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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of the Coal-Degrading Ability of Rhizobium and Chelatococcus Strains Isolated from the Formation Water of an Indian Coal Bed
Singh, Durgesh Narain ; Tripathi, Anil Kumar ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1101~1108
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1106.06005
The rise in global energy demand has prompted researches on developing strategies for transforming coal into a cleaner fuel. This requires isolation of microbes with the capability to degrade complex coal into simpler substrates to support methanogenesis in the coal beds. In this study, aerobic bacteria were isolated from an Indian coal bed that can solubilize and utilize coal as the sole source of carbon. The six bacterial isolates capable of growing on coal agar medium were identified on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences, which clustered into two groups; Group I isolates belonged to the genus Rhizobium, whereas Group II isolates were identified as Chelatococcus species. Out of the 4 methods of whole genome fingerprinting (ERIC-PCR, REP-PCR, BOX-PCR, and RAPD), REP-PCR showed maximum differentiation among strains within each group. Only Chelatococcus strains showed the ability to solubilize and utilize coal as the sole source of carbon. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and the ability to utilize different carbon sources, the Chelatococcus strains showed maximum similarity to C. daeguensis. This is the first report showing occurrence of Rhizobium and Chelatococcus strains in an Indian coal bed, and the ability of Chelatococcus isolates to solubilize and utilize coal as a sole source of carbon for their growth.
A TaqMan Real-Time PCR Assay for Quantifying Type III Hepatopancreatic Parvovirus Infections in Wild Broodstocks and Hatchery-Reared Postlarvae of Fenneropenaeus chinensis in Korea
Jang, In-Kwon ; Suriakala, Kannan ; Kim, Jong-Sheek ; Meng, Xian-Hong ; Choi, Tae-Jin ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1109~1115
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1107.07009
A highly sensitive and specific TaqMan real-time PCR was used to quantify hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) type III infections in wild broodstocks and hatchery-reared postlarvae (PL) of Fenneropenaeus chinensis. Totals of 159 and 162 wild brooders from three locations were captured, and 140 and 180 PL were obtained from seven and six commercial hatcheries in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Among the three wild broodstock groups from 2007, only 1 group showed HPV infection and 3.2% of 159 brooders were positive for HPV infection. In 2008, HPV infections were observed from all three wild broodstock groups with
copies/mg tissue of pleopods. Of 162 brooders, 26.6% were positive for HPV infection. No PL from the two hatcheries collected in 2007 showed HPV infection, and PL from the rest of the five hatcheries had up to
copies/ng of DNA, and PL from three hatcheries showed HPV infections with over 1,000 copies/ng of DNA. The PL from all seven hatcheries collected in 2008 showed up to
HPV copies/ng of DNA. PL from two hatcheries showed less than 100 copies/ng of DNA, but PL from the rest of the hatcheries showed HPV infections with over 1,000 copies/ng of DNA. These results show that HPV type III is widely distributed in Korea in addition to previously reported HPV type I, and they can be effectively detected by type-specific realtime PCR.
Improvement in the Catalytic Activity of
-Agarase AgaA from Zobellia galactanivorans by Site-Directed Mutagenesis
Lee, Seung-Woo ; Lee, Dong-Geun ; Jang, Min-Kyung ; Jeon, Myong-Je ; Jang, Hye-Ji ; Lee, Sang-Hyeon ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1116~1122
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1107.07001
In this study, site-directed mutagenesis was performed on the
-agarase AgaA gene from Zobellia galactanivorans to improve its catalytic activity and thermostability. The activities of three mutant enzymes, S63K, C253I, and S63K-C253I, were 126% (1,757.78 U/mg), 2.4% (33.47 U/mg), and 0.57% (8.01 U/mg), respectively, relative to the wild-type
-agarase AgaA (1,392.61 U/mg) at
. The stability of the mutant S63K enzyme was 125% of the wild-type up to
, where agar is in a sol state. The mutant S63K enzyme produced 166%, 257%, and 220% more neoagarohexaose, and 230%, 427%, and 350% more neoagarotetraose than the wild-type in sol, gel, and nonmelted powder agar, respectively, at
over 24 h. The mutant S63K enzyme produced 50% more neoagarooligosaccharides from agar than the wild-type
-agarase AgaA from agarose under the same conditions. Thus, mutant S63K
-agarase AgaA may be useful for the production of functional neoagarooligosaccharides.
