Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
A New Esterase, Belonging to Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Family, Cloned from Rheinheimera sp. Isolated from Industrial Effluent
Virk, Antar Puneet ; Sharma, Prince ; Capalash, Neena ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 7, 2011, Pages 667~674
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1103.03008
The gene for esterase (rEst1) was isolated from a new species of genus Rheinheimera by functional screening of E. coli cells transformed with the pSMART/HaeIII genomic library. E. coli cells harboring the esterase gene insert could grow and produce clear halo zones on tributyrin agar. The rEst1 ORF consisted of 1,029 bp, corresponding to 342 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 37 kDa. The signal P program 3.0 revealed the presence of a signal peptide of 25 amino acids. Esterase activity, however, was associated with a homotrimeric form of molecular mass 95 kDa and not with the monomeric form. The deduced amino acid sequence showed only 54% sequence identity with the closest lipase from Cellvibrio japonicus strain Ueda 107. Conserved domain search and multiple sequence alignment revealed the presence of an esterase/ lipase conserved domain consisting of a GXSXG motif, HGGG motif (oxyanion hole) and HGF motif, typical of the class IV hormone sensitive lipase family. On the basis of the sequence comparison with known esterases/ lipases, REst1 represents a new esterase belonging to the class IV family. The purified enzyme worked optimally at
and pH 8, utilized pNP esters of short chain lengths, and showed best catalytic activity with p-nitrophenyl butyrate (
), indicating that it was an esterase. The enzyme was completely inhibited by PMSF and DEPC and showed moderate organotolerance.
Improvement of Transformation Efficiency by Strategic Circumvention of Restriction Barriers in Streptomyces griseus
Suzuki, Hirokazu ; Takahashi, Shunji ; Osada, Hiroyuki ; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 7, 2011, Pages 675~678
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1102.02038
DNA methylation in Streptomyces griseus IFO 13350 was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis and bisulfite-based analysis to reveal two methylation sites, 5'-
CGGC-3' and 5'-
CTC-3'. The methylation was reconstituted in Escherichia coli by simultaneous expression of S. griseus SGR4675 and S. achromogenes M.SacI. The E. coli cells produced plasmids that mimicked the methylation profile of S. griseus DNA, which was readily introduced into S. griseus. The results of this study raise the possibility of a promising approach to establish efficient transformation in several streptomycetes.
Homologous Expression and Quantitative Analysis of T3SS-Dependent Secretion of TAP-Tagged XoAvrBs2 in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Induced by Rice Leaf Extract
Kim, S.H. ; Lee, S.E. ; Hong, M.K. ; Song, N.H. ; Yoon, B. ; Viet, P.T. ; Ahn, Y.J. ; Lee, B.M. ; Jung, J.W. ; Kim, K.P. ; Han, Y.S. ; Kim, J.G. ; Kang, L.W. ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 7, 2011, Pages 679~685
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1102.02011
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) produces a putative effector, XoAvrBs2. We expressed XoAvrBs2 homologously in Xoo with a TAP-tag at the C-terminus to enable quantitative analysis of protein expression and secretion. Addition of rice leaf extracts from both Xoo-sensitive and Xoo-resistant rice cultivars to the Xoo cells induced expression of the XoAvrBs2 gene at the transcriptional and translational levels, and also stimulated a remarkable amount of XoAvrBs2 secretion into the medium. In a T3SS-defective Xoo mutant strain, secretion of the TAPtagged XoAvrBs2 was blocked. Thus, we elucidated the transcriptional and translational expressions of the XoAvrBs2 gene in Xoo was induced in vitro by the interaction with rice and the induced secretion of XoAvrBs2 was T3SSdependent. It is the first report to measure the homologous expression and secretion of XoAvrBs2 in vitro by rice leaf extract. Our system for the quantitative analysis of effector protein expression and secretion could be generally used for the study of host-pathogen interactions.
