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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 12 - Dec 2008
Volume 18, Issue 11 - Nov 2008
Volume 18, Issue 10 - Oct 2008
Volume 18, Issue 9 - Sep 2008
Volume 18, Issue 8 - Aug 2008
Volume 18, Issue 7 - Jul 2008
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Jun 2008
Volume 18, Issue 5 - May 2008
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Apr 2008
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Mar 2008
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Feb 2008
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jan 2008
Selecting the target year
Functional Implications of the Conserved Action of Regulators of Ribonuclease Activity
Yeom, Ji-Hyun ; Shin, Eun-Kyoung ; Go, Ha-Young ; Sim, Se-Hoon ; Seong, Maeng-Je ; Lee, Kang-Seok ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 18, issue 8, 2008, Pages 1353~1356
RNase E (Rne) plays a major role in the decay and processing of numerous RNAs in E. coli, and protein inhibitors of RNase E, RraA and RraB, have recently been discovered. Here, we report that coexpression of RraA or RraB reduces the ribonucleolytic activity in rne-deleted E. coli cells overproducing RNase ES, a Streptomyces coelicolor functional ortholog of RNase E, and consequently rescues these cells from growth arrest. These findings suggest that the regulators of ribonuclease activity have a conserved intrinsic property that effectively acts on an RNase E-like enzyme found in a distantly related bacterial species.
Iron Chelator-Inducible Expression System for Escherichia coli
Lim, Jae-Myung ; Hong, Mi-Ju ; Kim, Seong-Hun ; Oh, Doo-Byoung ; Kang, Hyun-Ah ; Kwon, Oh-Suk ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 18, issue 8, 2008, Pages 1357~1363
promoter of the entCERA operon encoding enzymes for enterobactin biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is tightly regulated by the availability of iron in the culture medium. In iron-rich conditions, the
promoter activity is strongly repressed by the global transcription regulator Fur (ferric uptake regulator), which complexes with ferrous ions and binds to the Fur box 19-bp inverted repeat. In this study, we have constructed the expression vector pOS2 containing the
promoter and characterized its repression, induction, and modulation by quantifying the expression of the lacZ reporter gene encoding
-Galactosidase activities of E. coli transformants harboring pOS2-lacZ were highly induced in the presence of divalent metal ion chelators such as 2,2'-dipyridyl and EDTA, and were strongly repressed in the presence of excess iron. It was also shown that the basal level
-galactosidase expression by the
promoter was drastically decreased by incorporating the fur gene into the expression vector. Since the newly developed iron chelator-inducible expression system is efficient and cost-effective, it has wide applications in recombinant protein production.
Interactome Analysis of Yeast Glutathione Peroxidase 3
Lee, Phil-Young ; Bae, Kwang-Hee ; Kho, Chang-Won ; Kang, Sung-Hyun ; Lee, Do-Hee ; Cho, Sa-Yeon ; Kang, Seong-Man ; Lee, Sang-Chul ; Park, Byoung-Chul ; Park, Sung-Goo ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 18, issue 8, 2008, Pages 1364~1367
Oxidative stress damages all cellular constituents, and therefore, cell has to possess various defense mechanisms to cope. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, widely used as a model organism for studying cellular responses to oxidative stress, contains three glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) proteins. Among them, Gpx3 plays a major defense role against oxidative stress in S. cerevisiae. In this study, in order to identity the new interaction proteins of Gpx3, we carried out two-dimensional gel electrophoresis after immunoprecipitation (IP-2DE), and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The results showed that several proteins including protein disulfide isomerase, glutaredoxin 2, and SSY protein 3 specifically interact with Gpx3. These findings led us to suggest the possibility that Gpx3, known as a redox sensor and ROS scavenger, has another functional role by interacting with several proteins with various cellular functions.
