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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 12 - Dec 2010
Volume 20, Issue 11 - Nov 2010
Volume 20, Issue 10 - Oct 2010
Volume 20, Issue 9 - Sep 2010
Volume 20, Issue 8 - Aug 2010
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Jul 2010
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Jun 2010
Volume 20, Issue 5 - May 2010
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Apr 2010
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Mar 2010
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Feb 2010
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Jan 2010
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Cultivation-Dependent and -Independent Characterization of Microbial Community Producing Polyhydroxyalkanoates from Raw Glycerol
Ciesielski, Slawomir ; Pokoj, Tomasz ; Klimiuk, Ewa ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 853~861
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.0909.09038
High substrate costs decrease the profitability of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production, and thus low-cost carbon substrates coming from agricultural and industrial residuals are tested for the production of these biopolymers. Among them, crude glycerol, formed as a by-product during biodiesel production, seems to be the most promising source of carbon. The object of this study was to characterize the mixed population responsible for the conversion of crude glycerol into PHAs by cultivation-dependent and -independent methods. Enrichment of the microbial community was monitored by applying the Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (RISA), and the identification of community members was based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing of cultivable species. Molecular analysis revealed that mixed populations consisted of microorganisms affiliated with four bacterial lineages:
-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroides. Among these, three Pseudomonas strains and Rhodobacter sp. possessed genes coding for polyhydroxyalkanoates synthase. Comparative analysis revealed that most of the microorganisms detected by direct molecular analysis were obtained by the traditional culturing method.
Polyphasic Analysis of the Bacterial Community in the Rhizosphere and Roots of Cyperus rotundus L. Grown in a Petroleum-Contaminated Soil
Jurelevicius, Diogo ; Korenblum, Elisa ; Casella, Renata ; Vital, Ronalt Leite ; Seldin, Lucy ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 862~870
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.0910.10012
Cyperus rotundus L. is a perennial herb that was found to be dominating an area in northeast Brazil previously contaminated with petroleum. In order to increase our knowledge of microorganism-plant interactions in phytoremediation, the bacterial community present in the rhizosphere and roots of C. rotundus was evaluated by culture-dependent and molecular approaches. PCR-DGGE analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that the bacterial community in bulk soil, rhizosphere, and root samples had a high degree of similarity. A complex population of alkane-utilizing bacteria and a variable nitrogen-fixing population were observed via PCR-DGGE analysis of alkB and nifH genes, respectively. In addition, two clone libraries were generated from alkB fragments obtained by PCR of bulk and rhizosphere soil DNA samples. Statistical analyses of these libraries showed that the compositions of their respective populations were different in terms of alkB gene sequences. Using culturedependent techniques, 209 bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane/roots of C. rotundus. Dot-blot analysis showed that 17 strains contained both alkB and nifH gene sequences. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that these strains are affiliated with the genera Bosea, Cupriavidus, Enterobacter, Gordonia, Mycoplana, Pandoraea, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Rhodococcus. These isolates can be considered to have great potential for the phytoremediation of soil with C. rotundus in this tropical soil area.
A Series of IncQ-Based Reporter Plasmids for Use in a Range of Gram-Negative Genera
O'Sullivan, Laura E. ; Nickerson, Cheryl A. ; Wilson, James W. ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 871~874
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.0912.12017
Many studies require expression analysis of the same gene/promoter across a range of bacterial genera. However, there is currently a lack of availability of reporters based on the broad-host-range IncQ replicon, which is compatible with a popular improved IncP transfer system that is self-transfer defective. We report IncQ lacZ reporter plasmids with features including (1) compatibility with IncP, IncW, and pBHR/pBBR replicons, (2) a variety of antibiotic markers (Sp-r, Sm-r, Km-r, Cm-r), (3) convenient mobilization via a novel self-transfer-defective IncP conjugation system, and (4) GenBank DNA sequences. Utility is demonstrated using three different promoters in different Gram-negative genera.
Methyl-Branched Fatty Acids, Inhibitors of Enoyl-ACP Reductase with Antibacterial Activity from Streptomyces sp. A251
Zheng, Chang-Ji ; Sohn, Mi-Jin ; Chi, Seung-Wook ; Kim, Won-Gon ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 875~880
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1001.01004
Bacterial enoyl-ACP reductase (FabI) has been demonstrated to be a novel antibacterial target. In the course of our screening for FabI inhibitors, we isolated two methyl-branched fatty acids from Streptomyces sp. A251. They were identified as 14-methyl-9(Z)-pentadecenoic acid and 15-methyl-9(Z)-hexadecenoic acid by MS and NMR spectral data. These compounds inhibited Staphylococcus aureus FabI with
values of 16.0 and
, respectively, but did not affect FabK, an enoyl-ACP reductase of Streptococcus pneumonia, at
. Consistent with their selective inhibition for FabI, they blocked intracellular fatty acid synthesis as well as the growth of S. aureus, but did not inhibit the growth of S. pneumonia. Additionally, these compounds showed reduced antibacterial activity against fabI-overexpressing S. aureus, compared with the wild-type strain. These results demonstrate that the methylbranched fatty acids show antibacterial activity by inhibiting FabI in vivo.