The Plant Growth-Promoting Fungus Aspergillus ustus Promotes Growth and Induces Resistance Against Different Lifestyle Pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana
Salas-Marina, Miguel Angel ; Silva-Flores, Miguel Angel ; Cervantes-Badillo, Mayte Guadalupe ; Rosales-Saavedra, Maria Teresa ; Islas-Osuna, Maria Auxiliadora ; Casas-Flores, Sergio ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 7, 2011, Pages 686~696
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1101.01012
To deal with pathogens, plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms including constitutive and induced defense mechanisms. Phytohormones play important roles in plant growth and development, as well as in the systemic response induced by beneficial and pathogen microorganisms. In this work, we identified an Aspergillus ustus isolate that promotes growth and induces developmental changes in Solanum tuberosum and Arabidopsis thaliana. A. ustus inoculation on A. thaliana and S. tuberosum roots induced an increase in shoot and root growth, and lateral root and root hair numbers. Assays performed on Arabidopsis lines to measure reporter gene expression of auxin-induced/ repressed or cell cycle controlled genes (DR5 and CycB1, respectively) showed enhanced GUS activity, when compared with mock-inoculated seedlings. To determine the contribution of phytohormone signaling pathways in the effect elicited by A. ustus, we evaluated the response of a collection of hormone mutants of Arabidopsis defective in auxin, ethylene, cytokinin, or abscisic acid signaling to the inoculation with this fungus. All mutant lines inoculated with A. ustus showed increased biomass production, suggesting that these genes are not required to respond to this fungus. Moreover, we demonstrated that A. ustus synthesizes auxins and gibberellins in liquid cultures. In addition, A. ustus induced systemic resistance against the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea and the hemibiotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae DC3000, probably through the induction of the expression of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid/ethylene, and camalexin defense-related genes in Arabidopsis.
Isolation and Characterization of a Mesophilic Arthrospira maxima Strain Capable of Producing Docosahexaenoic Acid
Hu, Hongjun ; Li, Yeguang ; Yin, Chuntao ; Ouyang, Yexin ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 7, 2011, Pages 697~702
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1101.12040
A strain of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira was isolated from Lake Chahannaoer in northern China and was characterized according to microscopic morphology, photosynthetic oxygen-evolving activity, growth rate, and nutritional profile. Compared with thermophilic Arthrospira species occurring naturally in tropical and subtropical lakes, this isolate is mesophilic and grows optimally at
. The total protein, fatty acid, phycocyanin, carotenoid, and chlorophyll a contents were 67.6, 6.1, 4.32, 0.29, and 0.76 grams per 100 grams of dry weight, respectively. The strain is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). An essential omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), was detected, and
-linolenic acid (GLA) and DHA accounted for 28.3% of the total fatty acid content. These features of this newly isolated strain make it potentially useful in commercial mass culture in local areas or as a biofuel feedstock. It is also an alternative resource for studying the metabolic PUFA pathways and mechanisms of cold stress tolerance in cyanobacteria.
Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Ground Corn Stover for the Production of Fuel Ethanol Using Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Escherichia coli K011
Vincent, Micky ; Pometto III, Anthony L. ; Leeuwen, J. (Hans) Van ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 7, 2011, Pages 703~710
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1010.10044
Enzymatic saccharification of corn stover using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Gloeophyllum trabeum and subsequent fermentation of the saccharification products to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli K011 were achieved. Prior to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for ethanol production, solid-state fermentation was performed for four days on ground corn stover using either P. chrysosporium or G. trabeum to induce in situ cellulase production. During SSF with S. cerevisiae or E. coli, ethanol production was the highest on day 4 for all samples. For corn stover treated with P. chrysosporium, the conversion to ethanol was 2.29 g/100 g corn stover with S. cerevisiae as the fermenting organism, whereas for the sample inoculated with E. coli K011, the ethanol production was 4.14 g/100 g corn stover. Corn stover treated with G. trabeum showed a conversion 1.90 and 4.79 g/100 g corn stover with S. cerevisiae and E. coli K011 as the fermenting organisms, respectively. Other fermentation co-products, such as acetic acid and lactic acid, were also monitored. Acetic acid production ranged between 0.45 and 0.78 g/100 g corn stover, while no lactic acid production was detected throughout the 5 days of SSF. The results of our experiment suggest that it is possible to perform SSF of corn stover using P. chrysosporium, G. trabeum, S. cerevisiae and E. coli K011 for the production of fuel ethanol.
