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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Nov 1995
Volume 28, Issue 5 - Sep 1995
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Jul 1995
Volume 28, Issue 3 - May 1995
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Mar 1995
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Jan 1995
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Inhibition of Myoblast Differentiation by Polyamine Depletion with Methylglyoxal Bis(guanylhydrazone)
Cho, Hwa-Jeong ; Kim, Byeong-Gee ; Kim, Han-Do ; Kang, Ho-Sung ; Kim, Chong-Rak ;
BMB Reports , volume 28, issue 3, 1995, Pages 191~196
The role of polyamines in skeletal myoblast differentiation was investigated using the polyamine metabolic inhibitor methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone)(MGBG). Concentrations of intracellular free spermidine and spermine increased 2 to 2.5-fold at the onset of myoblast fusion. The systhesis of actin, and creatine kinase activity both dramatically increased during myotube formation. However, MGBG at a concentration of 0.5 mM not only abolished the increase of intracellular free polyamines, but also reduced cell fusion to almost half the level of untreated cells, without noticeable morphological alteration. The production of actin, and creatine kinase activity were almost completely abolished by MGBG. The inhibition of myoblast fusion by MGBG was partially recovered with 0.1 mM of spermidine or spermine added externally. Results indicate that polyamines are necessary for normal myoblast differentiation. Since the first indication of myoblast differentiation is alignment of muscle cells and membrane fusion of adjacent cells, and since polyamine depletion completely inhibited the synthesis of actin, which might be associted with membranes, polyamine might be involved in myoblast differentiation through membrane reorganization events.
Purification and Characterization of Farnesyl Protein Transferase from Bovine Testis
Ryo, Kwon-Yul ; Baik, Young-Jin ; Yang, Chul-Hak ;
BMB Reports , volume 28, issue 3, 1995, Pages 197~203
Famesyl protein transferase involved in the first step of post-translational modification of
proteins transfers the famesyl moiety from famesyl pyrophosphate to a cysteine residue in
proteins. The enzyme was first purified 30,000-fold from bovine testis by use of 30~50% ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-Sephacel ion exchange chromatography, Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration chromatography, Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography, and hexapeptide (Lys-Lys-Cys-Val-Ile-Met) affinity chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be ~100 kDa by gel filtration and SDS-polyacrylamide gels showed two closely spaced bands of ~50 kDa protein. These indicate that the enzyme consists of two nonidentical subunits, a and 13, which have slightly different molecular weights. The enzyme was inhibited by hexapeptide (Lys-Lys-Cys-Val-Ile-Met), which acted as an alternative substrate that competed for famesylation. Kinetic analysis by measuring initial velocities showed that famesyl protein transferase is a very slow enzyme. EDTA-treated famesyl protein transferase showed little activity with
alone, but required both
for the catalytic activity.
The Kinetic Parameters of Hafnia alvei Aspartase from pH Studies
Kim, Sung-Kun ; Choi, Jung-Hoon ; Yoon, Moon-Young ;
BMB Reports , volume 28, issue 3, 1995, Pages 204~209
The pH dependence of kinetic parameters in the amination direction of the aspartase from Hafnia alvei has been determined. The V/K for fumarate is bell shaped with pK values of 6.4 and 8.7. The maximum velocity for fumarate is also bell shaped with pK values of 7.2 and 9.1. The pH dependence of 1/K, for potassium (competitive inhibitor of ammonia) decreases at low pH with pK 7.6. Together with data [Yoon and Cook (1994) Korean J. Biochem. 27, 1-5] on the deamination direction of the aspartase, these results are consistent with two enzyme groups which are necessary for catalysis. An enzymatic group that must be deprotonated has been identified. Another enzyme group must be protonated for substrate binding. Both the general base and general acid group are in a protonation state opposite that in which they started when aspartate was bound. A proton is abstracted from C-3 of the monoanionic form of L-aspartate by an enzyme general base with, a pK of 6.3~6.6 in the absence and presence of
Ammonia is then expelled with the assistance of a general acid group giving
as the product.
