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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 3, Issue 4 - Dec 1993
Volume 3, Issue 3 - Sep 1993
Volume 3, Issue 2 - Jun 1993
Volume 3, Issue 1 - Mar 1993
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Characteristics of the Nisin-Resistant Transformants of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LM0230
Kang, Hyeong-Joon ; Kim, Jeong-Hwan ; Chung, Dae-Kyun ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 4, 1993, Pages 217~223
To investigate the nature and location of the nisin-resistance determinant of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 7962 (L. lactis 7962), a total plasmid DNA prepared from L. lactis 7962, a nisin producer, was used to transform L. lactis subsp. lactis LM0230, a plasmid-free and nisin-sensitive strain, by protoplast mediated transformation procedures. All of the nisin-resistant transformants acquired the ability to utilize sucrose at the same time, confirming the close linkage between these two determinants in L. lactis 7962. The plasmid DNA profiles of a few selected nisin-resistant transformants were examined by agarose gel electrophoresis. No common plasmid was found among the transformants and some small plasmids previously not present in L. lactis 7962 were detected. These transformants were named as L. lactis KL1, KL2, KL3, KL4, or KL5, respectively based on their plasmid profiles. Growth curves of all transformants were similar to that of L. lactis LM0230, but different from that of L. lactis 7962. L. lactis KL5 showed the highest level of resistance to nisin, growing up to 1, 200 IU nisin/ml after 40 hr incubation. Some nisin-sensitive derivatives of KL1 or KL2 were obtained by plasmid curing experiments. The plasmid DNA profiles of the nisin-sensitive KL1 derivatives were apparently the same as that of the KL1. All of the nisin-sensitive KL2 derivatives were plasmid-free, but a nisin-resistant strain with no apparent plasmid was also obtained. These results indicate that the nisin-resistance of the
transformants is presumably mediated by the chromosomally located gene(s) rather than plasmid-encoded gene(s).
Sequence Analysis and Expression of Xylanase Gene (xynY) from Alkalophilic Bacillus sp. YC-335
Park, Young-Seo ; Yum, Do-Young ; Kim, Jin-Man ; Bai, Dong-Hoon ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 4, 1993, Pages 224~231
The nucleotide sequence of the xylanase gene (xynY) from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. YC-335 was determined and analyzed. An open reading frame of 1, 062 base pairs for xynY gene was observed and encoded for a protein of 354 amino acids with a molecular weight of 38, 915. S1 nuclease mapping showed that the transcription initiation sites of the xynY gene were different in Bacillus sp. YC-335 and Escherichia coli HB101 (pYS55). S1 mapping also showed that -10 region of the xynY gene recognized by RNA polymerases of E. coli and Bacillus sp. YC-335 were TACAGT and TATGAT , respectively. A ribosome binding site sequence with the free energy of -17.0 Kcal/mol was observed 9 base pairs upstream from the unusual initiation codon, TTG. The proposed signal sequence consisted of 27 amino acids, 2 of which were basic amino acid residues and 21 were hydrophobic amino acid residues. When the amino acid sequences of xylanases were compared, Bacillus sp. YC-335 xylanase showed more than 50% homology with xylanases from B. pumilus, B. subtilis, and B. circulans.