Characterization of Cellobiohydrolase from a Newly Isolated Strain of Agaricus arvencis
Lee, Kyung-Min ; Moon, Hee-Jung ; Kalyani, Dayanand ; Kim, Hoon ; Kim, In-Won ; Jeya, Marimuthu ; Lee, Jung-Kul ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 7, 2011, Pages 711~718
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1102.02001
A highly efficient cellobiohydrolase (CBH)-secreting basidiomycetous fungus, Agaricus arvensis KMJ623, was isolated and identified based on its morphological features and sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer rDNA. An extracellular CBH was purified to homogeneity from A. arvencis culture supernatant using sequential chromatography. The relative molecular mass of A. arvencis CBH was determined to be 65 kDa by SDSPAGE and 130 kDa by size-exclusion chromatography, indicating that the enzyme is a dimer. A. arvencis CBH showed a catalytic efficiency (
) of 31.8
-D-cellobioside, the highest level seen for CBH-producing microorganisms. Its internal amino acid sequences showed significant homology with CBHs from glycoside hydrolase family 7. Although CBHs have been purified and characterized from other sources, A. arvencis CBH is distinguished from other CBHs by its high catalytic efficiency.
Effect of Adjuvants on Antibody Titer of Synthetic Recombinant Light Chain of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type B and its Diagnostic Potential for Botulism
Jain, Swati ; Ponmariappan, S. ; Kumar, Om ; Singh, Lokendra ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 7, 2011, Pages 719~727
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1010.10047
Botulism is a neuroparalytic disease caused by Clostridium botulinum, which produces seven (A-G) antigenically diverse neurotoxins (BoNTs). BoNTs are the most poisonous substances known to humans, with a median lethal dose (
) of approximately 1 ng/kg of body weight. Owing to their extreme potency and lethality, they have the potential to be used as a bioterrorism agent. The mouse bioassay is the gold standard for the detection of botulinum neurotoxins; however, it requires at least 3-4 days for completion. Attempts have been made to develop an ELISA-based detection system, which is potentially an easier and more rapid method of botulinum neurotoxin detection. The present study was designed using a synthetic gene approach. The synthetic gene encoding the catalytic domain of BoNT serotype B from amino acids 1-450 was constructed with PCR overlapping primers (BoNT/B LC), cloned in a pQE30 UA vector, and expressed in an E. coli M15 host system. Recombinant protein production was optimized at 0.5 mM IPTG final concentration, 4 h post induction, resulting in a maximum yield of recombinant proteins. The immunogenic nature of the recombinant BoNT/B LC protein was evaluated by ELISA. Antibodies were raised in BALB/c mice using various adjuvants. A significant rise in antibody titer (p<0.05) was observed in the Alum group, followed by the Titermax Classic group, Freund's adjuvant, and the Titermax Gold group. These developed high-titer antibodies may prove useful for the detection of botulinum neurotoxins in food and clinical samples.
Endophytic Fungi as a Source of Biofuel Precursors
Santos-Fo, Florisvaldo C. ; Fill, Taicia Pacheco ; Nakamura, Joanita ; Monteiro, Marcos Roberto ; Rodrigues-Fo, Edson ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 7, 2011, Pages 728~733
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1010.10052
Endophytic fungi, isolated from a number of different species of tropical plants, were investigated for lipid biodiesel precursor production. The extracts produced from liquid cultures of these fungi were subjected to acidcatalyzed transesterification reactions with methanol producing methyl esters and then analyzed through chromatographic (GC-FID) and spectrometric techniques (MS, NMR
). The European Standard Method, EN 14103, was used for the quantification of methyl esters extracted from the fungi of the species and genera studied. Xylariaceous fungi exhibited the highest concentrations of methyl esters (91%), and hence may be a promising source for biofuel.