Effects of Staurosporine and Genistein on Superoxide Generation and Degranulation in PMA- or C5a-Activated Neutrophils
Ha, Sung-Heon ; Lee, Chung-Soo ;
BMB Reports , volume 28, issue 3, 1995, Pages 210~215
Effects of staurosporine, genistein and pertussis toxin on PMA-induced superoxide generation and degranulation in neutrophils were investigated. Their effects were also examined in C5a-stimulated superoxide generation. PMA-induced superoxide generation was inhibited by staurosporine but was not affected by pertussis toxin. Genistein enhanced the stimulatory effect of PMA in a dose dependent fashion. C5a-induced superoxide generation was inhibited by staurosporine, genistein and pertussis toxin. An NADPH oxidase system of resting neutrophils was activated by PMA, and the stimulatory effect of PMA was inhibited by staurosporine but was not affected genistein and pertussis toxin. The activity of NADPH oxidase in the membrane fraction of PMA-activated neutrophils was not affected by staurosporine and genistein. PMA-induced acid phosphatase release was inhibited by staurosporine and genistein, whereas the effect of pertussis toxin was not detected. These results suggest' that the role of protein tyrosine kinase in neutrophil activation mediated by direct activation of protein kinase C may be different from receptor-mediated activation. The action of protein kinase C on the respiratory burst might be affected by the change of protein tyrosine kinase activity.
Expression of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein cDNA using Recombinant Vaccinia Viruses
Jang, Moon-Kyoo ; Ahn, Byung-Yoon ; Huh, Tae-Lin ; Bok, Song-Hae ; Park, Yong-Bok ;
BMB Reports , volume 28, issue 3, 1995, Pages 216~220
cDNA for human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), a potent atherogenic plasma protein that redistributes the neutral lipids among lipoproteins, was expressed in recombinant vaccinia virus-infected cells (CV-1). Two insertion vectors regulated by different promoters were constructed. The vectors were introduced into human thymidine kinase-negative (
) 1438 cells infected with wild-type vaccinia virus (WR strain). Recombinant viruses were selected with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) and X-gal and identified with DNA dot blot analysis (vSC11-CETP and vTM1-CETP). The CETP cDNA insert in the recombinant vaccinia virus genome was identified by Southern blot analysis. Transcription of CETP cDNA in CV-1 cells infected with recombinant vaccinia virus was monitored by Northern blot analysis using the CETP cDNA as a probe. Positive signals were detected at 1.8 kb in cells infected with vSC11-CETP and at 2.3 kb in cells infected with vTM1-CETP. The recombinant vaccinia virus-infected CV-1 cells were shown to produce functional CETP when the culture medium was subjected to the CETP assay.
Antagonists of Both D1 and D2 Mammalian Dopamine Receptors Block the Effects of Dopamine on Helix aspersa Neurons
Kim, Young-Kee ; Woodruff, Michael L. ;
BMB Reports , volume 28, issue 3, 1995, Pages 221~226
Dopamine mediates inhibitory responses in Helix aspersa neurons from the right parietal lobe ("F-lobe") of the circumoesophageal ganglia. The effects appeared as a dose-dependent hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane and a decrease in the occurrence of spontaneous action potentials. The average hyperpolarization with 5
dopamine was -12 mV (
mV, S.D., n=12). Dopamine also modulated the currents 'responsible for shaping the action potentials in these neurons. When dopamine was added and action potentials were triggered by an injection of current, the initial depolarization was slowed, the amplitude and the duration of action potentials were decreased, and the after-hyperpolarization was more pronounced. The amplitude and the duration of action potential were reduced about 15 mV and about 13% by 5
dopamine, respectively. The effects of dopamine on the resting membrane potentials and the action potentials of Helix neurons were dose-dependent in the concentration range 0.1
. In order to show 1) that the effects of dopamine were mediated by dopamine receptors rather than by direct action on ionic channels and 2) which type of dopamine receptor might be responsible for the various effects, we assayed the ability of mammalian dopamine receptor antagonists, SCH-23390 (antagonist of D1 receptor) and spiperone (antagonist of D2 receptor), to block the dopamine-dependent changes. The D1 and D2 antagonists partially inhibited the dopamine-dependent hyperpolarization and the decrease in action potential amplitude. They both completely blocked the decrease in action potential duration and the increase in action potential after-hyperpolarization. The dopamine-induced slowdown of the depolarization in the initial phase of the action potentials was less effected by SCH-23390 and spiperone. From the results we suggest 1) that Helix F-lobe neurons may have a single type of dopamine receptor that binds both SCH-23390 and spiperone and 2) that the dopamine receptor of Helix F-lobe neurons may be homologous with and primitive to the family of mammalian dopamine receptors.
Relationships between Structural Features and Biological Activities of HC-toxin
Kim, Shin-Duk ;
BMB Reports , volume 28, issue 3, 1995, Pages 227~231
In order to figure out the relationships between structural features and biological activity of the host-specific HC-toxin in maize, structurally related cyclic tetrapeptides, chlamydocin and CYL-2 were isolated, and their biological activities in maize were examined. Biological activities of preparations were determined by root growth inhibition and electrolyte leakage bioassays. Chlamydocin and CYL-2 showed toxicities to maize. However, the toxicities of these compounds were non-specific. Thus, the precise peptide ring structure of HC-toxin apparently does not play an important role in toxicity, while resistance of maize to HC-toxin is based on a precise ring conformation.
