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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 12 - Dec 2012
Volume 22, Issue 11 - Nov 2012
Volume 22, Issue 10 - Oct 2012
Volume 22, Issue 9 - Sep 2012
Volume 22, Issue 8 - Aug 2012
Volume 22, Issue 7 - Jul 2012
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Jun 2012
Volume 22, Issue 5 - May 2012
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Apr 2012
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Mar 2012
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Feb 2012
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
Selecting the target year
Relative Effect of Glyphosate on Glyphosate-Tolerant Maize Rhizobacterial Communities is Not Altered by Soil Properties
Barriuso, Jorge ; Mellado, Rafael P. ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 159~165
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1107.07036
The rhizobacterial composition varies according to the soil properties. To test if the effect of herbicides on the rhizobacterial communities of genetically modified NK603 glyphosate-tolerant maize varies according to different soil locations, a comparison was made between the effects of glyphosate (Roundup Plus), a post-emergence applied herbicide, and a pre-emergence applied herbicide (GTZ) versus untreated soil. The potential effect was monitored by direct amplification, cloning, and sequencing of the soil DNA encoding 16S rRNA, and high-throughput DNA pyrosequencing of the bacterial DNA coding for the 16S rRNA hypervariable V6 region. The results obtained using three different methods to analyze the herbicide effect on the rhizobacterial communities of genetically modified NK603 maize were comparable to those previously obtained when glyphosate-tolerant maize was grown in soil with different characteristics. Both herbicides decreased the bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere, with Actinobacteria being the taxonomic group most affected. The results suggest that both herbicides affected the structure of the maize rhizobacterial community, but glyphosate was environmentally less aggressive.
Characterization of Stress Responses of Heavy Metal and Metalloid Inducible Promoters in Synechocystis PCC6803
Blasi, Barbara ; Peca, Loredana ; Vass, Imre ; Kos, Peter B. ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 166~169
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1106.06050
In several biotechnological applications of living bacterial cells with inducible gene expression systems, the extent of overexpression and the specificity to the inducer are key elements. In the present study, we established the concentration ranges of
ions that caused significant activation of the respective promoters of Synechocystis sp. without concomitant unspecific stress responses. The low expression levels can be increased up to 10-100-fold upon treatments with
ions and up to 800-fold upon
treatment. These results facilitate the development of conditional gene expression systems in cyanobacteria.
Clostridium difficile Toxin A Inhibits the Kinase Activity of Extracellular Signal-Related Kinases 1 and 2 Through Direct Binding
Seok, Heon ; Nam, Hyo-Jung ; Nam, Seung-Taek ; Kang, Jin-Ku ; Kim, Sung-Kuk ; Chang, Jong-Soo ; Ha, Eun-Mi ; Park, Young-Joo ; Kim, Ho ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 170~175
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1110.10075
Clostridium difficile toxin A glucosylates Rho family proteins, resulting in actin filament disaggregation and cell rounding in cultured colonocytes. Given that the cellular toxicity of toxin A is dependent on its receptor binding and subsequent entry into the cell, we herein sought to identify additional colonocyte proteins that might bind to toxin A following its internalization. Our results revealed that toxin A interacted with ERK1 and ERK2 in two human colonocyte cell lines (NCM460 and HT29). A GST-pulldown assay also showed that toxin A can directly bind to ERK1 and ERK2. In NCM460 cells exposed to PMA (an ERK1/2 activator), the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 did not affect the interaction between toxin A and ERK1/2. However, an in vitro kinase assay showed that the direct binding of toxin A to ERK1 or ERK2 inhibited their kinase activities. These results suggest a new molecular mechanism for the cellular toxicity seen in cells exposed to toxin A.
