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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 12 - Dec 2012
Volume 22, Issue 11 - Nov 2012
Volume 22, Issue 10 - Oct 2012
Volume 22, Issue 9 - Sep 2012
Volume 22, Issue 8 - Aug 2012
Volume 22, Issue 7 - Jul 2012
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Jun 2012
Volume 22, Issue 5 - May 2012
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Apr 2012
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Mar 2012
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Feb 2012
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
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Genetic Organization of ascB-dapE Internalin Cluster Serves as a Potential Marker for Listeria monocytogenes Sublineages IIA, IIB, and IIC
Chen, Jianshun ; Fang, Chun ; Zhu, Ningyu ; Lv, Yonghui ; Cheng, Changyong ; Bei, Yijiang ; Zheng, Tianlun ; Fang, Weihuan ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 5, 2012, Pages 575~584
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1110.10056
Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen that comprises four genetic lineages: I, II, III, and IV. Of these, lineage II is frequently recovered from foods and environments and responsible for the increasing incidence of human listeriosis. In this study, the phylogenetic structure of lineage II was determined through sequencing analysis of the ascB-dapE internalin cluster. Fifteen sequence types proposed by multilocus sequence typing based on nine housekeeping genes were grouped into three distinct sublineages, IIA, IIB, and IIC. Organization of the ascB-dapE internalin cluster could serve as a molecular marker for these sublineages, with inlGHE, inlGC2DE, and inlC2DE for IIA, IIB, and IIC, respectively. These sublineages displayed specific genetic and phenotypic characteristics. IIA and IIC showed a higher frequency of recombination (
). However, recombination events had greater effect (r/m) on IIB, leading to its high nucleotide diversity. Moreover, IIA and IIB harbored a wider range of internalin and stress-response genes, and possessed higher nisin tolerance, whereas IIC contained the largest portion of low-virulent strains owing to premature stop codons in inlA. The results of this study indicate that IIA, IIB, and IIC might occupy different ecological niches, and IIB might have a better adaptation to a broad range of environmental niches.
Antagonistic Potentiality of Trichoderma harzianum Towards Seed-Borne Fungal Pathogens of Winter Wheat cv. Protiva In Vitro and In Vivo
Hasan, M.M. ; Rahman, S.M.E. ; Kim, Gwang-Hee ; Abdallah, Elgorban ; Oh, Deog-Hwan ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 5, 2012, Pages 585~591
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1107.07063
The antagonistic effect of Trichoderma harzianum on a range of seed-borne fungal pathogens of wheat (viz. Fusarium graminearum, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Aspergillus spp., and Penicillium spp.) was assessed. The potential of T. harzianum as a biocontrol agent was tested in vitro and under field conditions. Coculture of the pathogens and Trichoderma under laboratory conditions clearly showed dominance of T. harzianum. Under natural conditions, biocontrol effects were also obtained against the test fungi. One month after sowing, field emergence (plant stand) was increased by 15.93% over that obtained with the control treatment, and seedling infection was reduced significantly. Leaf blight severity was decreased from 22 to 11 at the heading stage, 35 to 31 at the flowering stage, and 86 to 74 at the grain filling stage. At harvest, the number of tillers per plant was increased by 50%, the yield was increased by 31.58%, and the 1,000-seed weight was increased by 21%.
Investigation on the Effects of Three X
Histidine Replacements on Thermostability of
-Amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
Haghani, Karimeh ; Khajeh, Khosro ; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein ; Ranjbar, Bijan ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 5, 2012, Pages 592~599
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1109.09009
-amylase (BLA), a thermophilic counterpart of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
-amylase (BAA), is an appropriate model for the design of stabilizing mutations in BAA. BLA has 10 more histidines than BAA. Considering this prominent difference, in the present study, three out of these positions (I34, Q67, and P407; located in the thermostability determinant 1 region and Ca-III binding site of BAA) were replaced with histidine in BAA, using the site-directed mutagenesis technique. The results showed that the thermostability of P407H and Q67H mutants had increased, but no significant changes were observed in their kinetic parameters compared to that of the wild type. I34H replacement resulted in complete loss of enzyme activity. Moreover, fluorescence and circular dichroism data indicated a more rigid structure for the P407H variant compared with that of the wild-type BAA. However, the flexibility of Q67H and I34H mutants increased in comparison with that of wild-type enzyme.