Proteomic Analysis of Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae upon Iron Deficiency Induced via Human H-Ferritin Production
Seo, Hyang-Yim ; Chang, Yu-Jung ; Chung, Yun-Jo ; Kim, Kyung-Suk ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 18, issue 8, 2008, Pages 1368~1376
In our previous study, the expression of active H-ferritins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to reduce cell growth and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation upon exposure to oxidative stress; such expression enhanced that of high-affinity iron transport genes (FET3 and FTR1). The results suggested that the recombinant cells expressing H-ferritins induced cytosolic iron depletion. The present study analyzes metabolic changes under these circumstances via proteomic methods. The YGH2 yeast strain expressing A-ferritin, the YGH2-KG (E62K and H65G) mutant strain, and the YGT control strain were used. Comparative proteomic analysis showed that the synthesis of 34 proteins was at least stimulated in YGH2, whereas the other 37 proteins were repressed. Among these, the 31 major protein spots were analyzed via nano-LC/MS/MS. The increased proteins included major heat-shock proteins and proteins related to endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). On the other hand, the proteins involved with folate metabolism, purine and methionine biosynthesis, and translation were reduced. In addition, we analyzed the insoluble protein fractions and identified the fragments of Idh1p and Pgk1p, as well as several ribosomal assembly-related proteins. This suggests that intracellular iron depletion induces imperfect translation of proteins. Although the proteins identified above result from changes in iron metabolism (i.e., iron deficiency), definitive evidence for iron-related proteins remains insufficient. Nevertheless, this study is the first to present a molecular model for iron deficiency, and the results may provide valuable information on the regulatory network of iron metabolism.
Sensing Domain and Extension Rate of a Family B-Type DNA Polymerase Determine the Stalling at a Deaminated Base
Kim, Yun-Jae ; Cha, Sun-Shin ; Lee, Hyun-Sook ; Ryu, Yong-Gu ; Bae, Seung-Seob ; Cho, Yo-Na ; Cho, Hyun-Soo ; Kim, Sang-Jin ; Kwon, Suk-Tae ; Lee, Jung-Hyun ; Kang, Sung-Gyun ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 18, issue 8, 2008, Pages 1377~1385
The uracil-sensing domain in archaeal family B-type DNA polymerases recognizes pro-mutagenic uracils in the DNA template, leading to stalling of DNA polymerases. Here, we describe our new findings regarding the molecular, mechanism underpinning the stalling of polymerases. We observed that two successive deaminated bases were required to stall TNA1 and KOD1 DNA polymerases, whereas a single deaminated base was enough for stalling Pfu DNA polymerase, in spite of the virtually identical uracil-sensing domains. TNA1 and KOD1 DNA polymerases have a much higher extension rate than Pfu DNA polymerase; decreasing the extension rate resulted in stalling by TNA1 and KOD1 DNA polymerases at a single deaminated base. These results strongly suggest that these polymerases require two factors to stop DNA polymerization at a single deaminated base: the presence of the uracil-sensing domain and a relatively slow extension rate.
Heterologous Expression and Characterization of Glycogen Branching Enzyme from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803
Lee, Byung-Hoo ; Yoo, Young-Hee ; Ryu, Je-Hoon ; Kim, Tae-Jip ; Yoo, Sang-Ho ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 18, issue 8, 2008, Pages 1386~1392
A gene (sll0158) putatively encoding a glycogen branching enzyme (GBE, E.C. 18.104.22.168) was cloned from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, and the recombinant protein expressed and characterized. The PCR-amplified putative GBE gene was ligated into a pET-21a plasmid vector harboring a T7 promoter, and the recombinant DNA transformed into a host cell, E. coli BL21(DE3). The IPTG-induced enzymes were then extracted and purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The putative GBE gene was found to be composed of 2,310 nucleotides and encoded 770 amino acids, corresponding to approx. 90.7 kDa, as confirmed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. The optimal conditions for GBE activity were investigated by measuring the absorbance change in iodine affinity, and shown to be pH 8.0 and
in a 50 mM glycine-NaOH buffer. The action pattern of the GBE on amylose, an
-(1,4)-linked linear glucan, was analyzed using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) after isoamylolysis. As a result, the GBE displayed
-glucosyl transferring activity by cleaving the
-(1,4)-linkages and transferring the cleaved maltoglycosyl moiety to form new
-(1,6)-branch linkages. A time-course study of the GBE reaction was carried out with biosynthetic amylose (BSAM;
8,000), and the changes in the branch-chain length distribution were evaluated. When increasing the reaction time up to 48 h, the weight- and number-average DP (
) decreased from 19.6 to 8.7 and from 17.6 to 7.8, respectively. The molecular size (
) of the GBE-reacted product from BSAM reached the size of amylose (AM) in botanical starch, yet the product was highly soluble and stable in water, unlike AM molecules. Thus, GBE-generated products can provide new food and non-food applications, owing to their unique physical properties.
