has 99% similarity to Eubacterium ramulus. Metabolites of daidzein and genistein were determined as O-desmethylangolensin (O-Dma) and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid (2-HPPA), respectively, based on UV, EI-MS, and
NMR spectral analyses. Enantiomers of O-Dma and 2-HPPA were isolated by chiral stationary-phase HPLC (CSP HPLC). Cleavage of the C-ring of daidzein and genistein by strain Julong 601 was highly enantioselective. Specific rotation ([
) and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the enantiomers are reported here for the first time. Biotransformation kinetics of daidzein and genistein indicated that the C-ring of genistein has a higher susceptibility to bacterial degradation than that of daidzein.
Characterization and Identification of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis SR6 and SR8
Kim, Il-Gi ; Lee, Jae-Wook ; Suh, Suk-Chul ; Rhim, Seong-Lyul ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 772~776
Physiological and molecular characteristics of Bacillus thuringiensis SR6 and SR8 were investigated, and phase contrast and electron microscopies revealed that a large rhomboidal crystal protein was present in the sporulating cells. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses showed that B. thuringiensis SR8 produced 70 kDa protein much more than other proteins, and that the 70 kDa protein could bind to the antibody of B. thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis-crystal toxin protein, indicating that the crystal 70 kDa protein has an immunological homology with B. thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis-crystal toxin protein. The DNA fragment of B. thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis-toxin gene was detected in B. thuringiensis SR6 and SR8 by using PCR amplification analysis. Furthermore, the insect bioassay showed the insecticidal activity against Colorado potato beetle larvae. Based on the physiological and molecular similarities to B. thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis, it is suggested that the B. thuringiensis SR6 and SR8 may be mutants of the B. thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis strain overexpressing the crystal of 70 kDa toxin protein.
Overexpression of Arylsulfatase in E. coli and Its Application to Desulfatation of Agar
Lim, Jae-Myung ; Jang, Yeon-Hwa ; Kim, Hyeung-Rak ; Kim, Young-Tae ; Choi, Tae-Jin ; Kim, Joong-Kyun ; Nam, Soo-Wan ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 777~782
The arylsulfatase gene (astA, 984 bp ORF) from the P. carrageenovora genome was amplified by PCR and subcloned into the pET21a vector. When the constructed plasmid pAST-A1 (6.4 kb) was introduced into E. coli BL21(DE3), the transformant on the LB plate containing IPTG showed a hydrolyzing activity for 4-methylumbelliferyl sulfate and p-nitrophenyl sulfate. The highest arylsulfatase activity (2.1 unit/ml) was obtained at 10 mM IPTG. Most arylsulfatase activity was found in the cell lysate, whereas no significant activity was detected in the culture supernatant. The molecular weight of the recombinant enzyme was estimated to be 33.1 kDa by SDS-PAGE. After the reaction of agar with arylsulfatase for 12 h at
, the gel strength of the agar increased by 2-fold, and 73% of the sulfate in the agar had been removed. This result suggests that arylsulfatase expressed in E. coli could be useful in the production of electrophoretic grade agarose.
Production of Recombinant Proteins as Immuno-Analytical Markers of Genetically-Modified Organisms (GMO)
Hwang, Ok-Hwa ; Park, Hyuk-Gu ; Paek, Eui-Hwan ; Paek, Se-Hwan ; Park, Won-Mok ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 783~788
Marker proteins of genetically-modified organisms (GMO) and their antibodies were prepared and characterized as major components of an analytical system. We selected two GMO markers, neomycin phosphotransferase II and 5- enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, and produced them from E. coli employing genetic recombination technology. After purification, their structural conformation and binding affinities to the respective antibodies were characterized. The results showed that the recombinant proteins were identical with commercially obtained reference proteins. We further used them as immunogens to raise polyclonal antibodies capable of discriminating GMO containing protein from non-GMO. Well-characterized marker proteins and antibodies will be valuable as immunoreagents in constructing analytical systems such as biosensors and biochips to measure quantities of GMO.