Identification of Chinese Cabbage Sentrin as a Suppressor of Bax-Induced Cell Death in Yeast
Sawitri, Widhi Dyah ; Slameto, Slameto ; Sugiharto, Bambang ; Kim, Kyung-Min ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 5, 2012, Pages 600~606
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1109.09038
Studies into the cell death program termed apoptosis have resulted in new information regarding how cells control and execute their own demise, including insights into the mechanism by which death-preventing factors can inhibit Bax-induced caspase activation. We investigated high temperature stress-induced cell death in Brassica rapa. Using a yeast functional screening from a Brassica rapa cDNA library, the BH5-127 EST clone encoding an apoptotic suppressor peptide was identified. However, a phylogenic tree showed that BH5-127 clusters within a clade containing SUMO-1 (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier-1). BH5-127 was confirmed similar to have function to SUMO-1 as Fas suppression. Expression of BH5-127 showed that substantial suppression of cell death survived on SD-galactose-
medium. The results suggest that BrSE (
ST, BH5-127) is one of the important regulatory proteins in programming cell death, especially in the seedling stage of Chinese cabbage.
Improvement of Cellulase Activity Using Error-Prone Rolling Circle Amplification and Site-Directed Mutagenesis
Vu, Van Hanh ; Kim, Keun ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 5, 2012, Pages 607~613
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1107.07033
Improvement of endoglucanase activity was accomplished by utilizing error-prone rolling circle amplification, supplemented with 1.7 mM
. This procedure generated random mutations in the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens endoglucanase gene with a frequency of 10 mutations per kilobase. Six mutated endoglucanase genes, recovered from six colonies, possessed endoglucanase activity between 2.50- and 3.12-folds higher than wild type. We sequenced these mutants, and the different mutated sites of nucleotides were identified. The mutated endoglucanase sequences had five mutated amino acids: A15T, P24A, P26Q, G27A, and E289V. Among these five substitutions, E289V was determined to be responsible for the improved enzyme activity. This observation was confirmed with site-directed mutagenesis; the introduction of only one mutation (E289V) in the wild-type endoglucanase gene resulted in a 7.93-fold (5.55 U/mg protein) increase in its enzymatic activity compared with that (0.7 U/mg protein) of wild type.
Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using Marine Isolate Streptomyces albidoflavus
Prakasham, Reddy Shetty ; Kumar, Buddana Sudheer ; Kumar, Yannam Sudheer ; Shankar, Guntuku Girija ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 5, 2012, Pages 614~621
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1107.07013
Silver nanoparticles production by the green chemistry approach was investigated using an isolated marine actinomycetes strain. The isolated strain was identified as Streptomyces albidoflavus based on chemotaxonomic and ribotyping properties. The strain revealed production of silver nanoparticles both extracellular and intracellularly. Surface Plasmon Resonance analysis with the function of time revealed that particle synthesis by this strain is reaction time dependent. The produced particles were spherical shaped and monodispersive in nature and showed a single surface plasmon resonance peak at 410 nm. Size distribution histograms indicated production of 10-40-nm-size nanoparticles with a mean size of 14.5 nm. FT-IR spectra of nanopartilces showed N-H, C-H, and C-N stretching vibrations, denoting the presence of amino acid/peptide compounds on the surface of silver nanoparticles produced by S. albidoflavus. Synthesized nanoparticles revealed a mean negative zeta potential and electrophoretic mobility of -8.5 mV and -0.000066
, respectively. The nanoparticles produced were proteinaceous compounds as capping agents with -8.5 mV zeta potential and revealed antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative and -positive bacterial strains. Owing to their small size, these particles have greater impact on industrial application spectra.