Effect of Oral Probiotics (Bifidobacterium lactis AD011 and Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031) Administration on Ovalbumin-Induced Food Allergy Mouse Model
Kim, Ji-Yeun ; Choi, Young-Ok ; Ji, Geun-Eog ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 18, issue 8, 2008, Pages 1393~1400
Recent study has demonstrated an increasing prevalence of food allergy in Korean children. Specific probiotic bacteria may promote potentially anti-allergenic processes through induction of Th1-type immunity and enhance the regulatory lymphocyte. This study investigated whether orally administrated probiotics could suppress allergic responses in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergy mouse model. Thus, female C3H/HeJ mice were orally sensitized with OVA and cholera toxin for 4 weeks. Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031, Bifidobacterium lactis AD011, and L. acidophilus AD031 plus B. lactis AD011 were fed to mice from 2 weeks before the sensitization. The OVA-induced mice that were not treated with probiotics had significantly increased serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and OVA-specific IgA in feces. However, the mice treated with probiotics suppressed production of the OVA-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgA. The level of IL-4 was significantly lower, and the levels of INF-
and IL-10 were significantly higher in the mice treated with probiotics than that in the non-treated mice. The groups treated with probiotics had decreased levels of degranulated mast cells, eosinophil granules, and tail scabs. These results indicate that L. acidophilus AD031 and B. lactis AD011 might be useful for the prevention of allergy.
Modulation of Hydrolysis and Transglycosylation Activity of Thermus Maltogenic Amylase by Combinatorial Saturation Mutagenesis
Oh, Su-Won ; Jang, Myoung-Uoon ; Jeong, Chang-Ku ; Kang, Hye-Jeong ; Park, Jung-Mi ; Kim, Tae-Jip ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 18, issue 8, 2008, Pages 1401~1407
The roles of conserved amino acid residues (Va1329-Ala330-Asn331-Glu332), constituting an extra sugar-binding space (ESBS) of Thermus maltogenic amylase (ThMA), were investigated by combinatorial saturation mutagenesis. Various ThMA mutants were firstly screened on the basis of starch hydrolyzing activity and their enzymatic properties were characterized in detail. Most of the ThMA variants showed remarkable decreases in their hydrolyzing activity, but their specificity against various substrates could be altered by mutagenesis. Unexpectedly, mutant H-16 (Gly-Leu-Val-Tyr) showed almost identical hydrolyzing and transglycosylation activities to wild type, whereas K-33 (Ser-Gly-Asp-Glu) showed an extremely low transglycosylation activity. Interestingly, K-33 produced glucose, maltose, and acarviosine from acarbose, whereas ThMA hydrolyzed acarbose to only glucose and acarviosine-glucose. These results propose that the substrate specificity, hydrolysis pattern, and transglycosylation activity of ThMA can be modulated by combinatorial mutations near the ESBS.
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Production Using Waste Vegetable Oil by Pseudomonas sp. Strain DR2
Song, Jin-Hwan ; Jeon, Che-Ok ; Choi, Mun-Hwan ; Yoon, Sung-Chul ; Park, Woo-Jun ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 18, issue 8, 2008, Pages 1408~1415
To produce polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from inexpensive substrates by bacteria, vegetable-oil-degrading bacteria were isolated from a rice field using enrichment cultivation. The isolated Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 showed clear orange or red spots of accumulated PHA granules when grown on phosphate and nitrogen limited medium containing vegetable oil as the sole carbon source and stained with Nile blue A. Up to 37.34% (w/w) of intracellular PHA was produced from corn oil, which consisted of three major 3-hydroxyalkanoates; octanoic (C8:0, 37.75% of the total 3-hydroxyalkanoate content of PHA), decanoic (C10:0, 36.74%), and dodecanoic (C12:0, 11.36%). Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 accumulated up to 23.52% (w/w) of
from waste vegetable oil. The proportion of 3-hydroxyalkanoate of the waste vegetable-oil-derived PHA [hexanoic (5.86%), octanoic (45.67%), decanoic (34.88%), tetradecanoic (8.35%), and hexadecanoic (5.24%)] showed a composition ratio different from that of the corn-oil-derived PHA. Strain DR2 used three major fatty acids in the same ratio, and linoleic acid was the major source of PHA production. Interestingly, the production of PHA in Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 could not occur in either acetate- or butyrate-amended media. Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 accumulated a greater amount of PHA than other well-studied strains (Chromobacterium violaceum and Ralstonia eutropha H16) when grown on vegetable oil. The data showed that Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 was capable of producing PHA from waste vegetable oil.