Purification of Capsular Polysaccharide Produced by Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 19A
Jung, Seung-Jin ; Seo, Eun-Seong ; Yun, Sang-Il ; Minh, Bui Nguyet ; Jin, Sheng-De ; Ryu, Hwa-Ja ; Kim, Do-Man ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 7, 2011, Pages 734~738
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1010.10043
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of invasive infection in young infants and older adults. There are currently 90 capsular serotypes identified and 23 serotypes (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6B, 7F, 8, 9N, 9V, 10A, 11A, 12F, 14, 15B, 17F, 18C, 19F, 19A, 20, 22F, 23F, and 33F) are responsible for about 90% of invasive disease. Among the more than 90 different S. pneumoniae serotypes, serotype 19A is globally very prevalent. A simplified purification procedure including adjustment of cell lysate pH to 4.5, fractionation with 50. 80% ethanol, and dialysis rendered capsular polysaccharide (CPS) in a yield of
mg from 1 l culture (75% recovery after lyses). The product contained only 69.6
of protein (99.78% purity) and 0.8mg (sum of the precipitants from 50~60%, 60~70%, and 70~80%) of nucleic acid (97.45% purity). The purified CPS was conjugated with bovine serum albumin; the product size ranged from 100 to 180 kDa.
Statistical Optimization of Medium Composition for Bacterial Cellulose Production by Gluconacetobacter hansenii UAC09 Using Coffee Cherry Husk Extract - an Agro-Industry Waste
Rani, Mahadevaswamy Usha ; Rastogi, Navin K. ; Anu Appaiah, K.A. ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 7, 2011, Pages 739~745
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1012.12026
During the production of grape wine, the formation of thick leathery pellicle/bacterial cellulose (BC) at the airliquid interface was due to the bacterium, which was isolated and identified as Gluconacetobacter hansenii UAC09. Cultural conditions for bacterial cellulose production from G. hansenii UAC09 were optimized by central composite rotatable experimental design. To economize the BC production, coffee cherry husk (CCH) extract and corn steep liquor (CSL) were used as less expensive sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. CCH and CSL are byproducts from the coffee processing and starch processing industry, respectively. The interactions between pH (4.5-8.5), CSL (2-10%), alcohol (0.5-2%), acetic acid (0.5-2%), and water dilution rate to CCH ratio (1:1 to 1:5) were studied using response surface methodology. The optimum conditions for maximum BC production were pH (6.64), CSL (10%), alcohol (0.5%), acetic acid (1.13%), and water to CCH ratio (1:1). After 2 weeks of fermentation, the amount of BC produced was 6.24 g/l. This yield was comparable to the predicted value of 6.09 g/l. This is the first report on the optimization of the fermentation medium by RSM using CCH extract as the carbon source for BC production by G. hansenii UAC09.
Enhancing the Anaerobic Digestion of Corn Stalks Using Composite Microbial Pretreatment
Yuan, Xufeng ; Li, Peipei ; Wang, Hui ; Wang, Xiaofen ; Cheng, Xu ; Cui, Zongjun ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 7, 2011, Pages 746~752
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1011.11026
A composite microbial system (XDC-2) was used to pretreat and hydrolyze corn stalk to enhance anaerobic digestion. The results of pretreatment indicated that sCOD concentrations of hydrolysate were highest (8,233 mg/l) at the fifth day. XDC-2 efficiently degraded the corn stalk by nearly 45%, decreasing the cellulose content by 22.7% and the hemicellulose content by 74.1%. Total levels of volatile products peaked on the fifth day. The six major compounds present were ethanol (0.29 g/l), acetic acid (0.55 g/l), 1,2-ethanediol (0.49 g/l), propionic acid (0.15 g/l), butyric acid (0.22 g/l), and glycerine (2.48 g/l). The results of anaerobic digestion showed that corn stalks treated by XDC-2 produced 68.3% more total biogas and 87.9% more total methane than untreated controls. The technical digestion time for the treated corn stalks was 35.7% shorter than without treatment. The composite microbial system pretreatment could be a cost-effective and environmentally friendly microbial method for efficient biological conversion of corn stalk into bioenergy.