Screening, Characterization, and Cloning of a Solvent-Tolerant Protease from Serratia marcescens MH6
Wan, Mao-Hua ; Wu, Bin ; Ren, Wei ; He, Bing-Fang ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 881~888
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.0910.10038
solvent-tolerant bacterium strain, MH6, was isolated by hydrophilic organic solvent DMSO enrichment in the medium and identified as Serratia marcescens. The extracellular protease with novel organic-solvent-stable properties from strain MH6 was purified and characterized. The molecular mass of the purified protease was estimated to be 52 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The open reading frame (ORF) of the MH6 protease encoded 504 amino acids with 471 amino acid residues in the mature protease. Based on the inhibitory effects of EDTA and 1,10-phenathroline, the MH6 protease was characterized as a metalloproteinase. The enzyme activity was increased in the presence of
. The protease could also be activated by the nonionic surfactants Tween 80 (1.0%) and Triton X-100 (1.0%). The protease showed remarkable solvent stability in the presence of 50% (v/v) solutions of long-chain alkanes and long-chain alcohols. It was also fairly stable in the presence of 25% solutions of hydrophilic organic solvents. Owing to its high stability in solvents and surfactants, the MH6 protease is an ideal candidate for applications in organic catalysis and other related fields.
Complete Saccharification of Cellulose at High Temperature Using Endocellulase and
-Glucosidase from Pyrococcus sp.
Kim, Han-Woo ; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 889~892
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.0912.12020
We investigated a potential for glucose production from cellulose material using two kinds of hyperthermophilic enzymes, endocellulase (EG) and beta-glucosidase (BGL). Two BGLs, from hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus and mesophile Aspergillus aculeatus, were compared with P. horikoshii endocellulase (EGPh) for complete hydrolysis of cellulose. The combination reactions by each BGL enzyme and EGPh could produce only glucose without the other oligosaccharides from phosphoric acid swollen Avicel (PSA). The combination of both the hyperthermophilic cellulases, BGLPf and EGPh, will be adaptable to a high efficiency system to produce glucose at high temperature.
A Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzyme Complex from an Alkalothermoanaerobacterium, Tepidimicrobium xylanilyticum BT14
Phitsuwan, Paripok ; Tachaapaikoon, Chakrit ; Kosugi, Akihiko ; Mori, Yutaka ; Kyu, Khin Lay ; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 893~903
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.0911.11025
A cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzyme complex-producing alkalothermoanaerobacterium strain, Tepidimicrobium xylanilyticum BT14, is described. The cell was Grampositive, rod-shaped, and endospore-forming. Based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and various lines of biochemical and physiological properties, the strain BT14 is a new member of the genus Tepidimicrobium. The strain BT14 cells had the ability to bind to Avicel, xylan, and corn hull. The pH and temperature optima for growth were 9.0 and
, respectively. The strain BT14 was able to use a variety of carbon sources. When the bacterium was grown on corn hulls under an anaerobic condition, a cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzyme complex was produced. Crude enzyme containing cellulase and xylanase of the strain BT14 was active in broad ranges of pH and temperature. The optimum conditions for cellulase and xylanase activities were pH 8.0 and 9.0 at
, respectively. The crude enzyme had the ability to bind to Avicel and xylan. The analysis of native-PAGE and native-zymograms indicated the cellulosebinding protein showing both cellulase and xylanase activities, whereas SDS-PAGE zymograms showed 4 bands of cellulases and 5 bands of xylanases. Evidence of a cohesinlike amino acid sequence seemed to indicate that the protein complex shared a direct relationship with the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum. The crude enzyme from the strain BT14 showed effective degradation of plant biomass. When grown on corn hulls at pH 9.0 and
under anaerobic conditions, the strain BT14 produced ethanol and acetate as the main fermentation products.
Effect of Vibration on Dispersal of Cladosporium cladosporioides Bioaerosols
Lee, Byung-Uk ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 904~907
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.0909.09039
The vibration of fungal cultures was evaluated to determine its potential effect on the dispersal of airborne fungal microorganisms suspected of being pathogens. An artificial vibration system, which simulates the actual environmental vibration of fungal structures, was designed and constructed for this purpose. Experiments featured the use of low-frequency vibrations similar to those induced by earthquakes. Within the range of conditions tested, the vibration of fungal cultures was found to affect the airflow-driven generation of bioaerosols.