Dependent Structure Switch of GTP Binding to eRF3 in Euplotes octocarinatus
Song, Li ; Jia, Yu-Xin ; Zhu, Wen-Si ; Chai, Bao-Feng ; Liang, Ai-Hua ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 176~183
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1108.08019
Eukaryotic translation termination is governed by eRF1 and eRF3. eRF1 recognizes the stop codons and then hydrolyzes peptidyl-tRNA. eRF3, which facilitates the termination process, belongs to the GTPase superfamily. In this study, the effect of the MC domain of eRF1a (eRF1aMC) on the GTPase activity of eRF3 was analyzed using fluorescence spectra and high-performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated eRF1aMC promotes the GTPase activity of eRF3, which is similar to the role of eRF1a. Furthermore, the increased affinity of eRF3 for GTP induced by eRF1aMC was dependent on the concentration of
. Changes in the secondary structure of eRF3C after binding GTP/GDP were detected by CD spectroscopy. The results revealed changes of conformation during formation of the eRF3C GTP complex that were detected in the presence of eRF1a or eRF1aMC. The conformations of the eRF3C eRF1a GTP and eRF3C eRF1aMC GTP complexes were further altered upon the addition of
. By contrast, there was no change in the conformation of GTP bound to free eRF3C or the eRF3C eRF1aN complex. These results suggest that alterations in the conformation of GTP bound to eRF3 is dependent on eRF1a and
, whereas the MC domain of eRF1a is responsible for the change in the conformation of GTP bound to eRF3 in Euplotes octocarinatus.
Creation of an Ethanol-Tolerant Yeast Strain by Genome Reconstruction Based on Chromosome Splitting Technology
Park, A-Hwang ; Sugiyama, Minetaka ; Harashima, Satoshi ; Kim, Yeon-Hee ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 184~189
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1109.09046
We sought to breed an industrially useful yeast strain, specifically an ethanol-tolerant yeast strain that would be optimal for ethanol production, using a novel breeding method, called genome reconstruction, based on chromosome splitting technology. To induce genome reconstruction, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain SH6310, which contains 31 chromosomes including 12 artificial mini-chromosomes, was continuously cultivated in YPD medium containing 6% to 10% ethanol for 33 days. The 12 mini-chromosomes can be randomly or specifically lost because they do not contain any genes that are essential under high-level ethanol conditions. The strains selected by inducing genome reconstruction grew about ten times more than SH6310 in 8% ethanol. To determine the effect of mini-chromosome loss on the ethanol tolerance phenotype, PCR and Southern hybridization were performed to detect the remaining mini-chromosomes. These analyses revealed the loss of mini-chromosomes no. 11 and no. 12. Mini-chromosome no. 11 contains ten genes (YKL225W, PAU16, YKL223W, YKL222C, MCH2, FRE2, COS9, SRY1, JEN1, URA1) and no. 12 contains fifteen genes (YHL050C, YKL050W-A, YHL049C, YHL048C-A, COS8, YHLComega1, ARN2, YHL046W-A, PAU13, YHL045W, YHL044W, ECM34, YHL042W, YHL041W, ARN1). We assumed that the loss of these genes resulted in the ethanol-tolerant phenotype and expect that this genome reconstruction method will be a feasible new alternative for strain improvement.
Short-Hairpin RNA-Mediated Gene Expression Interference in Trichoplusia ni Cells
Kim, Na-Young ; Baek, Jin-Young ; Choi, Hong-Seok ; Chung, In-Sik ; Shin, Sung-Ho ; Lee, Jung-Ihn ; Choi, Jung-Yun ; Yang, Jai-Myung ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 190~198
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1108.08045
RNA interference (RNAi) is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in biological studies, as it allows the selective and transient knockdown of protein expression. The short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) transiently silence gene expression. By contrast, the expressed short-hairpin RNAs induce long-term, stable knockdown of their target gene. Trichoplusia ni (T. ni) cells are widely used for mammalian cell-derived glycoprotein expression using the baculovirus system. However, a suitable shRNA expression system has not been developed yet. We investigated the potency of shRNA-mediated gene expression inhibition using human and Drosophila U6 promoters in T. ni cells. Luciferase, EGFP, and
-N-acetylglucosaminidase (GlcNAcase) were employed as targets to investigate knockdown of specific genes in T. ni cells. Introduction of the shRNA expression vector under the control of human U6 or Drosophila U6 promoter into T. ni cells exhibited the reduced level of luciferase, EGFP, and
-N-acetylglucosaminidase compared with that of untransfected cells. The shRNA was expressed and processed to siRNA in our vector-transfected T. ni cells. GlcNAcase mRNA levels were down-regulated in T. ni cells transfected with shRNA vectors-targeted GlcNAcase as compared with the control vector-treated cells. It implied that our shRNA expression vectors using human and Drosophila U6 promoters were applied in T. ni cells for the specific gene knockdown.