Isolation and Characterization of Transcriptional Elements from Corynebacterium glutamicum
Park, Soo-Dong ; Lee, Sang-Nam ; Park, Ik-Hyun ; Choi, Jong-Su ; Jeong, Wol-Kyu ; Kim, Youn-Hee ; Lee, Heung-Shick ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 789~795
A promoter-probe shuttle vector pSK1Cat was constructed for the isolation of transcriptional signal sequences from Corynebacterium glutamicum. Besides conferring resistance to kanamycin in Escherichia coli and C. glutamicum, the vector carried a promoterless cat gene to confer resistance to chloramphenicol upon insertion of the appropriate transcriptional signals in the multiple cloning site. By utilizing the vector, a series of transcriptionally active fragments were isolated from the genome of C. glutamicum. The clones, ranging from 200 bp to 1 kb in size, were grouped into 3 classes of strong, medium, and weak, based on the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity and sensitivity to the chloramphenicol of the clone-carrying C. glutamicum cells. C. glutamicum cells carrying the
clone, a representative in the strong class, were able to grow on minimal agar plates containing over
chloramphenicol, and showed CAT activity of 10 m㏖/mgㆍmin, performing slightly better than the cells carrying
, a strong E. coli promoter. Subcloning analysis of the
clone identified a 180 bp intergenic fragment (
), which was located upstream of a gene encoding a hypothetical membrane protein. The expression conferred by
was not affected by either the kinds of carbon sources or changes in temperature. These properties make the
clone useful for the deregulated expression of biosynthetic genes in C. glutamicum during amino acid fermentation.
Anti-Obesity and Hypolipidemic Effects of Dietary Levan in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats
Kang, Soon-Ah ; Hong, Kyung-Hee ; Jang, Ki-Hyo ; Kim, So-Hye ; Lee, Kyung-Hee ; Chang, Byung-Il ; Kim, Chul-Ho ; Choue, Ryo-Won ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 796~804
We found previously that dietary high fat caused obesity, and levan supplementation to the regular diet reduced adiposity and serum lipids. In the present study, we examined the effects of levan [high-molecular-mass
-(2,6)-linked fructose polymer] supplement on the development of obesity and lipid metabolism in rats fed with high-fat diet. Thus, to determine whether the dietary levan may have the anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects, 4-wk-old Sprague Dawley male rats were fed with high-fat diet for 6 wk to induce obesity, and subsequently fed with 0, 1, 5, or 10% levan supplemented high-fat diets (w/w) for another 4 wk. For the comparison, a normal control group was fed with AIN-76A diet. Supplementation with levan resulted in a significant reduction of high-fat-induced body weight gain, white fat (i.e., epididymal, visceral, and peritoneal fat) development, adipocyte hypertrophy, and the development of hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia in a dose-dependent manner. Serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels were greatly reduced by levan supplementation. Serum total cholesterol level was reduced, whereas the HDL cholesterol level was increased by dietary levan. The expression of uncoupling protein (UCP) was increased by dietary high fat, and was further induced by levan supplementation. The mRNA level of UCP1, 2, and 3 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and UCP3 in skeletal muscle was upregulated in rats fed with dietary levan. In conclusion, upregulated UCP mRNA expression may contribute to suppression of development of obesity through increased energy expenditure. The present results suggest that levan supplementation to the diet is beneficial in suppressing diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidemia.
Antimite Activity of Cumin Volatiles Against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae)
Lee, Hoi-Seon ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 805~809
The antimite activities of cumin seed oil-derived cuminaldehyde and eleven commercial components of Cuminum cyminum oil were examined against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus adults and compared with those of benzyl benzoate and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide. Responses varied according to dose and mite species. On the basis of
values, the compound most toxic to D. farinae adults was cuminaldehyde (
) followed by benzyl benzoate (
), thymol (
), DEET (
), and 3-carene (
). Against D. pteronyssinus adults, cuminaldehyde (
) was much more effective than benzyl benzoate (
) thymol (
), DEET (
), and 3-carene (
). These results indicate that the antimite activity of cumin seed oil could be caused by cuminaldehyde. Cuminaldehyde was about 3.9 and 3.4 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate against D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus adults, respectively. Therefore, further study is needed to confirm the findings of this study and the possibility of cuminaldehyde as a house dust mite control agent or a lead compound.