Implications of Fullerene-60 upon in-vitro LDPE Biodegradation
Sah, Aditi ; Kapri, Anil ; Zaidi, M.G.H. ; Negi, Harshita ; Goel, Reeta ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 908~916
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.0910.10025
Fullerene-60 nanoparticles were used for studying their effect on the low-density polyethylene (LDPE) biodegradation efficiency of two potential polymer-degrading consortia comprising three bacterial strains each. At a concentration of 0.01% (w/v) in minimal broth lacking dextrose, fullerene did not have any negative influence upon the consortia growth. However, fullerene was found to be detrimental for bacterial growth at higher concentrations (viz., 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%). Although addition of 0.01% fullerene into the biodegradation assays containing 5mg/ml LDPE subsided growth curves significantly, subsequent analysis of the degraded products revealed an enhanced biodegradation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed breakage and formation of chemical bonds along with the introduction of
-O frequencies into the hydrocarbon backbone of LDPE. Moreover, simultaneous thermogravimetric-differential thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTG-DTA) revealed a higher number of decomposition steps along with a 1,000-fold decrease in the heat of reactions (
) in fullerene-assisted biodegraded LDPE, suggesting the probable formation of multiple macromolecular byproducts. This is the first report whereby fullerene-60, which is otherwise considered toxic, has helped to accelerate the polymer biodegradation process of bacterial consortia.
Transgenic Tobacco Plant Expressing Environmental E. coli merA Gene for Enhanced Volatilization of Ionic Mercury
Haque, Shafiul ; Zeyaullah, Md. ; Nabi, Gowher ; Srivastava, P.S. ; Ali, Arif ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 917~924
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1002.02001
The practicability of transgenic tobacco engineered to express bacterial native mercuric reductase (MerA), responsible for the transport of
ions into the cell and their reduction to elemental mercury (
), without any codon modification, for phytoremediation of mercury pollution was evaluated. Transgenic tobacco plants reduce mercury ions to the metallic form; take up metallic mercury through their roots; and evolve the less toxic elemental mercury. Transformed tobacco produced a large amount of merA protein in leaves and showed a relatively higher resistance phenotype to
than wild type. Results suggest that the integrated merA gene, encoding mercuric reductase, a key enzyme of the bacterial mer operon, was stably integrated into the tobacco genome and translated to active MerA, which catalyzes the bioconversion of toxic
to the least toxic elemental
, and suggest that MerA is capable of reducing the
, probably via NADPH as an electron donor. The transgenic tobacco expressing merA volatilized significantly more mercury than wild-type plants. This is first time we are reporting the expression of a bacterial native merA gene via the nuclear genome of Nicotiana tabacum, and enhanced mercury volatilization from tobacco transgenics. The study clearly indicates that transgenic tobacco plants are reasonable candidates for the remediation of mercurycontaminated areas.
Effects of Raw Materials and Bulking Agents on the Thermophilic Composting Process
Tang, Jing-Chun ; Zhou, Qixing ; Katayama, Arata ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 925~934
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.0908.08036
Three typical biological solid wastes, namely, animal manure, garbage, and sewage sludge, were compared with regard to the composting process and the changes in microbial community structure. The effects of different bulking agents such as rice straw, vermiculite, sawdust, and waste paper were compared in manure compost. The differences in the microbial community were characterized by the quinone profile method. The highest mass reduction was found in garbage composting (56.8%), compared with manure and sludge (25% and 20.2%, respectively). A quinone content of
was observed in the late stage of garbage composting, although the diversity index of the quinone profile was 9.7, lower than that in manure composting. The predominant quinone species was found to be MK-7, which corresponds to Gram-positive bacteria with a low G+C content, such as Bacillus. The predominance of MK-7 was especially found in the garbage and sludge composting process, and the increase in quinones with partially saturated long side-chains was shown in the late composting process of manure, which corresponded to the proliferation of Actinobacteria. The effects of different bulking agents on the composting process was much smaller than the effects of different raw materials. High organic matter content in the raw materials resulted in a higher microbial biomass and activity, which was connected to the high mass reduction rate.