Optimization of Culture Medium for Novel Cell-Associated Tannase Production from Bacillus massiliensis Using Response Surface Methodology
Belur, Prasanna D. ; Goud, Rakesh ; Goudar, Dinesh C. ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 199~206
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1106.06004
Naturally immobilized tannase (tannin acyl hydrolase, E.C. 188.8.131.52) has many advantages, as it avoids the expensive and laborious operation of isolation, purification, and immobilization, plus it is highly stable in adverse pH and temperature. However, in the case of cell-associated enzymes, since the enzyme is associated with the biomass, separation of the pure biomass is necessary. However, tannic acid, a known inducer of tannase, forms insoluble complexes with media proteins, making it difficult to separate pure biomass. Therefore, this study optimizes the production of cell-associated tannase using a "protein-tannin complex" free media. An exploratory study was first conducted in shake-flasks to select the inducer, carbon source, and nitrogen sources. As a result it was found that gallic acid induces tannase synthesis, a tryptose broth gives higher biomass, and lactose supplementation is beneficial. The medium was then optimized using response surface methodology based on the full factorial central composite design in a 3 l bioreactor. A
factorial design augmented by 7 axial points (
= 1.682) and 2 replicates at the center point was implemented in 17 experiments. A mathematical model was also developed to show the effect of each medium component and their interactions on the production of cell-associated tannase. The validity of the proposed model was verified, and the optimized medium was shown to produce maximum cell-associated tannase activity of 9.65 U/l, which is 93.8% higher than the activity in the basal medium, after 12 h at pH 5.0,
. The optimum medium consists of 38 g/l lactose, 50 g/l tryptose, and 2.8 g/l gallic acid.
Laccase- and Peroxidase-Free Tyrosinase Production by Isolated Microbial Strain
Sambasiva Rao, K.R.S. ; Tripathy, N.K. ; Mahalaxmi, Y. ; Prakasham, R.S. ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 207~214
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1106.06031
Laccase- and peroxidase-free tyrosinase has commercial importance in the production of L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), which is mainly used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. In the present study, isolation of an actinomycetes microbial strain capable of producing only tyrosinase is reported. Among all soil isolates, three individual colonies revealed black color around the colony in the presence of tyrosine. Further screening for laccase and peroxidase activities using syringaldazine denoted that one of the isolates, designated as RSP-T1, is laccase and peroxidase negative and produces only tyrosinase. The microbe was authenticated as Streptomyces antibioticus based on 16S ribotyping. Effective growth of this isolate was noticed with the use of medium (pH 5.5) containing casein acid hydrolysate (10.0 g/l),
(0.25 g/l), L-tyrosine (1.0 g/l), and agar (15 g/l). The scanning electron micrograph depicted that the microbe is highly branched and filamentous in nature. The enzyme production was positively regulated in the presence of copper sulfate. The impact of different fermentation parameters on tyrosinase production depicted that the maximized enzyme titer values were observed when this isolate was grown at 6.5 pH and at
temperature under agitated conditions (220 rpm). Among all the studied physiological parameters, agitation played a significant role on tyrosinase production. Upon optimization of the parameters, the yield of tyrosinase was improved more than 100% compared with the initial yield.
Characterization and Fibrinolytic Activity of Acetobacter sp. FP1 Isolated from Fermented Pine Needle Extract
Park, Jae-Young ; Yoon, Seo-Hyeon ; Kim, Seong-Sim ; Lee, Beom-Gi ; Cheong, Hyeong-Sook ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 215~219
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1109.09062
The strain KCTC 11629BP, isolated from spontaneously fermented pine needle extract (FPE), showed fibrinolysis activity. The isolated strain was analyzed in physiological and biochemical experiments. Based on 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenic tree analysis, the strain was identified to be a part of the genus Acetobacter, with Acetobacter senegalensis and Acetobacter tropicalis as the closest phylogenetic neighbors. Based on genotypic and phenotypic results, it was proposed that bacterial strain KCTC 11629BP represents a species of the genus Acetobacter. The strain was thusly named Acetobacter sp. FP1. In conclusion, Acetobacter sp. FP1 isolated from FPE possesses fibrinolytic activity.