Self-Transmissible IncP R995 Plasmids with Alternative Markers and Utility for Flp/FRT Cloning Strategies
Santiago, Clayton P. ; Quick, Laura N. ; Wilson, James W. ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1123~1126
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1106.06032
The IncP plasmid R995 has been a useful self-transmissible, broad-host-range vector for a number of applications including the recombinase/conjugation-based cloning of large genomic DNA segments. However, R995 derivatives (or related plasmids) expressing a wide range of different resistance markers and Flp recombinase target sites do not exist in the literature. In addition, documented strategies for applying such plasmids in cloning applications that take advantage of conjugation for the convenient isolation and recovery of constructs are extremely limited. Here, we report a new series of R995 plasmids with alternative markers to increase options for applications in backgrounds already expressing resistance to a particular antibiotic(s). These R995 plasmids have been engineered to contain FRT sites that can be used for recombinase-based cloning. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by cloning 20 kb regions from the Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli genomes and by cloning DNA from an exogenous plasmid source. To our knowledge, this represents the first systematic engineering of an intact, self-transmissible IncP plasmid with a series of alternative antibiotic markers and FRT sites.
Selection of Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonas spp. That Enhanced Productivity of Soybean-Wheat Cropping System in Central India
Sharma, Sushil K. ; Johri, Bhavdish Narayan ; Ramesh, Aketi ; Joshi, Om Prakash ; Sai Prasad, S.V. ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1127~1142
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1012.12018
The aim of this investigation was to select effective Pseudomonas sp. strains that can enhance the productivity of soybean-wheat cropping systems in Vertisols of Central India. Out of 13 strains of Pseudomonas species tested in vitro, only five strains displayed plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties. All the strains significantly increased soil enzyme activities, except acid phosphatase, total system productivity, and nutrient uptake in field evaluation; soil nutrient status was not significantly influenced. Available data indicated that six strains were better than the others. Principal component analysis (PCA) coupled cluster analysis of yield and nutrient data separated these strains into five distinct clusters with only two effective strains, GRP3 and HHRE81 in cluster IV. In spite of single cluster formation by strains GRP3 and HHRE81, they were diverse owing to greater intracluster distance (4.42) between each other. These results suggest that the GRP3 and HHRE81 strains may be used to increase the productivity efficiency of soybean-wheat cropping systems in Vertisols of Central India. Moreover, the PCA coupled cluster analysis tool may help in the selection of other such strains.
Enhanced Flavonoid Production in Streptomyces venezuelae via Metabolic Engineering
Park, Sung-Ryeol ; Ahn, Mi-Sun ; Han, Ah-Reum ; Park, Je-Won ; Yoon, Yeo-Joon ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1143~1146
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1108.08012
Metabolic engineering of plant-specific phenylpropanoid biosynthesis has attracted an increasing amount of attention recently, owing to the vast potential of flavonoids as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Recently, we have developed a recombinant Streptomyces venezuelae as a heterologous host for the production of flavonoids. In this study, we successfully improved flavonoid production by expressing two sets of genes predicted to be involved in malonate assimilation. The introduction of matB and matC encoding for malonyl-CoA synthetase and the putative dicarboxylate carrier protein, respectively, from Streptomyces coelicolor into the recombinant S. venezuelae strains expressing flavanone and flavone biosynthetic genes resulted in enhanced production of both flavonoids.
Antimicrobial Compounds Profile During Cheonggukjang Fermentation Against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo)
Son, Gun-Hee ; Kim, Ji-Young ; Muthaiya, Maria John ; Lee, Sa-Rah ; Kim, Hyang-Yeon ; Lee, Choong-Hwan ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1147~1150
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1109.09075
Xanthomonas oryzae causes rice bacterial blight, which has been reported as one of the most destructive diseases of rice. Metabolites were identified through cheonggukjang, a traditional Korean fermented soybean product fermented by the Bacillus spp., to control the bacteria. HPLC, MS, and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analyses were performed to identify metabolites responsible for antimicrobial activity. In this analysis, the m/z values of 253.0498, 283.0600, 269.0455, 992.6287, and 1,006.6436 were identified as daidzein, glycitein, genistein, surfactin B, and surfactin A, respectively. The levels of surfactin B and surfactin A were found to be high at 24 h (4.35
/ml) and 36 h (3.43
/ml) of fermentation, respectively.
Galactooligosaccharide Synthesis by Active
-Galactosidase Inclusion Bodies-Containing Escherichia coli Cells
Lee, Sang-Eun ; Seo, Hyeon-Beom ; Kim, Hye-Ji ; Yeon, Ji-Hyeon ; Jung, Kyung-Hwan ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1151~1158
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1105.05021
In this study, a galactooligosaccharide (GOS) was synthesized using active
-gal) inclusion bodies (IBs)-containing Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. Analysis by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight) mass spectrometry revealed that a trisaccharide was the major constituent of the synthesized GOS mixture. Additionally, the optimal pH, lactose concentration, amounts of E. coli
-gal IBs, and temperature for GOS synthesis were 7.5, 500 g/l, 3.2 U/ml, and
, respectively. The total GOS yield from 500 g/l of lactose under these optimal conditions was about 32%, which corresponded to 160.4 g/l of GOS. Western blot analyses revealed that
-gal IBs were gradually destroyed during the reaction. In addition, when both the reaction mixture and E. coli
-gal hydrolysate were analyzed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HP-TLC), the trisaccharide was determined to be galactosyl lactose, indicating that a galactose moiety was most likely transferred to a lactose molecule during GOS synthesis. This GOS synthesis system might be useful for the synthesis of galactosylated drugs, which have recently received significant attention owing to the ability of the galactose molecules to improve the drugs solubility while decreasing their toxicity.