Evidence to Support the Therapeutic Potential of Bacteriophage Kpn5 in Burn Wound Infection Caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in BALB/c Mice
Kumar, Seema ; Harja, Kusum ; Chhibber, Sanjay ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 935~941
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.0909.09010
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains is one of the most critical problems of modern medicine. Bacteriophages have been suggested as an alternative therapeutic agent for such bacterial infections. In the present study, we examined the therapeutic potential of phage Kpn5 in the treatment of Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055-induced burn wound infection in a mouse model. An experimental model of contact burn wound infection was established in mice employing K. pneumoniae B5055 to assess the efficacy of phage Kpn5 in vivo. Survival and stability of phage Kpn5 were evaluated in mice and the maximum phage count in various organs was obtained at 6 h and persisted until 36 h. The Kpn5 phage was found to be effective in the treatment of Klebsiella-induced burn wound infection in mice when phage was administered immediately after bacterial challange. Even when treatment was delayed up to 18 h post infection, when all animals were moribund, approximately 26.66% of the mice could be rescued by a single injection of this phage preparation. The ability of this phage to protect bacteremic mice was demonstrated to be due to the functional capabilities of the phage and not due to a nonspecific immune effect. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-
) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) were significantly lower in sera and lungs of phage-treated mice than phage untreated control mice. The results of the present study bring out the potential of bacteriophage therapy as an alternate preventive approach to treat K. pneumoniae B5055-induced burn wound infections. This approach not only helps in the clearance of bacteria from the host but also protects against the ensuing inflammatory damage due to the exaggerated response seen in any infectious process.
Resveratrol Impaired the Morphological Transition of Candida albicans Under Various Hyphae-Inducing Conditions
Okamoto-Shibayama, Kazuko ; Sato, Yutaka ; Azuma, Toshifumi ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 942~945
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.0911.11014
The ability of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans to undergo the morphological transition from a single yeast form to pseudohyphal and hyphal forms in response to various conditions is known to be important for its virulence. Many studies have shown the pharmacological effects of resveratrol, a phytoalexin polyphenolic compound. In this study, we investigated the antifungal activity of resveratrol against C. albicans. Both yeast-form and mycelial growth of C. albicans were inhibited by resveratrol. In addition, normal filamentation of C. albicans was affected and yeast-to-hypha transition under serum-, pH-, and nutrient-induced hyphal growth conditions was impaired by resveratrol.
Specific Expression Patterns of xyl1, xyl2, and xyl3 in Response to Different Sugars in Pichia stipitis
Han, Ji-Hye ; Park, Ju-Yong ; Kang, Hyun-Woo ; Choi, Gi-Wook ; Chung, Bong-Woo ; Min, Ji-Ho ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 946~949
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.0912.12028
The effects of two different sugars (glucose and xylose) on the expression levels and patterns of the xylose reductase (xyl1), xylitol dehydrogenase (xyl2), and xylulokinase (xyl3) genes were analyzed using Pichia stipitis. A significant increase in mRNA levels of xyl1 was observed after 6 h growth in culture conditions using xylose as a sole carbon source, but expressions of the three genes were not influenced by normal culture media with glucose. In addition, expressions of xyl2 and xyl3 were not observed during the entire culture period during which xylose was added. It also was found that the expression level of xyl1 increased as a function of the xylose concentration (40, 60, and 80 g/l) used in this study, indicating that xyl1 expression sensitively responded to xylose in the culture media. Although the induced level of xyl2 increased slightly after 48 h in the xylose-supplemented culture conditions, the expression of xyl2 was not observed in the xylitol-supplemented culture conditions. Finally, considering the expression of each gene in response to glucose or xylose, the absolute expression levels of the three genes indicate that xyl1 is induced primarily by exposure to xylose.
Evolutionary Operation (EVOP) to Optimize Whey-Independent Serratiopeptidase Production from Serratia marcescens NRRL B-23112
Pansuriya, Ruchir C. ; Singhal, Rekha S. ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 950~957
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.0911.11023
Serratiopeptidase (SRP), a 50 kDa metalloprotease produced from Serratia marcescens species, is a drug with potent anti-inflammatory property. In this study, a powerful statistical design, evolutionary operation (EVOP), was applied to optimize the media composition for SRP production in shake-flask culture of Serratia marcescens NRRL B-23112. Initially, factors such as inoculum size, initial pH, carbon source, and organic nitrogen source were optimized using one factor at a time. The most significant medium components affecting the production of SRP were identified as maltose, soybean meal, and
. The SRP so produced was not found to be dependent on whey protein, but rather was notably induced by most of the organic nitrogen sources used in the study and free from other concomitant protease contaminant, as revealed by protease inhibition study. In addition, experiments were performed using different sets of EVOP design with each factor varied at three levels. The experimental data were analyzed with a standard set of statistical formula. The EVOP-optimized medium, with maltose 4.5%, soybean meal 6.5%,
0.8%, and NaCl 0.5% (w/v), gave a SRP production of 7,333 EU/ml, which was 17-fold higher than the unoptimized media. The application of EVOP resulted in significant enhancement of SRP production.