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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 6 - Dec 1997
Volume 7, Issue 5 - Oct 1997
Volume 7, Issue 4 - Aug 1997
Volume 7, Issue 3 - Jun 1997
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Apr 1997
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Feb 1997
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Investigation of Regulatory Mechanism of Flux of Acetyl-CoA in Alcaligenes eutrophus Using PHB-negative Mutant and Transformants Harboring Cloned phbCAB Genes
Jung, Young-Mi ; Lee, Yong-Hyun ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 7, issue 4, 1997, Pages 215~222
The regulatory mechanism of the flux of acetyl-CoA in Alcaligenes eutrophus in unbalanced growth conditions was investigated using a PHB-negative mutant and transformants reintroduced PHB-biosynthesis enzymes through the transformation of cloned phbCAB genes. The PHB-negative mutant was defected absolutly in PHB synthase but partially in
-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase, and excreted substantial amount of pyruvate to culture broth at late growth phase. The excretion was due to the inhibitory effect of acetyl-CoA on the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase. The cloned phbC and phbCAB genes were transformed to the PHB-negative mutant strain to reintroduce PHB biosythesis enzymes. Pyruvate excretion could be decreased substantially but not completely by transformation of PHB synthase alone, while pyruvate excretion was ceased by transformation of all three PHB biosynthesis enzymes. To identify the most critical PHB biosynthesis enzyme influencing on the flux of acetyl-CoA, the effect of the variation of PHB biosynthesis enzymes on pyruvate dehydrogenase was investigated.
-Ketothiolase influenced the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase more sensitively than PHB synthase.
-Ketothiolase, the first step enzyme of PHB biosynthesis that condense acetyl-CoA to acetoacetyl-CoA, seems to be the major enzyme determining the flux of acetyl-CoA to PHB biosynthesis or TCA cycle, and the rate of PHB biosynthesis in A. eutrophus.
Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Cell Wall Hydrolase Gene of an Alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis BL-29
Kim, Tae-Ho ; Hong, Soon-Duck ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 7, issue 4, 1997, Pages 223~228
A DNA fragment containing the gene for cell wall hydrolase of alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis BL-29 was cloned into E. coli JM109 using pUC18 as a vector. A recombinant plasmid, designated pCWL45B, was contained in the fragment originating from the alkalophilic B. subtilis BL-29 chromosomal DNA by Southern hybridization analysis. The nucleotide sequence of a 1.6-kb HindIII fragment containing a cell wall hydrolase-encoding gene was determined. The nucleotide sequence revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 900 bp with a concensus ribosome-binding site located 6 nucleotide upstream from the ATG start codon. The primary amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence revealed a putative protein of 299 amino acid residues with an M.W. of 33, 206. Based on comparison of the amino acid sequence of the ORF with amino acid sequences in the GenBank data, it showed significant homology to the sequence of cell wall amidase of the PBSX bacteriophage of B. subtilis.
Cloning, Nucleotide Sequence and Expression of Gene Coding for Poly-3-hydroxybutyric Acid (PHB) Synthase of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1
Kim, Ji-Hoe ; Lee, Jeong-Kug ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 7, issue 4, 1997, Pages 229~236
encoding poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) synthase of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 was cloned by employing heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. R. sphaeroides chromosomal DNA partially digested with MboI was cloned in pUC19 followed by mobilization into E. coli harbouring
in pRK415, which code for
-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl CoA reductase of Alcaligenes eutrophus, respectively. Two E. coli clones carrying R. sphaeroides chromosomal fragment of
in pUC19 were selected from ca. 10,000 colonies. The PHB-producing colonies had an opaque white appearance due to the intracellular accumulation of PHB. The structure of PHB produced by the recombinant E. coli as well as from R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 was confirmed by [
]-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Restriction analysis of the two pUC19 clones revealed that one insert DNA fragment is contained as a part of the other cloned fragment. An open reading frame of 601 amino acids of
with approximate M.W. of 66 kDa was found from nucleotide sequence determination of the 2.8-kb SaiI-PstI restriction endonuclease fragment which had been narrowed down to support PHB synthesis through heterologous expression in the E. coli harbouring
. The promoter (s) of the
were localized within a 340-bp DNA region upstream of the
start codon according to heterologous expression analysis.