Genetically Engineered Yeast by Heterologous Transformation and Intergeneric Two-Step Protoplast Fusion for Ethanol Fermentation
Kim, Young-Ho ; Lee, Jae-Ran ; Seu, Jung-Hwn ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 4, 1993, Pages 232~237
A strain of yeast which can convert starch directly to ethanol was developed by the intergeneric protoplast fusion between Schwanniomyces alluvius possessing
amylase as well as glucoamylase with debranching activity and FSC-14-75 which previously had been formed from a heterologous transformation and subsequent intergeneric protoplast fusion. Fusants were selected on minimal medium after protoplasts of auxotrophic mutant of S. alluvius fused with heat-treated protoplasts of FSC-14-75 in the presence of 30%(w/v) PEG and 20 mM
. The fusion frequency was in the range of
order. All fusants tested were intermediate types of parental strains for carbon compound assimilation, and their cell volumes were approximately 1.1 times larger than FSC-14-75 and 1.8 times larger than S. alluvius. The fusants were unable to sporulate like FSC-14-75, while S. alluvius could sporulate. In flask scale the most promising fusant, FSCSa-R10-6, produced 7.83%(v/v) and 10.17%(v/v) ethanol from 15% and 20% of liquefied potato starch, respectively, indicating that the fermetation efficiency of each case increased 1.2 times and 1.6 times than that of FSC-14-75. The elution pattern on DEAE-cellulose chromatography showed that FSCSa-R10-6 has four distinct amylase peaks of which two peaks originated from S. alluvius and the other two from FSC-14-75. These results suggest that the enhanced fermentation efficiency of the fusant might be due to almost-complemented parental amylases.
Phytohormone Effects with Elicitation on Cell Growth and Alkaloid Production in Suspension Cultures of Eschscholtzia californica
Ju, Young-Woon ; Kim, Chul ; Byun, Sang-Yo ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 4, 1993, Pages 238~243
In the suspension cultures of Eschscholtzia californica, phytohormone effects showed that alkaloid production was increased by IAA treatment without kinetin in both volumetric and specific way. Kinetin, however, suppressed alkaloid accumulation. Addition of ethephon inhibited cell growth. However, it enhanced the alkaloid production significantly in both volumetric and specific way. IAA promoted alkaloid production during elicitation. The highest alkaloid accumulation was observed at 5
M of IAA. Ethephon also enhanced alkaloid production during elicitation. The highest alkaloid formation was observed at 460 mg/l of ethephon with elicitation. Elicitation with ethephon, however, altered cell growth and the pattern of benzophenanthridine alkaloids production.
Optimization of an Intact Cell System of Rhodocyclus gelatinosus KUP-74 for
Lim, Wang-Jin ; Choi, Kyung-Min ; Hwang, Se-Young ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 4, 1993, Pages 244~251
A novel system has been developed to produce
acid (ALA) using the intact cells of late logarithmic phase of Rhodocyclus gelatinosus KUP-74. The system was shown optimum yield of extracellular ALA under a condition of anaerobic light irradiation (4 Klux) at
with no variation in cell mass. The rate of extracellular ALA formation was stimulated by low doses of either
ALA biosynthetic precursors, where 5 mM (
) and 3 mM (
) of each precursors were appeared to generate the maximum rates of 3.3 and 4.0 nmoles of ALA per 0.35 mg cells per hr, respectively. Half-life of the system was 10 hr in a sense of an ability of portage transport of L-glutamate, and sequential dose of this compound was resulted in promising recovery of the ALA.
n-Alkane Utilizing Capability and Location of the Genes for Alkane Hydroxylases in Pseudomonas maltophilia N246
Choi, Soon-Young ; Lee, Myung-Hye ; Hwang, Moon-Ok ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 4, 1993, Pages 252~255
Pseudomonas maltophilia N246 carrying on OCT plasmid grew on n-alkanes of 6 to 14 carbon atoms, but not on n-alkanes of more carbon atoms. P. maltophilia strains with and without OCT plasmid could utilize primary alcohols. aldehydes and fatty acids derived from n-alkane. The N246 strain could also utilize monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids, and terminal branched dimethyloctane. Unlike the genes of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase which were located on both the chromosome and the OCT plasmid, genes for the alkane hydroxylase components were located only on the OCT plasmid in P. maltophilia N246.