Enhancement of PVA-Degrading Enzyme Production by the Application of pH Control Strategy
Li, Min ; Zhang, Dongxu ; Du, Guocheng ; Chen, Jian ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 220~225
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1107.07030
In batch culture for Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-degrading enzyme (PVAase) production by a mixed culture, higher pH (pH 7.5) was favorable for PVAase production at the prophase of cultivation, but lower pH (pH 7.0) was favorable at the anaphase. This situation was caused by the fact that the optimum pH for different key enzymes [PVA dehydrogenase (PVADH) and oxidized PVA hydrolase (OPH)] production is various. The activity and average specific production rate of PVADH reached the highest values at constant pH 7.5, whereas those of OPH appeared at pH 7.0. A two-stage pH control strategy was therefore developed and compared for its potential in improving PVAase production. By using this strategy, the maximal PVAase activity reached 2.05 U/ml, which increased by 15.2% and 24.2% over the fermentation at constant pH 7.5 and 7.0.
High-Efficiency Generation of Monoclonal Antibody for Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Protein
Kim, Eun-Mi ; Kim, Myung-Hee ; Kim, Min-Gon ; Kim, Sang-Woo ; Ro, Hyeon-Su ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 226~229
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1109.09053
Bacterial hemoglobin from Vitreoscilla (VHb) is recognized as a good fusion protein for the soluble expression of foreign protein. In this study, we generated a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against VHb for its detection. For the rapid screening of MAb, a protein chip technology based on the Alexa-488 (A488) dye labeling method was introduced. In order to fabricate the chip, the VHb protein was chemically coupled to the chip surface and then the culture supernatants of 84 hybridoma cell lines were spotted onto the VHb chip. The bound MAbs were measured by A488-modified anti-mouse IgG. A single spot (MAb A10) exhibited significantly high signal intensity. The immunoblot analysis evidenced that the MAb A10 can detect VHb-fused proteins with high specificity.
Association of Colony Morphology with Coenzyme
Production and Its Enhancement from Rhizobium radiobacter T6102W by Addition of Isopentenyl Alcohol as a Precursor
Seo, Myung-Ji ; Kook, Moo-Chang ; Kim, Soon-Ok ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 230~233
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1107.07028
Rhizobium radiobacter T6102 was morphologically purified by the aniline blue agar plates to give two distinct colonies; white smooth mucoid colony (T6102W) and blue rough colony (T6102B). The coenzyme
) was produced just by T6102W, showing 2.0 mg/g of
content, whereas the T6102B did not produce the
. All of the used
biosynthetic precursors enhanced the
production by T6102W. Specifically, the supplementation of 0.75 mM isopentenyl alcohol improved the
concentration (19.9 mg/l) and content (2.4 mg/g) by 42% and 40%, respectively.
Surface Display of Organophosphorus Hydrolase on E. coli Using N-Terminal Domain of Ice Nucleation Protein InaV
Khodi, Samaneh ; Latifi, Ali Mohammad ; Saadati, Mojtaba ; Mirzaei, Morteza ; Aghamollaei, Hossein ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 234~238
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1104.04011
Recombinant Escherichia coli displaying organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) was used to overcome the diffusion barrier limitation of organophosphorus pesticides. A new anchor system derived from the N-terminal domain of ice-nucleation protein from Pseudomonas syringae InaV (InaV-N) was used to display OPH onto the surface. The designed sequence was cloned in the vector pET-28a(+) and then was expressed in E. coli. Tracing of the expression location of the recombinant protein using SDS-PAGE showed the presentation of OPH by InaV-N on the outer membrane, and the ability of recombinant E. coli to utilize diazinon as the sole source of energy, without growth inhibition, indicated its significant activity. The location of OPH was detected by comparing the activity of the outer membrane fraction with the inner membrane and cytoplasm fractions. Studies revealed that recombinant E. coli can degrade 50% of 2 mM chlorpyrifos in 2 min. It can be concluded that InaV-N can be used efficiently to display foreign functional protein, and these results highlight the high potential of an engineered bacterium to be used in bioremediation of pesticide-contaminated sources in the environment.
