Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
Effects of Field-Grown Genetically Modified Zoysia Grass on Bacterial Community Structure
Lee, Yong-Eok ; Yang, Sang-Hwan ; Bae, Tae-Woong ; Kang, Hong-Gyu ; Lim, Pyung-Ok ; Lee, Hyo-Yeon ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 333~340
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1010.10004
Herbicide-tolerant Zoysia grass has been previously developed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We investigated the effects of genetically modified (GM) Zoysia grass and the associated herbicide application on bacterial community structure by using culture-independent approaches. To assess the possible horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of transgenic DNA to soil microorganisms, total soil DNAs were amplified by PCR with two primer sets for the bar and hpt genes, which were introduced into the GM Zoysia grass by a callus-type transformation. The transgenic genes were not detected from the total genomic DNAs extracted from 1.5 g of each rhizosphere soils of GM and non-GM Zoysia grasses. The structures and diversities of the bacterial communities in rhizosphere soils of GM and non-GM Zoysia grasses were investigated by constructing 16S rDNA clone libraries. Classifier, provided in the RDP II, assigned 100 clones in the 16S rRNA gene sequences library into 11 bacterial phyla. The most abundant phyla in both clone libraries were Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria. The bacterial diversity of the GM clone library was lower than that of the non- GM library. The former contained four phyla, whereas the latter had seven phyla. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to confirm these results. Phylogenetic analyses of the two clone libraries revealed considerable difference from each other. The significance of difference between clone libraries was examined with LIBSHUFF statistics. LIBSHUFF analysis revealed that the two clone libraries differed significantly (P<0.025), suggesting alterations in the composition of the microbial community associated with GM Zoysia grass.
Influence of Varying Degree of Salinity-Sodicity Stress on Enzyme Activities and Bacterial Populations of Coastal Soils of Yellow Sea, South Korea
Siddikee, Md. Ashaduzzaman ; Tipayno, Sherlyn C. ; Kim, Ki-Yoon ; Chung, Jong-Bae ; Sa, Tong-Min ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 341~346
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1012.12015
To study the effects of salinity-sodicity on bacterial population and enzyme activities, soil samples were collected from the Bay of Yellow Sea, Incheon, South Korea. In the soils nearest to the coastline, pH, electrical conductivity (
), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) were greater than the criteria of saline-sodic soil, and soils collected from sites 1.5-2 km away from the coastline were not substantially affected by the intrusion and spray of seawater. Halotolerant bacteria showed similar trends, whereas non-tolerant bacteria and enzymatic activities had opposite trends. Significant positive correlations were found between EC, exchangeable
, and pH with SAR and ESP. In contrast,
, SAR, ESP, and exchangeable
exhibited significant negative correlations with bacterial populations and enzyme activities. The results of this study indicate that the soil chemical variables related with salinity-sodicity are significantly related with the sampling distance from the coastline and are the key stress factors, which greatly affect microbial and biochemical properties.
Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags from the Wood-Decaying Fungus Fomitopsis palustris and Identification of Potential Genes Involved in the Decay Process
Karim, Nurul ; Shibuya, Hajime ; Kikuchi, Taisei ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 347~358
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1010.10048
Fomitopsis palustris, a brown-rot basidiomycete, causes the most destructive type of decay in wooden structures. In spite of its great economic importance, very little information is available at the molecular level regarding its complex decay process. To address this, we generated over 3,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a cDNA library constructed from F. palustris. Clustering of 3,095 high-quality ESTs resulted in a set of 1,403 putative unigenes comprising 485 contigs and 918 singlets. Homology searches based on BlastX analysis revealed that 78% of the F. palustris unigenes had a significant match to proteins deposited in the nonredundant databases. A subset of F. palustris unigenes showed similarity to the carbohydrateactive enzymes (CAZymes), including a range of glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family proteins. Some of these CAZyme-encoded genes were previously undescribed for F. palustris but predicted to have potential roles in biodegradation of wood. Among them, we identified and characterized a gene (FpCel45A) encoding the GH family 45 endoglucanase. Moreover, we also provided functional classification of 473 (34%) of F. palustris unigenes using the Gene Ontology hierarchy. The annotated EST data sets and related analysis may be useful in providing an initial insight into the genetic background of F. palustris.