High-Level Expression of Recombinant Human Interleukin-2 in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Using the Expression System Containing Transcription Terminator
Kim, Eun-Ju ; Kim, Dong-Jun ; Hwang, Hye-Yeon ; Yoon, Jae-Seung ; Yoon, Ye-Up ; Baek, Kwang-Hee ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 810~815
Many biological properties and the clinical potential of human interleukin-2 (hIL-2) draw much attention to its high-level expression in mammalian cells. Recombinant human IL-2 (rhIL-2) was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, using the recently developed expression system which confers position-independent expression. Stable CHO cell lines carrying several hundred amplified copies of the rhIL-2 gene were easily obtained and rhIL-2 was expressed at high levels after selection with increasing concentrations of methotrexate. Interestingly, the insertion of the transcription terminator of the human gastrin gene into the downstream region of the gene for rhIL-2 considerably increased rhIL-2 expression. Using the expression system with the transcription terminator, it was possible to get a CHO cell line expressing the rhIL-2 at a very high level, about
cell/day, which is about 6 times higher than that previously reported. The biological activity of the rhIL-2 protein purified from the cell line was also confirmed by the cell proliferation assay.
Molecular Identification of Asian Isolates of Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceum by Phylogenetic Analysis of Nuclear ITS rDNA
Park, Hyuk-Gu ; Ko, Han-Gyu ; Kim, Seong-Hwan ; Park, Won-Mok ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 816~821
A reliable molecular phylogenetic method to identify Hericium erinaceum, the most industrially valuable species in the Hericium genus, was established. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the PCR-amplified ITS and 5.8S rDNA from Hericium fungi, including 6 species and 23 isolates, showed that variation in nucleotide sequences and size exists in both ITS1 and ITS2 regions, but not in the 5.8S region. These two ITS regions provided different levels of information on the relationship of H. erinaceum to other Hericium species. Based on the ITS1 sequence, both the parsimony and neighbor joining trees clearly distinguished Asian H. erinaceum isolates from other Hericium species and isolates. The intraspecific divergence of the ITS2 region was suitable to dissect the Asian H. erinaceum isolates into a few groups.
Genes for the Catabolism of Deoxyfructosyl Glutamine in pAtC58 Are Attributed to Utilization of Octopine in Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strain NT1
Baek, Chang-Ho ; Park, Dae-Kyun ; Lee, Ko-Eun ; Hwang, Won ; Kim, In-Hwang ; Maeng, Jue-Son ; Kim, Kun-Soo ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 822~828
Nopaline-type Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58 cannot utilize octopine (Oct) as the sole carbon and nitrogen sources. This strain harbors two plasmids; a virulent plasmid, pTiC58, and a megaplasmid, pAtC58. From strain NT1, which is a derivative of C58 harboring only pAtC58, we isolated spontaneous mutants that utilize Oct as the sole nitrogen source. These Oct-catabolizing mutants, however, could not utilize the opine as the sole carbon source. In contrast, strain UIA5, a plasmid-free derivative of C58, could not give rise to such mutants. The mutations isolated from NT1 were mapped to socR in pAtC58, which is a negative regulator of the soc operon responsible for the uptake and catabolism of an Amadori opine, deoxyfructosyl glutamine (Dfg). A derivative of UIA5 carrying a clone of the soc operon with a transposon inserted in socR also utilizes Oct as the sole nitrogen source. However, UIA5 harboring the operon with mutations in each of the structural genes in the soc operon, socA, B, C, and D, lost the ability to generate spontaneous Oct-utilizing mutants, suggesting that soc genes in pAtC58 are required for the utilization of Oct as a nitrogen source, and that derepressed expression of these genes allows cells to utilize Oct. In contrast, Oct-catabolizing mutants derived from C58, which grew using Oct as the sole nitrogen source, could also utilize the opine as the sole carbon source. These mutants did not carry any detectable mutations in socR or the region upstream to the gene in pAtC58, suggesting that mutations occurring elsewhere in the genome, most likely in pTiC58, allow the uptake and catabolism of the opine.