Identification of the Gene Products Responsible for F Plasmid Partitioning
Kim, Sung-Uk ; Kazuo Nagai ; Gakuzo Tamura ; Yu, Ju-Hyun ; Bok, Song-Hae ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 4, 1993, Pages 256~260
DNA subfragments, sopA, sopB and sopC which help to maintain the stability of an ori C plasmid, were derived from a mini-F plasmid DNA (EcoRI restriction fragment f5) after digestion with restriction endonuclease, and cloned in the vector plasmid pBR322. The recombinant plasmids obtained were introduced into E. coli KY7231 and E. coli CSR603 strains, and proteins specified by the mini-F fragments were analysed by SDS-PAGE. Two proteins encoded by the F fragments were detected, and their molecular weights were 41,000 and 37,000 daltons. Fluorography after one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis of the lysates showed that these two proteins had been overproduced in the cells which were allowed to incorporate radioactive amino acid after plasmid amplification by chloramphenicol treatment. The isoelectric points of sopA and sopB proteins were 6.6 and 7.0, respectively.
Localization of Sop Proteins and Interaction of Plasmid DNA with the Cell Membrane of Host Bacteria in Partitioning
Kim, Sung-Uk ; Nagai, Kazuo ; Tamura, Gakuzo ; Yu, Ju-Hyun ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 4, 1993, Pages 261~265
A sopA protein (41K) encoded by plasmid pXX288 was observed in the cytoplasm, whereas a sopB protein (37K) encoded by plasmid pXX157 was observed in the membrane fraction. Most of the sopB protein was solubilized from the crude membrane by treatment with Sarkosyl, which suggested that the protein may be located in the inner membrane. The sopA protein was precipitated at the concentration of 30 to 60% ammonium sulfate. The sedimentation profile of the crude membrane fraction showed a little difference according to culture media used, and the sopB protein existed in all fractions of inner membrane. The DNA of plasmids, pXX157, pXX300, and pXX167 co-sedimented with inner membrane fraction.
Effect of Temperature on the Production of Free Organic Acids during Kimchi Fermentation
Park, Young-Sik ; Ko, Chang-Young ; Ha, Duk-Mo ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 4, 1993, Pages 266~269
The production of free non-volatile and volatile organic acids in Kimchi during fermentations at 30, 20 and
, were determined by gas chromatography. The order in the amount of non-volatile organic acid, soon after preparation, was malic, citric, tartaric, pyroglutamic, oxalic, lactic, succinic and
acids. The major non-volatile acids at the optimum ripening time were malic, tartaric, citric and lactic acids, and as the temperature was lowered, the amount of lactic, succinic, oxalic, pyroglutamic and fumaric acids increased, while that of malic and tartaric acids decreased. The order in the amount of volatile acids at the beginning was acetic, butyric, propionic and formic acids. Among these acids, acetic acid was significantly increased in its amount during fermentation and the Kimchi fermented at low temperature produced more acetic acid than that fermented at high temperature.
Character Impact Compounds in Flavors of Korean Soy Sauce Manufactured with the Traditional and the Improved Meju
Kim, Jong-kyu ; Chang, Ho-Geun ; Seo, Jae-Soon ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 4, 1993, Pages 270~276
We characterized the character impact compounds of flavors of the fermented Korean soy sauce manufactured with both the traditional and the improved Meju made with different strains. The whole flavor samples were obtained by extracting each volatile flavor phase from both the traditional and the improved soy sauce. To get more detailed information, each whole volatile flavor was further fractionated into the basic, acidic, phenolic and neutral fractions. Each separated peak from the whole and fractionated flavor samples on gas chromatogram was identified by GC/MS and Kovat s retention index, and likewise the aroma of each peak was investigated by a sniffing test with the exercised panel. We were able to identify 15 groups of ingredients with the characteristic soy sauce aroma from the soy sauce made with the traditional Meju and 6 groups from the soy sauce manufactured with the improved Meju made with Aspergillus oryzae. The character impact compounds the two soy sauces were different from each other.
Characteristic Flavors of Korean Soybean Paste
Kim, Jong-Kyu ; Seo, Jae-Soon ; Chang, Ho-Geun ; Lee, Sang-Jun ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 4, 1993, Pages 277~284
We confirmed the character impact compounds of the flavors of the soybean paste manufactured with the traditional and improved Meju, respectively, by using the following methods: gas chromatography (GC), sniffing tests and GC-mass. The soybean paste made with the traditional Meju had 12 compound groups that smelled like the soybean paste flavor, whereas the soybean paste made with the improved Meju had 7 compound groups of soybean paste flavor smell. We were easily able to determine that there is a difference of soybean paste flavor compounds between the soybean pastes made with either the traditional or the improved Mejus because the two soybean paste flavors are very different from each other.