6-Methoxyluteolin from Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum Suppresses Histamine Release and Calcium Influx via Down-Regulation of
Shim, Sun-Yup ; Park, Jeong-Ro ; Byun, Dae-Seok ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 5, 2012, Pages 622~627
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1111.11060
Mast cells and basophils are important effector cells in immunoglobulin-E (IgE)-mediated allergic reactions. Using the human basophilic KU812F cells, we assessed the inhibitory effects of 6-methoxyluteolin, isolated from Chrysanthemum zawadskii, in the
-mediated allergic reaction. We determined that 6-methoxyluteolin inhibited anti-
chain antibody (CRA-1)-induced histamine release, as well as elevation of intracellular calcium concentration
in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of 6-methoxyluteolin on the cell surface expression and the mRNA level of the
chain were determined by flow cytometric analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. Therefore, these results show that 6-methoxyluteolin is a potent inhibitor of histamine release and calcium influx via down-regulation of the
Stabilization of a Raw-Starch-Digesting Amylase by Multipoint Covalent Attachment on Glutaraldehyde-Activated Amberlite Beads
Nwagu, Tochukwu N. ; Okolo, Bartho N. ; Aoyagi, Hideki ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 5, 2012, Pages 628~636
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1108.08070
Raw-starch-digesting enzyme (RSDA) was immobilized on Amberlite beads by conjugation of glutaraldehyde/polyglutaraldehyde (PG)-activated beads or by crosslinking. The effect of immobilization on enzyme stability and catalytic efficiency was evaluated. Immobilization conditions greatly influenced the immobilization efficiency. Optimum pH values shifted from pH 5 to 6 for spontaneous crosslinking and sequential crosslinking, to pH 6-8 for RSDA covalently attached on polyglutaraldehyde-activated Amberlite beads, and to pH 7 for RSDA on glutaraldehyde-activated Amberlite. RSDA on glutaraldehyde-activated Amberlite beads had no loss of activity after 2 h storage at pH 9; enzyme on PG-activated beads lost 9%, whereas soluble enzyme lost 65% of its initial activity. Soluble enzyme lost 50% initial activity after 3 h incubation at
, whereas glutaraldehyde-activated derivative lost only 7.7% initial activity. RSDA derivatives retained over 90% activity after 10 batch reuse at
. The apparent
of the enzyme reduced from 0.35 mg/ml to 0.32 mg/ml for RSDA on glutaraldehyde-activated RSDA but increased to 0.42 mg/ml for the PG-activated RSDA derivative. Covalent immobilization on glutaraldehyde Amberlite beads was most stable and promises to address the instability and contamination issues that impede the industrial use of RSDAs. Moreover, the cheap, porous, and non-toxic nature of Amberlite, ease of immobilization, and high yield make it more interesting for the immobilization of this enzyme.
Biochemical Characterization of Thermophilic Dextranase from a Thermophilic Bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus
Park, Tae-Soon ; Jeong, Hyung-Jae ; Ko, Jin-A ; Ryu, Young-Bae ; Park, Su-Jin ; Kim, Do-Man ; Kim, Young-Min ; Lee, Woo-Song ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 5, 2012, Pages 637~641
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1112.12024
TPDex, a putative dextranase from Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus, was purified as a single 70 kDa band of 7.37 U/mg. Its optimum pH was 5.2 and the enzyme was stable between pH 3.1 and 8.5 at
. A half-life comparison showed that TPDex was stable for 7.4 h at
, whereas Chaetominum dextranase (CEDex), currently used as a dextranase for sugar milling, was stable at
. TPDex showed broad dextranase activity regardless of dextran types, including dextran T2000, 742CB dextran, and alternan. TPDex showed the highest thermostability among the characterized dextranases, and may be a suitable enzyme for use in sugar manufacture without decreased temperature.
Cloning and Characterization of the Orotidine-5'-Phosphate Decarboxylase Gene (URA3) from the Osmotolerant Yeast Candida magnoliae
Park, Eun-Hee ; Seo, Jin-Ho ; Kim, Myoung-Dong ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 5, 2012, Pages 642~648
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1111.11071
We determined the nucleotide sequence of the URA3 gene encoding orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase (OMPDCase) of the erythritol-producing osmotolerant yeast Candida magnoliae by degenerate polymerase chain reaction and genome walking. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of an uninterrupted open-reading frame of 795 bp, encoding a 264 amino acid residue protein with the highest identity to the OMPDCase of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence revealed that it shared a high degree of identity with other yeast OMPDCase homologs. The cloned URA3 gene successfully complemented the ura3 null mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, revealing that it encodes a functional OMPDCase in C. magnoliae. An enzyme activity assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction indicated that the expression level of the C. magnoliae URA3 gene in S. cerevisiae was not as high as that of the S. cerevisiae URA3 gene. The GenBank accession number for C. magnoliae URA3 is JF521441.