-Gal IB utilization is potentially a more convenient and economic approach to enzymatic GOS synthesis, since no enzyme purification steps after the transgalactosylation reaction would be required.
Transesterification Using the Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregate of Photobacterium lipolyticum Lipase M37
Han, Jin-Yee ; Kim, Hyung-Kwoun ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1159~1165
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1106.06048
Biodiesel is methyl and ethyl esters of long-chain fatty acids produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. Lipase enzymes have occasionally been used for the production of this biofuel. Recently, biodiesel production using immobilized lipase has received increased attention. Through enhanced stability and reusability, immobilized lipase can contribute to the reduction of the costs inherent to biodiesel production. In this study, methanol-tolerant lipase M37 from Photobacterium lipolyticum was immobilized using the cross-linked enzyme aggregate (CLEA) method. Lipase M37 has a high lysine content (9.7%) in its protein sequence. Most lysine residues are located evenly over the surface of the protein, except for the lid structure region, which makes the CLEA preparation yield quite high (~93%). CLEA M37 evidences an optimal temperature of
, and an optimal pH of 9-10. It was stable up to
and in a pH range of 4.0-11.0. Both soluble M37 and CLEA M37 were stable in the presence of high concentrations of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and n-butanol. That is, their activities were maintained at solvent concentrations above 10% (v/v). CLEA M37 could produce biodiesel from olive oil and alcohols such as methanol and ethanol. Additionally, CLEA M37 generated biodiesel via both 2-step methanol feeding procedures. Considering its physical stability and reusability, CLEA M37 may potentially be used as a catalyst in organic synthesis, including the biodiesel production reaction.
Purification and Characterization of a Major Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MJ5-41 Isolated from Meju
Jo, Hyeon-Deok ; Lee, Hwang-A ; Jeong, Seon-Ju ; Kim, Jeong-Hwan ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1166~1173
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1106.06008
Meju is a traditional Korean fermented soy product used as a key element for soy sauce and doenjang. Bacilli with antimicrobial activity were isolated from meju prepared by traditional methods at Sunchang county, Jeollabukdo, Korea. Six isolates were identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by recA gene sequencing and RAPD-PCR. One isolate, B. amyloliquefaciens MJ5-41, showed the strongest fibrinolytic activity. A 27 kDa active fibrinolytic enzyme, AprE5-41, was purified from the culture supernatant of MJ5-41 grown on LB by chromatographic methods. The optimum pH and temperature for purified AprE5-41 were 7.0 and
, respectively. AprE5-41 quickly degraded
chains but not the
-chain of fibrinogen. AprE5-41 exhibited the highest specificity for N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe p-nitroanilide, a known substrate for
-chymotrypsin, cathepsin G, and subtilisin BPN'. The structural gene, aprE5-41, was cloned by PCR and successfully expressed in B. subtilis.
Exopolysaccharide-Overproducing Lactobacillus paracasei KB28 Induces Cytokines in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages via Modulation of NF-
Kang, Hee ; Choi, Hye-Sun ; Kim, Ji-Eun ; Han, Nam-Soo ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1174~1178
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1105.05026
Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are microbial polysaccharides that are released outside of the bacterial cell wall. There have been few studies on EPS-producing lactic acid bacteria that can enhance macrophage activity and the underlying signaling mechanism for cytokine expression. In the current study, EPS-overproducing Lactobacillus (L.) paracasei KB28 was isolated from kimchi and cultivated in conditioned media containing glucose, sucrose, and lactose. The whole bacterial cells were obtained with their EPS being attached, and the cytokine-inducing activities of these cells were investigated. Gas chromatography analysis showed the presence of glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, and rhamnose in EPS composition. EPS-producing L. paracasei KB28 induced the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-
, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-12 in mouse macrophages. This strain also caused the degradation of
and phosphorylation of the major MAPKs: Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. The use of pharmacological inhibitors showed that different signaling pathways were involved in the induction of TNF-
, IL-6 and IL-12 by L. paracasei KB28. Our results provide information for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the immunomodulatory effect of food-derived EPS-producing lactic acid bacteria.