Effect of Aster scaber extract on the Growth of Bifidobacteria and Clostridium perfringens
Park, Jong-Hyun ; Han, Nam-Soo ; Yoo, Jin-Young ; Kwon, Dong-Jin ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 4, 1993, Pages 285~291
Growth responses of some intestinal bacteria such as bifidobacteria and Clostridium perfringens to the extracts of certain foodstuffs were investigated in vitro. Among edible mountain herbs, the extracts of several chui-na-muls (Aster tataricus, Ligularia fischeri and Aster scaber) had an inhibitory activity against C. perfringens on the agar plate and the water extract of Aster scaber worked selectively on it among intestinal bacteria. The water extract showed growth-promoting effect toward bifidobacteria such as B. adolescentis, B. animalis, B. bifidum, B. infantis and B. thermophilum in the broth culture. When the faecal inoculum was incubated in the culture with the extract, the population of C. perfringens decreased, whereas that of bifidobacteria increased by
-glucuronidase activity in the culture with the water extract of Aster scaber digested with pepsin and pancreatin was lower than that in the control culture.
Effect of Aeration and Agitation Conditions on the Production of Glucoamylase with Aspergillus niger No. PFST-38
Oh, Sung-Hoon ; O, PYong-Su ; Lee, Cherl-Ho ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 4, 1993, Pages 292~297
Aspergillus niger No. PFST-38 was grown on complex media in 30L agitated fermentors at various aeration rates and stirrer speeds. We could correlate the mixing time as a function of the Reynolds number and the apparent viscosity, as follows.
Also, the effects of the apparent viscosity (
), the impeller rotational speed (N), the air flow rate (
), and the mixing time (
) on the oxygen transfer coefficient,
were determined experimentally, and equated as follows.
increased as the agitation speed and the air flow rate increased. The rate of
increase was dependent more on the rotational speed of impeller than on the air flow rate. The glucoamylase production increased with the increase of the agitation speed upto at 500 rpm and increased with the increase of air flow rate upto at 1.0 vvm. The values calculated from the above equation confirmed that the experimental maximum production of glucoamylase was achieved when the
and the apparent viscosity of the broth were
and 1800 cps, respectively.
Pullulan Production from Starch Hydrolysate by Aureobasidium pullulans SH8646
Shin, Yong-Chul ; Kim, Tae-Un ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 3, issue 4, 1993, Pages 298~302
Pullulan was produced from starch hydrolysate with Aureobasidium pullulans SH8646. We could measure the correct amount of pullulan produced without the interference of starch from the culture supernatant by using a bacterial
-amylase treatment and ethanol: acetone (1:1) precipitation. When 5% acid-hydrolyzed starch was used as a carbon source, the dry cell weights obtained were similar irrespective of DE values of starch hydrolysates. The dry cell weights of those on the starch hydrolysate media prepared with 0.1 N HC1 treatment, were slightly higher (9.5~10.5 g/l) than those on the starch hydrolysate media prepared with 1.0 N HCl (8.5~9.5 g/l). And among the starch hydrolysates showing DE values lower than 50, maximum pullulan production of 15 g/l was obtained at DE 30~40 starch hydrolysate but those showing DE values higher than 50, the pullulan production was increased with the increase of the DE value of starch hydrolysates. From the media containing 5%, 10%, and 15% starch hydrolysate (DE 25, 45, and 75), about 20~34% pullulan yield was obtained and the maximum pullulan yield of 34% (17g/l) was obtained from 5% DE 75 starch hydrolysate. The pullulan yields from starch hydrolysate media were much lower than those from glucose, maltose, maltotriose, and sucrose media.