Genome Organization of Temperate Phage 11143 from Emetic Bacillus cereus NCTC11143
Lee, Young-Duck ; Park, Jong-Hyun ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 5, 2012, Pages 649~653
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1110.10065
A temperate phage was isolated from emetic Bacillus cereus NCTC 11143 by mitomycin C and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and DNA and protein analyses. Whole genome sequencing of Bacillus phage 11143 was performed by GS-FLX. The phage has a dsDNA genome of 39,077 bp and a 35% G+C content. Bioinformatic analysis of the phage genome revealed 49 putative ORFs involved in replication, morphogenesis, DNA packaging, lysogeny, and host lysis. Bacillus phage 11143 could be classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family by morphology and genome structure. Genomic comparisons at the DNA and protein levels revealed homologous genetic modules with patterns and morphogenesis proteins similar to those of other Bacillus phages. Thus, Bacillus phages might have a mosaic genetic relationship.
Evaluation of a Pretreatment Method for Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis of Synovial Fluid Using Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein as a Marker
Kong, Min-Kyung ; Min, Byoung-Hyun ; Lee, Pyung-Cheon ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 5, 2012, Pages 654~658
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1111.11005
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common rheumatic pathology. One of the major objectives of OA research is the development of early diagnostic strategies such as those using proteomic technology. Synovial fluid (SF) in OA patients is a potential source of biomarkers for OA. The efficient and reliable preparation of SF proteomes is a critical step towards biomarker discovery. In this study, we have optimized a pretreatment method for twodimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) separation of the SF proteome, by enriching low-abundance proteins and simultaneously removing hyaluronic acid, albumin, and IgG. SF samples pretreated using this optimized method were then evaluated by 1DE and 2DE separation followed by immunodetection of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), a known OA biomarker, and by the identification of 3 proteins (apolipoprotein, haptoglobin precursor, and fibrinogen D fragment) that are related to joint diseases.
Identification of Factors Regulating Escherichia coli 2,3-Butanediol Production by Continuous Culture and Metabolic Flux Analysis
Lu, Mingshou ; Lee, Soo-Jin ; Kim, Bo-Rim ; Park, Chang-Hun ; Oh, Min-Kyu ; Park, Kyung-Moon ; Lee, Sang-Yup ; Lee, Jin-Won ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 5, 2012, Pages 659~667
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1112.12018
2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BDO) is an organic compound with a wide range of industrial applications. Although Escherichia coli is often used for the production of organic compounds, the wild-type E. coli does not contain two essential genes in the 2,3-BDO biosynthesis pathway, and cannot ferment 2,3-BDO. Therefore, a 2,3-BDO biosynthesis mutant strain of Escherichia coli was constructed and cultured. To determine the optimum culture factors for 2,3-BDO production, experiments were conducted under different culture environments ranging from strongly acidic to neutral pH. The extracellular metabolite profiles were obtained using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the intracellular metabolite profiles were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS). Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) was used to integrate these profiles. The metabolite profiles showed that 2,3-BDO production favors an acidic environment (pH 5), whereas cell mass favors a neutral environment. Furthermore, when the pH of the culture fell below 5, both the cell growth and 2,3-BDO production were inhibited.
Metabolic Pathways of Hydrogen Production in Fermentative Acidogenic Microflora
Zhang, Liguo ; Li, Jianzheng ; Ban, Qiaoying ; He, Junguo ; Jha, Ajay Kumar ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 5, 2012, Pages 668~673
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1110.10076
Biohydrogen production from organic wastewater by anaerobically activated sludge fermentation has already been extensively investigated, and it is known that hydrogen can be produced by glucose fermentation through three metabolic pathways, including the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid to acetyl-CoA, oxidation of NADH to
, and acetogenesis by hydrogen-producing acetogens. However, the exact or dominant pathways of hydrogen production in the anaerobically activated sludge fermentation process have not yet been identified. Thus, a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) was introduced and a specifically acclimated acidogenic fermentative microflora obtained under certain operation conditions. The hydrogen production activity and potential hydrogen-producing pathways in the acidogenic fermentative microflora were then investigated using batch cultures in Erlenmeyer flasks with a working volume of 500 ml. Based on an initial glucose concentration of 10 g/l, pH 6.0, and a biomass of 1.01 g/l of a mixed liquid volatile suspended solid (MLVSS), 247.7 ml of hydrogen was obtained after a 68 h cultivation period at
. Further tests indicated that 69% of the hydrogen was produced from the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid, whereas the remaining 31% was from the oxidation of NADH to
. There were no hydrogen-producing acetogens or they were unable to work effectively in the anaerobically activated sludge with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of less than 8 h.