Two Different Pathways (a Chlorocatechol and a Hydroquinone Pathway) for the 4-Chlorophenol Degradation in Two Isolated Bacterial Strains
Bae, Hee-Sung ; Rhee, Sung-Keun ; Cho, Young-Gyun ; Hong, Jong-Ki ; Lee, Sung-Taik ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 7, issue 4, 1997, Pages 237~241
Two isolated strains, Comamonas testosteroni CPW301 and Arthrobacter ureafaciens CPR706, were able to use 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) as a sole carbon and energy source. CPW301 was found to degrade 4-CP via a meta-cleavage pathway in which the chloro-substituent was eliminated even when 4-chlorocatechol was cleaved by the catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase. In contrast, CPR706 removed chloride from 4-CP prior to the ring-fission reaction, producing hydroquinone as a transient intermediate during 4-CP degradation. CPR706 exhibited much higher tolerance for 4-CP than CPW301, which was indicated by the maximum degradable concentration and degradation rate.
Stabilization of Bioluminescence of Immobilized Photobacterium phosphoreum and Monitoring of Environmental Pollutants
Britz, Margaret L. ; Nina Simonov ; Chun, Uck-Han ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 7, issue 4, 1997, Pages 242~249
Stability of bioluminescence was investigated with Photobacterium phosphoreum immobilized on the strontium alginate in order to develope continuous real time monitoring of pollutants. The stability of bioluminescence emission was improved by prolonged aging time. The aging time of
min and the cell concentration of
were selected for the immobilization of P. phosphoreum to give linearity between cell concentrations and bioluminescence intensity. In sensitivity tests using phenol, it was found that this compound quenched bioluminescence proportional to the concentration without lowering of cell growth. The lower value for maximum quenching (
) and higher dissociation constant (
) were observed with strontium-alginate immobilized cells compared to free cells. The response of bioluminescence to toxicants was evaluated with the immobilized luminescent bacteria. The sensitivity of the immobilized cells was found to be good in response to toxicants, 4-nitrophenol, salicylate and cadmium, when evaluated with a specific rate of bioluminescence quenching.
Immobilized Luminescent Cell - based Flow Through Monitoring of Environmental Pollutants
Britz, Margaret L. ; Simonov, Nina ; Chun, Uck-Han ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 7, issue 4, 1997, Pages 250~257
A new sensing system based on the immobilization of luminescent bacteria, photobacterium phosphoreum, was proposed for continuous real-time monitoring of pollutants. The response curves demonstrate that Photobacterium phosphoreum immobilized on the strontium alginate were very sensitive to seven reference chemicals used. The significant inhibitory concentrations for bioluminescence emission were 5 ppm for Pb
, 50 ppm for
, 0.1 ppm for
, 0.5 ppm for pentachlorophenol and less than 5 ppm for SDS, respectively. The alginate mixed-cells (AMC) retained their luminescence during experimental period (29 days) under storage condition of
. The variables affecting performance of continuous flow through monitoring (CFTM) was optimized in order to ensure stability and efficiency. The flow through cell with strontium-alginate immobilized luminescent bacteria was tested with salicylate and 4-nitrophenol. A rapid response of luminescence was recorded by time drive mode in bioluminescence spectrometer after exposure to both toxicants.
Production of Lysophospholipid Using Extracellular Phospholipase
from Serratia sp. MK1
Kim, Jeong-Kyun ; Kim, Myung-Kee ; Chung, Guk-Hoon ; Choi, Choon-Soon ; Rhee, Joon-Shick ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 7, issue 4, 1997, Pages 258~261
For the efficient production of lysophospholipid the hydrolysis of phospholipid using phospholipase
from Serratia sp. MK1 was studied in an aqueous-solvent, a two-phase and an emulsion system. Judged on the basis of productivity and the degree of hydrolysis, the yield of lysophospholipid in a two-phase system was found to be better than that obtained in an emulsion system. Among the 13 organic solvents tested phospholipase
showed the most efficient catalytic activity and stability in butyl acetate. When 20% phospholipid was used it was completely hydrolyzed in this two-phase system.
Production of 1-Deoxynojirimycin by Streptomyces sp. SID9135
Paek, Nam-Soo ; Kang, Dae-Jung ; Choi, Yong-Jin ; Lee, Jung-Jun ; Kim, Tae-Han ; Kim, Kee-Won ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 7, issue 4, 1997, Pages 262~266
To increase the high production of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) from Streptomyces sp. SID9135, the effect of various carbon sources, nitrogen sources, cationic metal ions, the initial pH of the medium, and agitation speed were investigated. The most effective carbon and nitrogen sources were found to be lactose 2.5% (w/v) and soybean meal 2.0% (w/v), respectively. None of the cationic metal ions examined had any detectable stimulating effect on DNJ production except
ion. The initial optimum pH for DNJ production ranged from 6-8 and agitation speed was most effective at 400 rpm. In the jar fermentor experiments under optimal culture conditions, the accumulation of DNJ reached about
/ml after 5 days of cultivation and the level remained the same for a further two days.