Purification and Characterization of the Fibrinolytic Enzyme Produced by Bacillus subtilis KCK-7 from Chungkookjang
Paik, Hyun-Dong ; Lee, Si-Kyung ; Heo, Seok ; Kim, Soo-Young ; Lee, Hyung-Hoan ; Kwon, Tae-Jong ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 829~835
A fibrinolytic enzyme has been found in several bacteria isolated from fermented food. This study was carried out to investigate the purification and characteristics of the fibrinolytic enzyme produced by Bacillus subtilis KCK-7 originated from Chungkookjang. The fibrinolytic enzyme was purified to homogeneity from the culture supernatant using ammonium sulfate fractionation and chromatographies on DEAE-cellulose and on Sephadex G-100. The final specific activity of the purified enzyme increased 11.0-fold, and the protein amount in the purified enzyme was about 16% of that in the culture supernatant. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be about 45,000 by SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH and temperature for the enzyme activity were pH 7.0 and
, respectively. The enzyme activity was relatively stable up to
over the pH range of 7.0-10.0. The fibrinolytic enzyme activity increased by
, whereas it was inhibited by
. In addition, it was severely inhibited by PMSF and DFT. It is suggested that the purified enzyme was a serine protease for the fibrinolysis. The purified enzyme could completely hydrolyze fibrin in vitro within 8 h. Hence, it is suggested that the purified enzyme can be put into practice as an effective thrombolytic agent.
Transcriptional Responses of Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells to Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Infection Analyzed by High Density cDNA Microarrays
Lee, Ji-Yeon ; Lee, Na-Gyong ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 836~843
Nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi), a Gram-negative obligate human pathogen, causes pneumonia, chronic bronchitis, and otitis media, and the respiratory epithelium is the first line of defense that copes with the pathogen. In an effort to identify transcriptional responses of human respiratory epithelial cells to infection with NTHi, we examined its differential gene expression using high density cDNA microarrays. BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to NTHi for 3 hand 24 h, and the alteration of mRNA expression was analyzed using microarrays consisting of 8,170 human cDNA clones. The results indicated that approximately 2.6% of the genes present on the microarrays increased in expression over 2-fold and 3.8% of the genes decreased during the 24-h infection period. Upregulated genes included cytokines (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor 2, granulocyte chemotactic protein 2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-8), transcription factors (Kruppel-like factor 7, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein
, E2F-1, NF-
B, cell surface molecules (CD74, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, HLA class I), as well as those involved in signal transduction and cellular transport. Selected genes were further confirmed by reverse-transcription-PCR. These data expand our knowledge of host cellular responses during NTHi infection and should provide a molecular basis for the study of host-NTHi interaction.
Enhancement of Erythropoietin Production from Chinese Hamster Ovary(CHO) Cells by Introduction of the Urea Cycle Enzymes, Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase I and Ornithine Transcarbamylase
Kim, Na-Young ; Lee, Yun-Jeong ; Kim, Hyung-Jin ; Choi, Jung-Ho ; Kim, Jung-Kwon ; Chang, Kern-Hee ; Kim, Jung-Hoe ; Kim, Hong-Jin ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 844~851
Efficient mammalian erythropoietin (EPO)-expression systems are required for therapeutic applications. The accumulation of ammonia is a major problem in the production of recombinant proteins in cultured animal cells. To counter this problem we introduced the first two genes of the urea cycle, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPSI) and ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), into IBE Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells by stable transfection. The resulting cell line, CO5, had a higher growth rate and accumulated less ammonia per cell than the parental cell line, IBE. In addition, it produced 2 times more EPO than the parent, and the purified EPO contained a higher proportion of acidic isoforms with approximately 15% more sialic acid.