Production, Purification, and Characterization of Antifungal Metabolite from Pseudomonas aeruginosa SD12, a New Strain Obtained from Tannery Waste Polluted Soil
Dharni, Seema ; Alam, Mansoor ; Kalani, Komal ; Abdul-Khaliq, Abdul-Khaliq ; Samad, Abdul ; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar ; Patra, Dharani Dhar ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 5, 2012, Pages 674~683
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1109.09061
A new strain, SD12, was isolated from tannery waste polluted soil and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the basis of phenotypic traits and by comparison of 16S rRNA sequences. This bacterium exhibited broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against phytopathogenic fungi. The strain produced phosphatases, cellulases, proteases, pectinases, and HCN and also retained its ability to produce hydroxamate-type siderophore. A bioactive metabolite was isolated from P. aeruginosa SD12 and was characterized as 1-hydroxyphenazine ((1-OH-PHZ) by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral analysis. The strain was used as a biocontrol agent against root rot and wilt disease of pyrethrum caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The stain is also reported to increase the growth and biomass of Plantago ovata. The purified compound, 1-hydroxyphenazine, also showed broad-spectrum antagonistic activity towards a range of phytopathogenic fungi, which is the first report of its kind.
Biosequestration, Transformation, and Volatilization of Mercury by Lysinibacillus fusiformis Isolated from Industrial Effluent
Gupta, Saurabh ; Goyal, Richa ; Nirwan, Jashan ; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh ; Tejoprakash, Nagaraja ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 5, 2012, Pages 684~689
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1109.08022
In the present study, an efficient mercury-tolerant bacterial strain (RS-5) was isolated from heavy-metalcontaminated industrial effluent. Under shake flask conditions, 97% of the supplemented mercuric chloride was sequestered by the biomass of RS-5 grown in a tryptone soy broth. The sequestered mercuric ions were transformed inside the bacterial cells, as an XRD analysis of the biomass confirmed the formation of mercurous chloride, which is only feasible following the reaction of the elemental mercury and the residual mercuric chloride present within the cells. Besides the sequestration and intracellular transformation, a significant fraction of the mercury (63%) was also volatilized. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of RS-5 revealed its phylogenetic relationship with the family Bacillaceae, and a 98% homology with Lysinibacillus fusiformis, a Gram-positive bacterium with swollen sporangia. This is the first observation of the sequestration and volatilization of mercuric ions by Lysinibacillus sp.
Characteristics of a Novel Acinetobacter sp. and Its Kinetics in Hexavalent Chromium Bioreduction
M., Narayani ; K., Vidya Shetty ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 5, 2012, Pages 690~698
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1110.10073
Cr-B2, a Gram-negative hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] reducing bacteria, was isolated from the aerator water of an activated sludge process in the wastewater treatment facility of a dye and pigment based chemical industry. Cr-B2 exhibited a resistance for 1,100 mg/l Cr(VI) and, similarly, resistance against other heavy metal ions such as
(700 mg/l), and
(1,000 mg/l), and against selected antibiotics. Cr-B2 was observed to efficiently reduce 200 mg/l Cr(VI) completely in both nutrient and LB media, and could convert Cr(VI) to Cr(III) aerobically. Cr(VI) reduction kinetics followed allosteric enzyme kinetics. The
values were found to be 43.11 mg/l for nutrient media and 38.05 mg/l for LB media.
values of 13.17 mg/l/h and 12.53 mg/l/h were obtained for nutrient media and LB media, respectively, and the cooperativity coefficients (n) were found to be 8.47 and 3.49, respectively, indicating positive cooperativity in both cases. SEM analysis showed the formation of wrinkles and depressions in the cells when exposed to 800 mg/l Cr(VI) concentration. The organism was seen to exhibit pleomorphic behavior. Cr-B2 was identified on the basis of morphological, biochemical, and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing chracterizations and found to be Acinetobacter sp.