Isolation of Sorangium cellulosum Carrying Epothilone Gene Clusters
Hyun, Hye-Sook ; Chung, Jin-Woo ; Kim, Ji-Hoon ; Lee, Jong-Suk ; Kwon, Byoung-Mog ; Son, Kwang-Hee ; Cho, Kyung-Yun ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 18, issue 8, 2008, Pages 1416~1422
Epothilone and its analogs are a potent new class of anticancer compounds produced by myxobacteria. Thus, in an effort to identify new myxobacterial strains producing epothilone and its analogs, cellulose-degrading myxobacteria were isolated from Korean soils, and 13 strains carrying epothilone biosynthetic gene homologs were screened using a polymerase chain reaction. A migration assay revealed that Sorangium cellulosum KYC3013, 3016, 3017, and 3018 all produced microtubule-stabilizing compounds, and an LC-MS/MS analysis showed that S. cellulosum KYC3013 synthesized epothilone A.
Nuruk Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Production of Nitrite and Interleukin-6 in RAW 264.7 Cells Through Blocking Activation of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase
Kim, Jong-Eun ; Jung, Sung-Keun ; Lee, Sang-Jin ; Lee, Ki-Won ; Kim, Gye-Won ; Lee, Hyong-Joo ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 18, issue 8, 2008, Pages 1423~1426
Nuruk, which is a natural inoculator and source of amylolytic enzymes, is used in Korean traditional rice wine. A methanol extract of nuruk (NE) attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitrite and interleukin (IL)-6 in RAW 264.7 cells. Both the n-hexane and water fractions from NE (MEH and MW, respectively) inhibited the production of nitrite and IL-6 in RAW 264.7 cells. MEH and MW also inhibited the LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Further, and MEH protected against the LPS-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Together, these results indicate that nuruk may contribute to the anti-inflammatory and cancer-preventive effects of Korean traditional rice wine.
Identification of Proteins Binding to Decursinol by Chemical Proteomics
Kang, Hyo-Jin ; Yoon, Tae-Sung ; Jeong, Dae-Gwin ; Kim, Yong-Mo ; Chung, Jin-Woong ; Ha, Jong-Seong ; Park, Sung-Sup ; Ryu, Seong-Eon ; Kim, Sang-Hee ; Bae, Kwang-Hee ; Chung, Sang-J. ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 18, issue 8, 2008, Pages 1427~1430
Decursinol, found in the roots of Angelica gigas Nakai, has been traditionally used to treat anemia and other various diseases. Recently, numerous biological activities such as cytotoxic effect on leukemia cells, and antitumor, neuroprotection, and antibacterial activities have been reported for this compound. Although a number of proteins including protein kinase C, androgen receptor, and acetylcholinesterase were proposed as molecular targets responsible for the activities of decursinol, they are not enough to explain such a diverse biological activity mentioned above. In this study, we employed a chemical proteomic approach, leading to identification of seven proteins as potential proteins interacting with decursinol. Most of the proteins contain a defined ATP or nucleic acid binding domain and have been implied to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of various human diseases including cancer, autoimmune disorders, or neurodegenerative diseases. The present results may provide clues to understand the molecular mechanism of the biological activities shown by decursinol, an anticancer natural product.
Immunomodulating Activities of Water-Soluble Exopolysaccharides Obtained from Submerged Culture of Lentinus lepideus
Jung, Yu-Sun ; Yang, Byung-Keun ; Jeong, Yong-Tae ; Islam, Rezuanul ; Kim, Sang-Min ; Song, Chi-Hyun ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 18, issue 8, 2008, Pages 1431~1438
Immunomodulating activities of water-soluble exopolysaccharides (LL-EX) obtained from submerged mycelial culture of Lentinus lepideus were studied and their effectiveness was compared with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The influence of the LL-EX on macrophage cellular lysosomal enzyme activity was to stimulate up to 267%, 392%, and 464% at the level of 10, 50, and
, respectively. When the LL-EX was further fractionated into LL-Fr.I and Fr.II by Sepharose CL-6B gel chromatography, the cellular lysosomal enzyme activity of LL-Fr.II (2.1-fold) was higher than Fr.I (1.2-fold). Moreover, both LL-Fr.I and Fr.II stimulated the cytokines IL-1
, and IL-6 in macrophages. In mixed lymphocyte reaction, LL-Fr.I and Fr.II enhanced the splenocyte proliferation up to 1.2-fold and 1.4-fold (
), respectively, stimulating only T lymphocytes. The fractions of LL-EX not show any direct toxicity against human gastric adenocarcinoma cell (AGS). The molecular masses of LL-Fr.I and Fr.II were estimated to be about 1,986 kDa and 21 kDa, respectively. The total sugar and protein contents of the two fractions were 84.97% and 69.88%, and 15.03% and 30.12%, respectively. The sugar and amino acid compositions of the LL-Fr.I and Fr.II were also analyzed in detail.