Anticarcinogenic and Antigenotoxic Effects of Bacillus polyfermenticus
Park, Eun-Ju ; Kim, Kee-Tae ; Kim, Cheon-Jei ; Kim, Chang-Han ; Paik, Hyun-Dong ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 852~858
The morbidity and mortality of colon cancer are increasing, because of the westernization of food habit. Probiotics such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been known to play an important role in retarding colon carcinogenesis by possibly influencing metabolic, immunologic, and protective functions in the colon. In this study, we evaluated the effect of B. polyfermenticus SCD on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) induced DNA damage in CHO-K, cells and human lymphocytes, and on proliferation of human colon cancer cell. Using the Comet assay to detect DNA damage, we found that B. polyfermenticus SCD protected cells from the DNA damage induced by MNNG in
cells and in human lymphocytes. B. polyfermenticus SCD was also found to inhibit the growth of colon cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner, detected by the MTT assay. These results indicate that B. polyfermenticus SCD has the potential to inhibit not only DNA damage induced by a carcinogen, but also the proliferation of colon cancer cells.
Major Fe-Superoxide Dismutase (FeSOD) Activity in Pseudomonas putida is Essential for Survival Under Conditions of Oxidative Stress During Microbial Challenge and Nutrient Limitation
Kim, Young-Cheol ; Kim, Cheol-Soo ; Cho, Baik-Ho ; Anderson, Anne-J. ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 859~862
An isolate of Pseudomonas putida has been found to aggressively colonize root tips and induce plant resistance to Fusarium wilt. However, P. putida mutants lacking Fe-superoxide dismutase (SOD) or both FeSOD and MnSOD activities are less competitive in root tip colonization. In the current study, the growth of an FeSOD mutant was found to be more sensitive than that of the wild-type or a MnSOD mutant to oxidative stress imposed by paraquat treatment and culturing with the soil fungus Talaromyces flavus, which generates reactive oxygen species. Also, the loss of culturability with an aging stationary-phase culture was greater for a double SOD mutant than an FeSOD mutant, while no reduction in culturability was observed with the wild-type and a MnSOD mutant under the same protracted stationary-phase conditions. Accordingly, it was concluded that FeSOD activity is the major form of SOD in P. putida and plays an essential role in survival under stress conditions when increased oxidative stress is encountered.
Purification and Characterization of Guar Galactomannan Degrading
-Galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae DR-5
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 863~867
-Galactosidase from A. oryzae DR-5 was induced in the presence of melibiose, raffinose, galactose, and locust bean galactomannan. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by precipitation with acetone followed by ion-exchange chromatography using DEAE-Sephacel. The purified enzyme showed a single band in both nondenaturing-PAGE and SDS-PAGE. The enzyme was a glycoprotein in nature by activity staining. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 93-95 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme exhibited the optimum pH and temperature at 4.7 and
-Galactosidase activity was strongly inhibited by
, and galactose. EDTA, 1,10-phenanthraline, and PMSF did not inhibit the enzyme activity, whereas N-bromosuccinimide completely inhibited enzyme activity. Investigation by TLC showed complete hydrolysis of stachyose and raffinose in soymilk in 3 h at pH 5.0 and
Lysophosphatidylcholine Suppresses the Expression of Phr1p and Pra1p, Surface Proteins Involved in the Morphogenesis of Candida albicans
Shin, Duck-Hyang ; Choi, Won-Young ; Yoo, Yung-Joon ; Kim, Min-Kyoung ; Choi, Won-Ja ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 868~871
Candida albicans has become the most important human pathogen in immunocompromised patients. One important feature of the pathogenicity in C. albicans is the morphological transition from yeast to hyphae. Previously, we reported that lysophosphatidylcholine (Lyso-PC) suppressed the hyphal transition through the MAP kinase pathway (Min et al., 2001). Therefore, it should be useful to examine the unknown genes involved in the MAP kinase pathway. As a way to identify target genes of Lyso-PC in hyphal suppression, this present study exploited two-dimensional electrophoresis. It was revealed that Lyso-PC suppressed expression of Phr1p and Pra1p, surface proteins involved in the morphogenesis.