Changes in the Activities of Enzymes Involved in the Degradation of Butylbenzyl Phthalate by Pleurotus ostreatus
Hwang, Soon-Seok ; Kim, Hyoun-Young ; Ka, Jong-Ok ; Song, Hong-Gyu ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 239~243
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1107.07050
Degradation of butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus and the activities of some degrading enzymes were examined in two different media containing 100 mg/l of the compound. P. ostreatus pre-grown for 7 days in complex YMG medium was able to completely degrade BBP within an additional 24 h but degraded only 35 mg/l of BBP in 5 days of incubation in minimal medium. Fungal cell mass in the culture in YMG medium was higher in the presence than in the absence of BBP. The esterase activity of the fungal culture in YMG medium was higher than that in minimal medium and increased with the addition of BBP. On the contrary, laccase activity was higher in minimal medium and it did not increase upon the addition of BBP. General peroxidase activity increased for a few days after the addition of BBP to both media. The degradation of BBP and its metabolites by P. ostreatus thus may be attributed mostly to esterase rather than lignin-degrading laccase. In addition, the activities of the enzymes involved in BBP degradation and their changes varied significantly in the different media and culture conditions.
Bioremediation of Pb-Contaminated Soil Based on Microbially Induced Calcite Precipitation
Achal, Varenyam ; Pan, Xiangliang ; Zhang, Daoyong ; Fu, Qinglong ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 244~247
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1108.08033
To remediate lead (Pb)-contaminated soils, it is proposed that microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) would provide the best alternative to other remediation technologies. In this study, Pb bioremediation in soils was investigated using the calcite-precipitating bacterium Kocuria flava. Results indicate that the Pb is primarily associated with the carbonate fraction in bioremediated soil samples. The bioavailability of Pb in contaminated soil was reduced so that the potential stress of Pb was alleviated. This research provides insight into the geochemistry occurring in the MICP-based Pb-remediated soils, which will help in remediation decisions.
Simultaneous Quantification of Cyanobacteria and Microcystis spp. Using Real-Time PCR
Oh, Kyoung-Hee ; Jeong, Dong-Hwan ; Shin, Seung-Hee ; Cho, Young-Cheol ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 248~255
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1109.09051
In order to develop a protocol to quantify cyanobacteria and Microcystis simultaneously, the primers and probe were designed from the conserved regions of 16S rRNA gene sequences of cyanobacteria and Microcystis, respectively. Probe match analysis of the Ribosomal Database Project showed that the primers matched with over 97% of cyanobacterial 16S rRNA genes, indicating these can be used to amplify cyanobacteria specifically. The TaqMan probe, which is located between two primers, matched with 98.2% of sequences in genus GpXI, in which most Microcystis strains are included. The numbers of cyanobacterial genes were estimated with the emission of SYBR Green from the amplicons with two primers, whereas those of Microcystis spp. were measured from the fluorescence of CAL Fluor Gold 540 emitted by exonuclease activity of Taq DNA polymerase in amplification. It is expected that this method enhances the accuracy and reduces the time to count cyanobacteria and potential toxigenic Microcystis spp. in aquatic environmental samples.
Isolation and Characterization of Bacillus sp. Producing Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics Against Human and Plant Pathogenic Fungi
Chen, Na ; Jin, Min ; Qu, Hong-Mei ; Chen, Zhi-Qiang ; Chen, Zhao-Li ; Qiu, Zhi-Gang ; Wang, Xin-Wei ; Li, Jun-Wen ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 256~263
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1107.07021
A strain of bacterium producing antifungal antibiotic was isolated and identification of the strain was attempted. We could identify the bacterium as being a Bacillus sp., based on morphological observation, physiological characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, thus leading us to designate the strain as Bacillus sp. AH-E-1. The strain showed potent antibiotic activity against phytopathogenic and human pathogenic fungi by inducing mycelial distortion and swelling and inhibiting spore germination. The antibiotic metabolite produced by the strain demonstrated excellent thermal and pH (2-11) stability, but was labile to autoclaving. From these results, we could find a broader antifungal activity of Bacillus genus. Isolation and characterization of the active agent produced by the strain are under progress.