Identification of a p-Cresol Degradation Pathway by a GFP-Based Transposon in Pseudomonas and Its Dominant Expression in Colonies
Cho, Ah-Ra ; Lim, Eun-Jin ; Veeranagouda, Yaligara ; Lee, Kyoung ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1179~1183
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1104.04006
In this study, the chromosome-encoded pcuRCAXB genes that are required for p-cresol degradation have been identified by using a newly constructed green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based promoter probe transposon in the long-chain alkylphenol degrader Pseudomonas alkylphenolia. The deduced amino acid sequences of the genes showed the highest identities at the levels of 65-93% compared with those in the databases. The transposon was identified to be inserted in the pcuA gene, with the promoterless gfp gene being under the control of the pcu catabolic gene promoter. The expression of GFP was positively induced by p-cresol and was about 10 times higher by cells grown on agar than those in liquid culture. In addition, p-hydroxybenzoic acid was detected during p-cresol degradation. These results indicate that P. alkylphenolia additionally possesses a protocatechuate ortho-cleavage route for p-cresol degradation that is dominantly expressed in colonies.
Selenite Stress Elicits Physiological Adaptations in Bacillus sp. (Strain JS-2)
Dhanjal, Soniya ; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1184~1192
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1105.05038
A bacterial isolate (strain JS-2) characterized as Bacillus sp. was challenged with high concentrations of toxic selenite ions. The microbe was found to transform the toxic, soluble, colorless selenite (
) oxyions to nontoxic, insoluble, red elemental selenium (
). This process of biotransformation was accompanied by cytoplasmic and surface accumulation of electron dense selenium (
) granules, as revealed in electron micrographs. The cells grown in the presence of selenite oxyions secreted large quantities of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). There were quantitative and qualitative differences in the cell wall fatty acids of the culture grown in the presence of selenite ions. The relative percentage of total saturated fatty acid and cyclic fatty acid increased significantly, whereas the amount of total unsaturated fatty acids decreased when the cells were exposed to selenite stress. All these physiological adaptive responses evidently indicate a potentially important role of cell wall fatty acids and extracellular polymeric substances in determining bacterial adaptation towards selenite-induced toxicity, which thereby explains the remarkable competitiveness and ability of this microbe to survive the environmental stress.
Cytotoxicity of Listeriolysin O Produced by Membrane-Encapsulated Bacillus subtilis on Leukemia Cells
Stachowiak, R. ; Granicka, L.H. ; Wisniewski, J. ; Lyzniak, M. ; Kawiak, J. ; Bielecki, J. ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1193~1198
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1105.05040
Encapsulation of biological material in the permiselective membrane allows to construct a system separating cells from their products, which may find biotechnological as well as biomedical applications in biological processes regulation. Application of a permiselective membrane allows avoiding an attack of the implanted microorganisms on the host. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of Bacillus subtilis encapsulated in an elaborate membrane system producing listeriolysin O, a cytolysin from Listeria monocytogenes, with chosen eukaryotic cells for future application in anticancer treatment. The system of encapsulating in membrane live Bacillus subtilis BR1-S secreting listeriolysin O was proven to exert the effective cytotoxic activity on eukaryotic cells. Interestingly, listeriolysin O showed selective cytotoxic activity on eukaryotic cells: more human leukemia Jurkat T cells were killed than human chronic lymphocytic B cells leukemia at similar conditions in vitro. This system of encapsulated B. subtilis, continuously releasing bacterial products, may affect selectively different types of cells and may have future application in local anticancer treatment.
Antimicrobial Effect of Medical Adhesive Composed of Aldehyded Dextran and
Lee, Jeong-Hyun ; Kim, Hye-Lee ; Lee, Mi-Hee ; Taguchi, Hideaki ; Hyon, Suong-Hyu ; Park, Jong-Chul ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1199~1202
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1105.05054
Infection of surgical wounds is a severe problem. Conventional tissue reattachment methods have limits of incomplete sealing and high susceptibility to infection. Medical adhesives have several advantages over traditional tissue reattachment techniques, but still have drawbacks, such as the probability of infection, low adhesive strength, and high cytotoxicity. Recently, a new medical adhesive (new-adhesive) with high adhesive strength and low cytotoxicity, composed of aldehyded dextran and
-poly(L-lysine), was developed. The antimicrobial activity of the new-adhesive was assayed using agar media and porcine skin. In the agar diffusion method, inoculated microorganisms that contacted the new-adhesive were inactivated, but this was not dependent on the amount of new-adhesive. Similar to the agar media results, the topical antimicrobial effect of new-adhesive was confirmed using a porcine skin antimicrobial assay, and the effect was not due to physical blocking based on comparison with the group whose wounds were wrapped.