Molecular Classification of Commercial Spirulina Strains and Identification of Their Sulfolipid Biosynthesis Genes
Kwei, Chee Kuan ; Lewis, David ; King, Keith ; Donohue, William ; Neilan, Brett A. ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 359~365
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1008.08016
Cyanobacterial strains of the genus Spirulina have recently been identified as an excellent source of sulfolipids, some of which possess anti-HIV properties. Thus, to investigate the distribution of sufolipid biosynthesis pathways in Spirulina, a genetic screening/phylogentic study was performed. Five different strains of Spirulina [Spirulina (Jiangmen), Spirulina sp., S. platensis, S. maxima, and Spirulina seawater] sourced from different locations were initially classified via 16S rDNA sequencing, and then screened for the presence of the sulfolipid biosynthesis genes sqdB and sqdX via a PCR. To assess the suitability of these strains for human consumption and safe therapeutic use, the strains were also screened for the presence of genes encoding nonribosomal peptide synthases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), which are often associated with toxin pathways in cyanobacteria. The results of the 16S rDNA analysis and phylogenetic study indicated that Spirulina sp. is closely related to Halospirulina, whereas the other four Spirulina strains are closely related to Arthrospira. Homologs of sqdB and sqdX were identified in Spirulina (Jiangmen), Spirulina sp., S. platensis, and the Spirulina seawater. None of the Spirulina strains screened in this study tested positive for NRPS or PKS genes, suggesting that these strains do not produce NRP or PK toxins.
Proteomic Profiles of Mouse Neuro N2a Cells Infected with Variant Virulence f Rabies Viruses
Wang, Xiaohu ; Zhang, Shoufeng ; Sun, Chenglong ; Yuan, Zi-Guo ; Wu, Xianfu ; Wang, Dongxia ; Ding, Zhuang ; Hu, Rongliang ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 366~373
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1010.10003
We characterized the proteomes of murine N2a cells following infection with three rabies virus (RV) strains, characterized by distinct virulence phenotypes (i.e., virulent BD06, fixed CVS-11, and attenuated SRV9 strains), and identified 35 changes to protein expression using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in whole-cell lysates. The annotated functions of these proteins are involved in various cytoskeletal, signal transduction, stress response, and metabolic processes. Specifically, a-enolase, prx-4, vimentin, cytokine-induced apoptosis inhibitor 1 (CIAPIN1) and prx-6 were significantly up-regulated, whereas Trx like-1 and galectin-1 were down-regulated following infection of N2a cells with all three rabies virus strains. However, comparing expressions of all 35 proteins affected between BD06-, CVS-11-, and SRV9-infected cells, specific changes in expression were also observed. The up-regulation of vimentin, CIAPIN1, prx-4, and 14-3-3
, and down-regulation of NDPK-B and HSP-1 with CVS and SRV9 infection were
times greater than with BD06. Meanwhile, Zfp12 protein, splicing factor, and arginine/serine-rich 1 were unaltered in the cells infected with BD06 and CVS-11, but were up-regulated in the group infected with SRV9. The proteomic alterations described here may suggest that these changes to protein expression correlate with the rabies virus' adaptability and virulence in N2a cells, and hence provides new clues as to the response of N2a host cells to rabies virus infections, and may also aid in uncovering new pathways in these cells that are involved in rabies infections. Further characterization of the functions of the affected proteins may contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of RV infection and pathogenesis.
Metagenome Resource for D-Serine Utilization in a DsdA-Disrupted Escherichia coli
Lim, Mi-Young ; Lee, Hyo-Jeong ; Kim, Pil ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 374~378
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1012.12025
To find alternative genetic resources for D-serine dehydratase (E.C. 18.104.22.168, dsdA) mediating the deamination of D-serine into pyruvate, metagenomic libraries were screened. The chromosomal dsdA gene of a wild-type Escherichia coli W3110 strain was disrupted by inserting the tetracycline resistance gene (tet), using double-crossover, for use as a screening host. The W3110 dsdA::tet strain was not able to grow in a medium containing D-serine as a sole carbon source, whereas wild-type W3110 and the complement W3110 dsdA::tet strain containing a dsdA-expression plasmid were able to grow. After introducing metagenome libraries into the screening host, a strain containing a 40-kb DNA fragment obtained from the metagenomic souce derived from a compost was selected based on its capability to grow on the agar plate containing D-serine as a sole carbon source. For identification of the genetic resource responsible for the D-serine degrading capability, transposon-
was randomly inserted into the 40-kb metagenome. Two strains that had lost their D-serine degrading ability were negatively selected, and the two 6-kb contigs responsible for the D-serine degrading capability were sequenced and deposited (GenBank code: HQ829474.1 and HQ829475.1). Therefore, new alternative genetic resources for D-serine dehydratase was found from the metagenomic resource, and the corresponding ORFs are discussed.