Inhibitory Effect of Bacteriophage EPS-Depolymerase on Growth of Asian Pear Blight Pathogen Erwinia pyrifoliae
Kim, Il-Gi ; Lee, Myung-Shin ; Jin, Tae-Eun ; Hwang, Byung-Kook ; Lee, Jin-Hyung ; Suh, Suk-Chul ; Rhim, Seong-Lyul ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 872~876
The plant pathogen Erwinia pyrifoliae was infected with bacteriophage PEa1(h), which produced a translucent halo plaque when grown on a lawn of E. pyrifoliae. To investigate the function of an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-depolymerase in the growth of E. pyrifoliae, an EPS-depolymerase gene was synthesized using the PCR method and sequenced. The synthesized gene was then transferred to E. pyrifoliae. The transformed E. pyrifoliae did not produce any ooze, and its growth was inhibited. However, the EPS-depolymerase did not appear to induce cell death. Accordingly, the present results suggest that an EPS-depolymerase may be effective in inhibiting the cell growth or infection of the pathogen E. pyrifoliae.
Chitooligosaccharides in Korean Commercial Salt-Fermented Shrimps, Determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Shim, Youn-Young ; Shon, Dong-Hwa ; Chee, Kew-Mahn ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 877~880
In this study, we determined the content of chitooligosaccharides (COS) in Korean commercial salt-fermented shrimps by competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (cdELISAs), using anti-COS mixture (COSM) antibody and COSM horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugate. When COS6 was spiked into salt-fermented shrimps at the level of
the average recovery was
). The COS contents of the 92 samples of Korean commercial salt-fermented shrimps collected during February 2000 and August 2002 were
COS6 equivalent/g (expressed as "
" hereafter). Among the samples, the COS contents of yuk-jeot (
) and buksaewoojeot (
) were higher than the others. The COS contents of salt-fermented shrimps produced at Gwangcheon (
) and Gomso (
) areas were higher than those produced at the other areas. This is the first report to determine COS of salt-fermented shrimps by cdELISA.
Naltriben Analogues as Peptide Anticancer Drugs
Kim, Min-Woo ; Shin, Choon-Shik ; Yang, Hee-Jung ; Kim, Seung-Hyun ; Lim, Hae-Young ; Lee, Chul-Hoon ; Kim, Min-Kyun ; Lim, Yoong-Ho ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 881~884
Apoptosis inducers for cancer therapy have been studied. Among hundreds of inducers, peptide anticancer drugs have many advantages such as being not harmful to humans, high selectivity, and dependence on their structures. Naltriben (NTB) is an octapeptide consisting of DPhe-Cys-Tyr-DTrp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-
. Several NTB analogues are known. In this experiment, apoptotic activities of NTB analogues with 8 amino acids were tested using flow cytometry. The conformational study of NTB was carried out using NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling. Here, the relationships between conformations of NTB analogues and their apoptotic effects are reported.
Occurrence of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM) Fungi and Their Effect on Plant Growth in Endangered Vegetations
Selvaraj, Thangaswamy ; Padmanabhan, Chellappan ; Jeong, Yu-Jin ; Kim, Hoon ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 14, issue 4, 2004, Pages 885~890
A survey for vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) occurrence was undertaken in three endangered vegetation sites in the area of Kudankulam atomic power station. Fifteen VAM fungal species were isolated from the root-zone soils of fourteen different plant species. There was a significant correlation observed between the number of spores and of percentage root colonization as exemplified by Phyllanthus niruri and Paspalum vaginatum (450, 95%; 60, 25%). Although VAM species are not known to be strictly site specific, the fact that Acaulospora elegans was observed only in site 1, Glomus pulvinatum in site 2 only, and Gl. intraradices in site 3 only, showed site-specificity in this study. To confirm the infection efficiency, two host plant species in the sites, P. niruri and Eclipta alba, were selected and inoculated in field with three selected VAM fungal spores. Gl. fasciculatum was found to be the most efficient VAM species in percentage root colonization, number of VAM spores, and dry matter content. When the nutrients in roots of P. niruri and E. alba were analyzed, there was higher uptake of K (4.2 and 3.4 times, respectively) and Ca (5.3 and 4.9 times, respectively), the analogues for
, respectively. From the results, it might be concluded that VAM association helps the plants survive in a disturbed ecosystem and enhances uptake and cycling of radionuclides from the ecosystem.