Contraction Behavior of Collagen Gel and Fibroblats Activity in Dermal Equivalent Model
Yang, Eun-Kyung ; Lee, Doo-Hoon ; Park, Sue-Nie ; Choe, Tae-Boo ; Park, Jung-Keug ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 7, issue 4, 1997, Pages 267~271
We developed a dermal equivalent (DE) which was engineered using human dermal fibroblasts and a matrix of collagen gel. The in vitro construction of the DE was accomplished by casting a porcine collagen type I solution plus concentrated medium with isolated and cultured fibroblasts. These constructs were attached to culture dishes or left floating in culture medium. Contraction of attached gels results in decreased gel thickness without a change in gel diameter, and contraction of floating gels results in decreased gel thickness and diameter. After contraction, there was no increase in cell number in floating gels, but cells in attached gels began to increase after about 4 days of the lag phase in cell growth curve. At this lag phase, addition of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) at a concentration of
/ml promoted cell proliferation in the attached collagen gels, but no effect in floating gels. These results indicate that the method of contraction had an influence on the extracellular matrix (ECM) organization, and this influenced not only cell growth but also fibroblast responsiveness to FGF. This suggests that attached collagen gel is more suitable as a dermal equivalent than the floating gel. And the final contracted area of attached gel is much larger than that of the floating gel since floating gel is contracted in all directions but attached gel is contracted only vertically.
Immunosuppressive Activity of Elaiophylins
Lee, Sang-Yong ; Kim, Hang-Sub ; Kim, Young-Ho ; Han, Sang-Bae ; Kim, Hwan-Mook ; Hong, Soon-Duck ; Lee, Jung-Joon ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 7, issue 4, 1997, Pages 272~277
In the purification of elaiophylin from a culture of Streptomyces hygroscopicus MCY -846, mono- and di-methyl-elaiophylin were obtained through a O-methylation of the hemiketal hydroxy group of elaiophylin. All the three elaiophylins showed cytotoxicity against several human tumor cell lines and murine cell lines. Elaiophylin and monomethyl-elaiophylin also showed antimicrobial activities against gram-positive bacteria and potent inhibitory effects on the activation of B cells by lipopolysaccharide as well as on the proliferation of mouse splenic lymphocytes stimulated by mitogens but dimethyl-elaiophylin did not. This result indicates that elaiophylin and monomethyl-elaiophylin would be strong immunosuppressants. Furthermore this result revealed an interesting structure-activity relationship suggesting that the lack of symmetry and/or the free OH group at C-11 of elaiophylin might be important in conferring biological activities.
Production of Elaiophylin by the Strain MCY-846 in a Submerged Culture
Lee, Sang-Yong ; Ha, Sang-Chul ; Hong, Young-Soo ; Hong, Soon-Duck ; Lee, Jung-Joon ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 7, issue 4, 1997, Pages 278~281
Streptomyces sp. MCY-846 selected by in vitro cytotoxicity assay produced elaiophylin. Individual characteristics of the strains such as spore morphology, and physiological characteristics indicated that the strain is resembled to Streptomyces hygroscopicus. The time course of cell growth and antibiotic production was observed in the medium containing 0.5% trehalose and 0.5% soybean meal as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The optimum production of elaiophylin was tested with different combinations of carbon and nitrogen sources and reached a maxima of
/ml in the PC-II medium.
Enhancement of the Escherichia coli Floc Strength with Water Soluble Polymers
KIM, CHAN-WHA ; CHOKYUN RHA ;
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, volume 7, issue 4, 1997, Pages 282~286
The floc strength of Escherichia coli was enhanced by adding water soluble polymer flocculants (BPA-5020 and BPA-5000) to the particulate flocculant (BPA-1000) as indicated by the increase in the shear index. The shear index of the E. coli flocs increased from 0.39 with the particulate flocculant alone to 0.94 with the particulate flocculant in conjunction with the water soluble polymer flocculant. In addition, the sedimentation rate of flocs was higher and the sedimented volume of flocs was smaller when the particulate flocculant was used with the water soluble polymer flocculant. When E. coli was flocculated first with the water soluble flocculant and the particulate flocculant was added later into the E. coli flocs formed, the sedimentation rate of the flocs was greater than that of any other combination. The shear index of the flocs was, however, independent of the sequence of the flocculant addition.