Synthetic Coprisin Analog Peptide, D-CopA3 has Antimicrobial Activity and Pro-Apoptotic Effects in Human Leukemia Cells
Kim, Soon-Ja ; Kim, In-Woo ; Kwon, Yong-Nam ; Yun, Eun-Young ; Hwang, Jae-Sam ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 264~269
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1110.10071
Recently, we reported that the synthetic Coprisin analog peptide 9-mer dimer CopA3 (consisted of all-L amino acid sequence) was designed based on a defensin-like peptide, Coprisin isolated from Copris tripartitus. The 9-mer dimer CopA3 (L-CopA3) had antibacterial activity and induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells via a caspase-independent pathway. In this study, all of amino acid sequences of L-CopA3 were modified to all D-form amino acids (DCopA3) to develop a more effective antimicrobial peptide. We investigated whether D-CopA3 had antimicrobial activities against pathogenic microorganisms and pro-apoptotic effects in human leukemia cells (U937, Jurkat, and AML-2). The synthetic peptide D-CopA3 had antimicrobial activities against various pathogenic bacteria and yeast fungus with MIC values in the 4~64
range. Moreover, D-CopA3 caused cell growth inhibition, and increased the chromosomal DNA fragmentation and the expression of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-
, transcripts in human leukemia cells. The all-D amino acid peptide DCopA3 proved as effective as the L-CopA3 reported previously. These results provide the basis for developing D-CopA3 as a new antibiotic peptide.
Effect of Ammonium and Nitrate on Current Generation Using Dual-Cathode Microbial Fuel Cells
Jang, Jae-Kyung ; Choi, Jung-Eun ; Ryou, Young-Sun ; Lee, Sung-Hyoun ; Lee, Eun-Young ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 270~273
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1110.10040
These studies were conducted to determine the effects of various concentrations of ammonium and nitrate on current generation using dual-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Current generation was not affected by ammonium up to
mg/l ammonium chloride reduced the current slightly. On the other hand, when
mg/l nitrate were supplied, the current was decreased from
mA, respectively. Nitrate did not seem to serve as a fuel for current generation in these studies. At this time, COD and nitrate removal were increased except at
. These results show that proper management of ammonium and nitrate is very important for increasing the current in a microbial fuel cell.
Efficacy Test of Polycan, a Beta-Glucan Originated from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001, on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection and Partial Medial Meniscectomy-Induced-Osteoarthritis Rats
Kim, Joo-Wan ; Cho, Hyung-Rae ; Ku, Sae-Kwang ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 274~282
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1110.10078
The object of this study was to assess the efficacy of Polycan from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001, which is composed mostly of beta-1,3-1,6-glucan, on osteoarthritis (OA)-induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection and partial medial meniscectomy (ACLT&PMM). Three different dosages of Polycan (85, 42.5, and 21.25 mg/kg) were orally administered once a day for 84 days to male rats a week after ACLT&PMM surgery. Changes in the circumference and maximum extension angle of each knee, and in cartilage histopathology were assessed using Mankin scores 12 weeks after Polycan administration. In addition, cartilage proliferation was evaluated using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). As the result of ACLT&PMM, classic OA was induced with increases in maximum extension angles, edematous knees changes, and capsule thickness, as well as decreases in chondrocyte proliferation, cartilages degenerative changes, and loss of articular cartilage. However, these changes (except for capsule thickness) were markedly inhibited in all Polycan- and diclofenac sodium-treated groups compared with OA control. Although diclofenac sodium did not influence BrdU uptake, BrdU-immunoreactive cells were increased with all dosages of Polycan, which means that Polycan treatment induced proliferation of chondrocytes in the surface articular cartilage of the tibia and femur. The results obtained in this study suggest that 84 days of continuous oral treatment of three different dosages of Polycan led to lesser degrees of articular stiffness and histological cartilage damage compared with OA controls 91 days after OA inducement, suggesting that the optimal Polycan dosage to treat OA is 42.5 mg/kg based on the present study.