Effects of Pseudomonas aureofaciens 63-28 on Defense Responses in Soybean Plants Infected by Rhizoctonia solani
Jung, Woo-Jin ; Park, Ro-Dong ; Mabood, Fazli ; Souleimanov, Alfred ; Smith, Donald L. ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 379~386
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1012.12001
The objective of this work was to investigate the ability of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aureofaciens 63-28 to induce plant defense systems, including defense-related enzyme levels and expression of defense-related isoenzymes, and isoflavone production, leading to improved resistance to the phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 in soybean seedlings. Seven-day-old soybean seedlings were inoculated with P. aureofaciens 63-28, R. solani AG-4, or P. aureofaciens 63-28 plus R. solani AG-4 (P+R), or not inoculated (control). After 7 days of incubation, roots treated with R. solani AG-4 had obvious damping-off symptoms, but P+R-treated soybean plants had less disease development, indicating suppression of R. solani AG-4 in soybean seedlings. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities of R. solani AG-4-treated roots increased by 24.6% and 54.0%, respectively, compared with control roots. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities of R. solani AG-4-treated roots were increased by 75.1% and 23.6%, respectively. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in soybean roots challenged with P. aureofaciens 63-28 and P+R increased by 25.0% and 11.6%, respectively. Mn-SOD (S1 band on gel) and Fe-SOD (S2) were strongly induced in P+R-treated roots, whereas one CAT (C1) and one APX (A3) were strongly induced in R. solani AG-4- treated roots. The total isoflavone concentration in P+Rtreated shoots was 27.2% greater than the control treatment. The isoflavone yield of R. solani AG-4-treated shoots was 60.9% less than the control.
Evaluation of the Potential Risk of Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus (PERV) Infection in Nude Mice
Bae, Eun-Hye ; Jung, Yong-Tae ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 387~390
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1012.12013
Nude mice (BALB/c) were grafted with human 293 cells and PERV (porcine endogenous retrovirus)-IRES-EGFP (a packageable retroviral vector plasmid containing an internal ribosome entry site-enhanced green fluorescent protein)-producing pig PK15 cells in order to determine whether the pig cells could transmit PERV-IRES-EGFP to mice and human 293 cells in vivo. None of the transplanted human 293 cell lines were infected by PERV, but PCR analysis identified PERV-B provirus integration into both the heart and salivary gland of the inoculated nude mice. Our data indicate that hearts and salivary glands can be used to identify PERV-B receptors.
An Innate Bactericidal Oleic Acid Effective Against Skin Infection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A Therapy Concordant with Evolutionary Medicine
Chen, Chao-Hsuan ; Wang, Yanhan ; Nakatsuji, Teruaki ; Liu, Yu-Tsueng ; Zouboulis, Christos C. ; Gallo, Richard L. ; Zhang, Liangfang ; Hsieh, Ming-Fa ; Huang, Chun-Ming ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 391~399
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1011.11014
Free fatty acids (FFAs) are known to have bacteriocidal activity and are important components of the innate immune system. Many FFAs are naturally present in human and animal skin, breast milk, and in the bloodstream. Here, the therapeutic potential of FFAs against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is demonstrated in cultures and in mice. Among a series of FFAs, only oleic acid (OA) (C18:1, cis-9) can effectively eliminate Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) through cell wall disruption. Lauric acid (LA, C12:0) and palmitic acid (PA, C16:0) do not have this ability. OA can inhibit growth of a number of Gram-positive bacteria, including hospital and community-associated MRSA at a dose that did not show any toxicity to human sebocytes. The bacteriocidal activities of FFAs were also demonstrated in vivo through injection of OA into mouse skin lesions previously infected with a strain of MRSA. In conclusion, our results suggest a promising therapeutic approach against MRSA through boosting the bacteriocidal activities of native FFAs, which may have been co-evolved during the interactions between microbes and their hosts.
Curative Effect of Selenium Against Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats
Kim, Jeong-Hwan ; Kim, Byung-Woo ; Kwon, Hyun-Ju ; Nam, Soo-Wan ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 400~404
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1012.12019
Indomethacin is a nonsteroid anti-inflammatory agent that is known to induce severe gastric mucosal lesions. In this study, we investigated the effect of selenium on gastric mucosal lesions in rats. To confirm the curative effect of selenium against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers, gastric ulcers were induced by oral administration of 25 mg/kg indomethacin, and then different doses (10, 50, and 100
/kg of body weight) of selenium or vehicle were treated by oral gavage for 3 days. Oral administration of indomethacin clearly increased the gastric ulcer area in the stomach, whereas selenium applied for 3 days significantly decreased the gastric ulcer area in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, selenium markedly reduced the increase of lipid peroxidation induced by indomethacin in the gastric mucosa and increased activities of radical scavenging enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in a dose-dependent manner. These results reveal that selenium can heal indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers through elimination of the lipid peroxides and activation of radical scavenging enzymes.