Change in Proteomic Profiles of Genetically Modified 1,3-Propanediol-Producing Recombinant E. coli
Jin, Li-Hua ; Lee, Jung-Heon ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 18, issue 8, 2008, Pages 1439~1444
The recombinant E. coli
6 mutant (galR, glpK, gldA, IdhA, lacI, tpiA) was used to produce 1,3-propanediol (PD) from glucose. The 1,3-PD production increased with feedback control of the glucose concentration using fed-batch fermentation. The maximum 1,3-PD concentration produced was 43 g/l after 60 h of fermentation. Glycerol production was minimized when controlling the glucose concentration at less than 1 g/l. The expression levels of seven enzymes related to the 1,3-PD production metabolism were compared during the cell growth phase and 1,3-PD production phase, and their expression levels all increased during 1,3-PD production, with the exception of alcohol dehydrogenase.
A Cold-Adapted Epoxide Hydrolase from a Strict Marine Bacterium, Sphingophyxis alaskensis
Kang, Ji-Hyun ; Woo, Jung-Hee ; Kang, Sung-Gyun ; Hwang, Young-Ok ; Kim, Sang-Jin ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 18, issue 8, 2008, Pages 1445~1452
An open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative epoxide hydrolase (EHase) was identified by analyzing the genome sequence of Sphingophyxis alaskensis. The EHase gene (seh) was cloned and expressed in E. coli. To facilitate purification, the gene was fused in-frame to 6
histidine at the C-terminus. The recombinant EHase (rSEH) was highly soluble and could be purified to apparent homogeneity by one step of metal affinity chromatography. The purified SEH displayed hydrolyzing activities toward various epoxides such as styrene oxide, glycidyl phenyl ether, epoxyhexane, epoxybutane, epichlorohydrin, and epifluorohydrin. The optimum activity toward styrene oxide was observed at pH 6.5 and
. The purified SEH showed a cold-adapted property, displaying more than 40% of activity at low temperature of
compared with the optimum activity. Despite the catalytic efficiency, the purified SEH did not hydrolyze various epoxides enantioselectively.
of SEH toward (R)-styrene oxide were calculated as 4
0.3 mM and 7.42
of SEH toward (S)-styrene oxide were 5.25
0.3 mM and 10.08
Direct and Quantitative Analysis of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Using Real-Time PCR from Artificially Contaminated Chicken Meat
Park, Hee-Jin ; Kim, Hyun-Joong ; Park, Si-Hong ; Shin, Eun-Gyeong ; Kim, Jae-Hwan ; Kim, Hae-Yeong ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 18, issue 8, 2008, Pages 1453~1458
For quantitative PCR assay of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in food samples, a real-time PCR method was developed, based on DNA genome equivalent. Specific primers and probe designed based on the STM4497 gene of S. Typhimurium LT2 showed the specificity to S. Typhimurium. Threshold cycle (Ct) values of real-time PCR were obtained from a quantitative standard curve with genomic DNA of Salmonella Typhimurium. In addition, the recovery of S. Typhimurium inoculated artificially to chicken samples with
to 4.5 CFU/ml was evaluated by using real-time PCR and plate-count methods. Result showed that the number of cells calculated from the real-time PCR method had good correlation with that of the plate-count method. This real-time PCR method could be applicable to the detection and quantification of S. Typhimurium in food samples.