Identification of Reassortant Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus in Korean Pigs
Han, Jae-Yeon ; Park, Sung-Jun ; Kim, Hye-Kwon ; Rho, Se-Mi ; Nguyen, Giap Van ; Song, Dae-Sub ; Kang, Bo-Kyu ; Moon, Hyung-Jun ; Yeom, Min-Joo ; Park, Bong-Kyun ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 5, 2012, Pages 699~707
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1106.05062
Since the 2009 pandemic human H1N1 influenza A virus emerged in April 2009, novel reassortant strains have been identified throughout the world. This paper describes the detection and isolation of reassortant strains associated with human pandemic influenza H1N1 and swine influenza H1N2 (SIV) viruses in swine populations in South Korea. Two influenza H1N2 reassortants were detected, and subtyped by PCR. The strains were isolated using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and genetically characterized by phylogenetic analysis for genetic diversity. They consisted of human, avian, and swine virus genes that were originated from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus and a neuraminidase (NA) gene from H1N2 SIV previously isolated in North America. This identification of reassortment events in swine farms raises concern that reassortant strains may continuously circulate within swine populations, calling for the further study and surveillance of pandemic H1N1 among swine.
Effect of Ginsenoside Re on Depression- and Anxiety-Like Behaviors and Cognition Memory Deficit Induced by Repeated Immobilization in Rats
Lee, Bom-Bi ; Shim, In-Sop ; Lee, Hye-Jung ; Hahm, Dae-Hyun ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 5, 2012, Pages 708~720
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1112.12046
In this study, we assessed the effects of ginsenoside Re (GRe) administration on repeated immobilization stress-induced behavioral alterations using the forced swimming test (FST), the elevated plus maze (EPM), and the active avoidance conditioning test (AAT). Additionally, we examined the effect of GRe on the central adrenergic system by observing changes in neuronal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression in the rat brain. Male rats received 10, 20, or 50 mg/kg GRe (i.p.) 30 min before daily exposures to repeated immobilization stress (2 h/day) for 10 days. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in response to repeated immobilization was confirmed by measuring serum levels of corticosterone (CORT) and the expression of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) in the hypothalamus. Repeated immobilization stress increased immobility in the FST and reduced open-arm exploration in the EPM test. It also increased the probability of escape failures in the AAT test, indicating a reduced avoidance response. Daily administration of GRe during the repeated immobilization stress period significantly inhibited the stress-induced behavioral deficits in these behavioral tests. Administration of GRe also significantly blocked the increase in TH expression in the locus coeruleus (LC) and the decrease in BDNF mRNA expression in the hippocampus. Taken together, these findings indicate that administration of GRe prior to immobilization stress significantly improved helpless behaviors and cognitive impairment, possibly through modulating the central noradrenergic system in rats. These findings suggest that GRe may be a useful agent for treating complex symptoms of depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment.
Neutralization of Human Papillomavirus by Specific Nanobodies Against Major Capsid Protein L1
Minaeian, Sara ; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh ; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid ; Ahmadvand, Davoud ; Broom, Oliver Jay ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 22, issue 5, 2012, Pages 721~728
DOI : 10.4014/jmb.1112.12001
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer in developing countries. Rapid diagnosis and initiation of treatment of the HPV infection are critical. Various methods have been employed to reduce the immunogenicity of antibodies targeting HPV serotypes. Nanobodies are the smallest fragments of naturally occurring single-domain antibodies with their antigen-binding site compromised into a single domain. Nanobodies have remarkable properties such as high stability, solubility, and high homology to the human VH3 domain. In this study, a phagemid library was employed to enrich for nanobodies against the L1 protein of the human papilloma virus. Binding reactivity of the selected clones was evaluated using phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (phage-ELISA). Finally, two nanobodies (sm5 and sm8) with the best reactivity against the Gardasil vaccine and the purified HPV-16 L1 protein were expressed and purified using a
-NTA column. The accuracy of expression and purification of the nanobodies was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting assays. In vitro studies demonstrated that neutralization was achieved by the selected nanobodies. The ease of generation and unique features of these molecules make nanobodies promising molecules for the new generation of HPV diagnosis and therapy.