The Adjuvant Effect of Sophy
-Glucan to the Antibody Response in Poultry Immunized by the Avian Influenza A H5N1 and H5N2 Vaccines
Le, Thanh Hoa ; Le, Tran Binh ; Doan, Thanh Huong Thi ; Quyen, Dong Van ; Le, Kim XuyenThi ; Pham, Viet Cuong ; Nagataki, Mitsuru ; Nomura, Haruka ; Ikeue, Yasunori ; Watanabe, Yoshiya ; Agatsuma, Takeshi ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 405~411
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1011.11024
Avian influenza virus vaccines produced in oil-emulsified inactivated form with antigen content of at least 160 hemagglutinin units (HAU) induced immunity in birds. However, in addition to enhancing the effect of the adjuvant(s), other additional supplemented biological compounds included in inactivated vaccines could produce higher levels of antibody. We examined in chickens, Vietnamese ducks, and muscovy ducks the adjuvant effect of Sophy
-glucan (SBG), a
-1,3-1,6 glucan produced by the black yeast Aureobasidium pollulans strain AF0-202, when administered with an avian influenza H5 subtype vaccine. In Experiment 1, 40 chickens (ISA Brown hybrid), allocated to four groups of ten each, were immunized with Oil-H5N1(VN), Oil-H5N1(CN), Oil-H5N2(CN), and saline (control group), respectively. In Experiment 2, chickens (ISA Brown hybrid), muscovy ducks (French hybrid), and Vietnamese ducks (indigenous Vietnamese) were used to further assess the effect of SBG on immunogenicity of the Oil-H5N1(VN) Vietnamese vaccine. ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were used to assess the antibody response. The H5 subtype vaccines initiated significantly higher immune responses in the animals dosed with SBG, with 1.0-1.5
higher HI titers and 10-20% ELISA seroconversion, compared with those not dosed with
-glucan. Notably, some of the animals dosed with SBG induced HI titers higher than 9.0
following boosting immunization. Taken together, our serial studies indicated that SBG is a potential effector, such as enhancing the immune response to the H5 vaccines tested.
Evidence of an Alternative Route of Cellobiase Secretion in the Presence of Brefeldin A in the Filamentous Fungus Termitomyces clypeatus
Banik, Samudra Prosad ; Pal, Swagata ; Chowdhury, Sudeshna ; Ghorai, Shakuntala ; Khowala, Suman ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 412~420
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1009.08042
Secretion of cellobiase occurred in a brefeldin A (BFA) uninhibited manner in the filamentous fungus Termitomyces clypeatus. Fluorescence confocal microscopy revealed that application of the drug at a concentration of 50
/ml caused arrest of Spitzenkorper assembly at the hyphal tip. This resulted in greater than 30% inhibition of total protein secretion in the culture medium. However, the cellobiase titer increased by 17%, and an additional 13% was localized in the vacuolar fraction en route secretion. The secretory vacuoles formed in the presence of the drug were also found to be bigger (68 nm) than those in the control cultures (40 nm). The enzyme secreted in the presence and absence of BFA revealed a single activity band in both cases in native PAGE and had similar molecular masses (approx. 120 kDa) in SDS-PAGE. The BFA enzyme retained 72% of native glycosylation. It also exhibited a higher stability and retained 98% activity at
, 93.3% activity at pH 9, 63.64% activity in the presence of 1M guanidium hydrochloride, and 50% activity at a glucose concentration of 10 mg/ml in comparison to 68% activity, 75% activity, 36% activity, and 19% activity for the control enzyme, respectively. The observations collectively aimed at the operation of an alternative secretory pathway, distinct from the target of brefeldin A, which bypassed the Golgi apparatus, but still was able to deliver the cargo to the vacuoles for secretion. This can be utilized in selectively enhancing the yield and stability of glycosidases for a successful industrial recipe.