Microbial Structure and Community of RBC Biofilm Removing Nitrate and Phosphorus from Domestic Wastewater
Lee, Han-Woong ; Choi, Eui-So ; Yun, Zu-Whan ; Park, Yong-Keun ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 18, issue 8, 2008, Pages 1459~1469
Using a rotating biological contactor modified with a sequencing bath reactor system (SBRBC) designed and operated to remove phosphate and nitrogen , the microbial community structure of the biofilm from the SBRBC system was characterized based on the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) constituents, electron microscopy, and molecular techniques. Protein and carbohydrate were identified as the major EPS constituents at three different biofilm thicknesses, where the amount of EPS and bacterial cell number were highest in the initial thickness of 0-100
. However, the percent of carbohydrate in the total amount of EPS decreased by about 11.23%, whereas the percent of protein increased by about 11.15% as the biofilm grew. Thus, an abundant quantity of EPS and cell mass, as well as a specific quality of EPS were apparently needed to attach to the substratum in the first step of the biofilm growth. A FISH analysis revealed that the dominant phylogenetic group was
-Proteobacteria, where a significant subclass of Proteobacteria for removing phosphate and/or nitrate was found within a biofilm thickness of 0-250
. In addition, 16S rDNA clone libraries revealed that Klebsiella sp. and Citrobacter sp. were most dominant within the initial biofilm thickness of 0-250
, whereas sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, such as Beggiatoa sp. and Thiothrix sp., were detected in a biofilm thickness over 250
. The results of the bacterial community structure analysis using molecular techniques agreed with the results of the morphological structure based on scanning electron microscopy. Therefore, the overall results indicated that coliform bacteria participated in the nitrate and phosphorus removal when using the SBRBC system. Moreover, the structure of the biofilm was also found to be related to the EPS constituents, as well as the nitrogen and phosphate removal efficiency. Consequently, since this is the first identification of the bacterial community and structure of the biofilm from an RBC simultaneously removing nitrogen and phosphate from domestic wastewater, and it is hoped that the present results may provide a foundation for understanding nitrate and phosphate removal by an RBC system.
Nitrospira Community Composition in Nitrifying Reactors Operated with Two Different Dissolved Oxygen Levels
Park, Hee-Deung ; Noguera, Daniel R. ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 18, issue 8, 2008, Pages 1470~1474
Nitrospira is a dominant member of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in nitrifying bioreactors as well as in natural habitats. In this study, Nitrospira NOB were investigated in the two nitrifying reactors operated with high and low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations for a period of 300 days. Phylogenetic and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses based on 168 rRNA gene sequences revealed that the Nitrospira community compositions of the two reactors during the early period related to group 1 and half of the Nitrospira community composition shifted to group 2 in the high-DO reactor after day 179, although there was no significant change in the low-DO reactor. These results suggested that DO was an important factor affecting Nitrospira community compositions in the nitrifying reactors.
Disulfide Bond Bridged Divalent Antibody-Toxin,
with the Toxin PE38 Fused to the Light Chain
Won, Jae-Seon ; Choe, Mu-Hyeon ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 18, issue 8, 2008, Pages 1475~1481
B3 antibody specifically binds the
-related carbohydrate antigen of many carcinomas, and it is used as a model antibody in this study. In a previous study, the Fab fragment of the antibody was fused to a 38 kDa truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin A, PE38, to make Fab-PE38, where PE38 is fused to the Fd fragment of the Fab domain. This parent monomer molecule, Fab-PE38, had no cysteine in the hinge region, and it could not make a disulfide bond to form a disulfide bond bridged homodimer. In this study, we constructed three different kinds of divalent Fab-toxin fusion homodimers where the toxin is fused to the light chain of Fab,
. In addition to the PE38 toxin fused to the light chain, these three molecules have different hinge sequences hi, h2, and h3 making Fabh1-, Fabh2-, and Fabh3-PE38fl monomers, respectively. These hinges contain only one cysteine on different positions of the hinge sequence. The disulfide bond between the hinge region of two monomers forms homodimers
. The refolding yields of these dimers were 5-16-fold higher than a previously constructed dimer where the PE38 was fused to the Fd fragment
. Our data suggest that the steric repulsion between the two PE38s in
during disulfide bridge formation is relieved by fusing it at the end of the light chain. The best cytotoxicity value of these dimers showed about 2.5-fold higher on an MCF7 cell line than that of the monovalent reference molecule in ng/ml scale, which is 15-fold higher in pM scale.
Antifungal Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on Dermatophytes
Kim, Keuk-Jun ; Sung, Woo-Sang ; Moon, Seok-Ki ; Choi, Jong-Soo ; Kim, Jong-Guk ; Lee, Dong-Gun ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 18, issue 8, 2008, Pages 1482~1484
Spherical silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) were synthesized and their antifungal effects on fungal pathogens of the skin were investigated. Nano-Ag showed potent activity against clinical isolates and ATCC strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida species (
). The activity of nano-Ag was comparable to that of amphotericin B, but superior to that of fluconazole (amphotericin B
). Additionally, we investigated their effects on the dimorphism of Candida albicans. The results showed nano-Ag exerted activity on the mycelia. Thus, the present study indicates nano-Ag may have considerable antifungal activity, deserving further investigation for clinical applications.