Characterization of Methane Oxidation by a Methanotroph Isolated from a Landfill Cover Soil, South Korea
Lee, Eun-Hee ; Yi, Tae-Woo ; Moon, Kyung-Eun ; Park, Hyun-Jung ; Ryu, Hee-Wook ; Cho, Kyung-Suk ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 7, 2011, Pages 753~756
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1102.01055
A methane-oxidizing bacterium was isolated from the enriched culture of a landfill cover soil. The closest relative of the isolate, designated M6, is Methylocystis sp. Based on a kinetic analysis, the maximum specific methane oxidation rate and saturation constant were 4.93 mmol gdry cell
, respectively. This was the first time a kinetic analysis was performed using pure methanotrophic culture. The methane oxidation by M6 was investigated in the presence of aromatic (m- and pxylene and ethylbenzene) or sulfur (hydrogen sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, methanthiol) compounds. The methane oxidation was inhibited by the presence of aromatic or sulfur compounds.
Wild Ginseng Attenuates Repeated Morphine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization in Rats
Lee, Bom-Bi ; Kwon, Sun-Oh ; Yeom, Mi-Jung ; Shim, In-Sop ; Lee, Hye-Jung ; Hahm, Dae-Hyun ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 7, 2011, Pages 757~765
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1103.03016
Many studies have suggested that the behavioral and reinforcing effects of morphine are induced by hyperactivation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, which results in increases in locomotor activity, c-Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). In order to investigate the effect of wild ginseng (WG) on treating morphine addiction, we examined the behavioral sensitization of locomotor activity and c-Fos and TH expression in the rat brain using immunohistochemistry. Intraperitioneal injection of WG (100 and 200 mg/kg), 30 min before administration of a daily injection of morphine (40 mg/kg, s.c.), significantly inhibited morphine-induced increases in c-Fos expression in NAc and TH expression in VTA as well as in locomotor activity, as compared with Panax ginseng. It was demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of WG on the behavioral sensitization after repeated exposure to morphine was closely associated with the reduction of dopamine biosynthesis and postsynaptic neuronal activity. It suggests that WG extract may be effective for inhibiting the behavioral effects of morphine by possibly modulating the central dopaminergic system and that WG might be a useful resource to develop an agent for preventing and treating morphine addiction.
High Molecular Weight Poly-Gamma-Glutamic Acid Regulates Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet and Humans
Park, Ji-Ho ; Choi, Jae-Chul ; Sung, Moon-Hee ; Kang, Jae-Heon ; Chang, Moon-Jeong ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 21, issue 7, 2011, Pages 766~775
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1104.04047
We investigated the effect of high molecular weight polygamma- glutamic acid (hm
-PGA) on adiposity and lipid metabolism of rats in the presence of an obesity-inducing diet. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a normal-fat (11.4% kcal fat, NFC) or high-fat (51% kcal fat, HFC) diet. After 5 weeks, half of each diet-fed group was treated with hm
-PGA (NFP or HFP) for 4 weeks. The HFC group had significantly higher body weight, visceral fat mass, fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and leptin, and lower serum HDL cholesterol level compared with those of the NFC group (p < 0.05). Treatment with hm
-PGA decreased body weight gain and perirenal fat mass (p<0.05), fasting serum total cholesterol, and mRNA expression of glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), regardless of dietary fat contents (p < 0.01). However, hm
-PGA increased serum HDL cholesterol in the HFC group (p < 0.05). In vitro, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A (HMGCoA) reductase activity was suppressed by the addition of hm
-PGA. In agreement with observations in animal study, the supplementation of hm
-PGA (150 mg/day) to 20 female subjects in an 8-week double-blind, placebocontrolled study resulted in a tendency to decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations. We thus conclude that dietary supplementation of hm
-PGA may act as a hypocholestrolemic agent, secondary to its inhibitor effect on HMG-CoA reductase, and decrease abdominal adiposity by decreasing hepatic lipogenesis. The present study is an important first step in establishing the effect of hm
-PGA on cholesterol levels in rats and humans.