LC-MS/MS Analysis of Surface Layer Proteins as a Useful Method for the Identification of Lactobacilli from the Lactobacillus acidophilus Group
Podlesny, Marcin ; Jarocki, Piotr ; Komon, Elwira ; Glibowska, Agnieszka ; Targonski, Zdzislaw ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 421~429
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1009.09036
For precise identification of a Lactobacillus K1 isolate, LC-MS/MS analysis of the putative surface layer protein was performed. The results obtained from LTQ-FT-ICR mass spectrometry confirmed that the analyzed protein spot is the surface layer protein originating from Lb. helveticus species. Moreover, the identified protein has the highest similarity with the surface layer protein from Lb. helveticus R0052. To evaluate the proteomic study, multilocus sequence analysis of selected housekeeping gene sequences was performed. Combination of 16S rRNA sequencing with partial sequences for the genes encoding the RNA polymerase alpha subunit (rpoA), phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase alpha subunit (pheS), translational elongation factor Tu (tuf), and Hsp60 chaperonins (groEL) also allowed to classify the analyzed isolate as Lb. helveticus. Further classification at the strain level was achieved by sequencing of the slp gene. This gene showed 99.8% identity with the corresponding slp gene of Lb. helveticus R0052, which is in good agreement with data obtained by nano-HPLC coupled to an LTQ-FT-ICR mass spectrometer. Finally, LC-MS/MS analysis of surface layer proteins extracted from three other Lactobacillus strains proved that the proposed method is the appropriate molecular tool for the identification of S-layer-possessing lactobacilli at the species and even strain levels.
Effects of Dissolved Oxygen and Agitation on Production of Serratiopeptidase by Serratia Marcescens NRRL B-23112 in Stirred Tank Bioreactor and its Kinetic Modeling
Pansuriya, Ruchir C. ; Singhal, Rekha S. ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 430~437
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1009.09031
The effects of the agitation and aeration rates on the production of serratiopeptidase (SRP) in a 5-L fermentor (working volume 2-l) were systematically investigated using Serratia marcescens NRRL B-23112. The dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, biomass, SRP yield, and maltose utilization were all continuously measured during the course of the fermentation runs. The efficiencies of the aeration and agitation were evaluated based on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (
). The maximum SRP production of 11,580 EU/ml with a specific SRP productivity of 78.8 EU/g/h was obtained with an agitation of 400 rpm and aeration of 0.075 vvm, which was 58% higher than the shake-flask level. The
for the fermentation system supporting the maximum production (400 rpm, 0.075 vvm) was 11.3
. Under these fermentor optimized conditions, kinetic modeling was performed to understand the detailed course of the fermentation process. The resulting logistic and Luedeking-Piret models provided an effective description of the SRP fermentation, where the correlation coefficients for cell growth, SRP formation, and substrate consumption were 0.99, 0.94, and 0.84, respectively, revealing a good agreement between the model-predicted and experimental results. The kinetic analysis of the batch fermentation process for the production of SRP demonstrated the SRP production to be mixed growth associated.
Genome-Wide Response of Deinococcus radiodurans on Cadmium Toxicity
Joe, Min-Ho ; Jung, Sun-Wook ; Im, Seong-Hun ; Lim, Sang-Yong ; Song, Hyun-Pa ; Kwon, Oh-Suk ; Kim, Dong-Ho ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 438~447
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1012.12021
Deinococcus radiodurans is extremely resistant to various genotoxic conditions and chemicals. In this study, we characterized the effect of a sublethal concentration (100
) of cadmium (Cd) on D. radiodurans using a whole-genome DNA microarray. Time-course global gene expression profiling showed that 1,505 genes out of 3,116 total ORFs were differentially expressed more than 2-fold in response to Cd treatment for at least one timepoint. The majority of the upregulated genes are related to iron uptake, cysteine biosynthesis, protein disulfide stress, and various types of DNA repair systems. The enhanced upregulation of genes involved in cysteine biosynthesis and disulfide stress indicate that Cd has a high affinity for sulfur compounds. Provocation of iron deficiency and growth resumption of Cd-treated cells by iron supplementation also indicates that CdS forms in iron-sulfur-containing proteins such as the [Fe-S] cluster. Induction of base excision, mismatch, and recombinational repair systems indicates that various types of DNA damage, especially base excision, were enhanced by Cd. Exposure to sublethal Cd stress reduces the growth rate, and many of the downregulated genes are related to cell growth, including biosynthesis of cell membrane, translation, and transcription. The differential expression of 52 regulatory genes suggests a dynamic operation of complex regulatory networks by Cd-induced stress. These results demonstrate the effect of Cd exposure on D. radiodurans and how the related genes are expressed by this stress.