Purification and Characterization of Arginase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe
Kang, Jung-Hoon ;
BMB Reports , volume 28, issue 3, 1995, Pages 232~237
Arginase was purified to homogeneity from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The purified enzyme is a tetramer with a subunit molecular weight of 42,000. Activity is optimal at pH 10.0 and at
The enzyme migrated during isoelectric focusing showing a pl=5.4. The enzyme exhibited hyperbolic kinetics at pH 10.0 with an apparent
for L-arginine of 18 mM. Arginase activity was strongly inhibited by L-glutamate.
Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Tadpole H-Chain Ferritin in Escherichia coli
Chang, So-Ran ; Kim, Young-Taek ; Kim, Kyung-Suk ;
BMB Reports , volume 28, issue 3, 1995, Pages 238~242
The tadpole H-ferritin produced in E. coli was purified and its molecular properties were investigated to obtain information about the contribution of the H-subunit in the reaction of iron core formation. All the expressed subunits were assembled into complete holoprotein in vitro, presumably 24-mer, and the protein was heat-stable. Electron microscopy revealed that the recombinant ferritin forms spherically and contains iron core. No difference was observed in the absorption spectrum of the expressed protein compared to that of the natural ferritin. The Ouchterlony double diffusion of the expressed protein showed that the H-chain ferritin shares an antigenic determinant with natural tadpole ferritin. Rabbit anti-horse spleen ferritin discriminated the H-ferritin from natural ferritin. The rate of ferritin formation by the recombinant H-chain apoferritin was determined to be higher than that shown by natural tadpole ferritin, which consists of H, M and L-subunits. This phenomenon may be caused by the absence of M and L-subunits in the recombinant H-chain apoferritin.
Inhibitory Effects of Antisense RNA on Expression of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein in Vaccinia Virus Expression System
Lee, Myung-Hoon ; Jang, Moon-Kyoo ; Park, Yong-Bok ;
BMB Reports , volume 28, issue 3, 1995, Pages 243~248
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), a hydrophobic glycoprotein promoting transfer of cholesteryl esters (CE) from high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to lower-density lipoproteins in the plasma, has been recognized a potent atherogenic factor during the development of coronary artery diseases. This study demonstrated a possible utilization of antisense RNA to inhibit expression of the CETP gene using vaccinia virus as an expression system. The CETP cDNA was inserted into a transfer vector (pSC11) in sense and antisense orientations and used to generate recombinant viruses. Recombinants containing sense or antisense orientations of the CETP cDNA were isolated by
selection and X-gal test. The inserted CETP cDNAs in the recombinants were identified by Southern blot analysis and allowed to transcribe in host cells (CV-1). Expressions of the exogenous CETP mRNA, extracted from the CV-1 cells coinfected with viruses containing sense and antisense DNAs, were monitored by Northern blot analysis using the CETP cDNA probe, by Western blot analysis using monoclonal antibody against the C-terminal active region of the CETP and by the CETP assay. Decreased expressions of the exogenous CETP cDNA were clearly evident in the Northern and Western blot analyses as the dose of antisense expression increased. In the CETP assay, the CETP activities decreased compared to the activity obtained from the cell extracts infected with sense construct only.
Glycation of Copper, Zinc-Superoxide Dismutase and its Effect on the Thiol-Metal Catalyzed Oxidation Mediated DNA Damage
Park, Jeen-Woo ; Lee, Soo-Min ;
BMB Reports , volume 28, issue 3, 1995, Pages 249~253
The nonenzymatic glycation of copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) led to inactivation and fragmentation of the enzyme. The glycated Cu,zn-SOD was isolated by boronate affinity chromatography. The formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) in calf thymus DNA and the generation of strand breaks in pBhiescript plasmid DNA by a metal-catalyzed oxidation (MCO) system composed of
, and glutathione (GSH) as an electron donor was enhanced more effectively by the glycated CU,Zn-SOD than by the nonglycated enzyme. The capacity of glycated Cu,Zn-SOD to enhance damage to DNA was inhibited by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DETAPAC), azide, mannitol, and catalase. These results indicated that incubation of glycated CU,Zn-SOD with GSH-MCO may result in a release of
from the enzyme. The released
then likely participated in a Fenton-type reaction to produce hydroxyl radicals, which may cause the enhancement of DNA damage.
Enzymatic Properties of Cytochrome Oxidase from Bovine Heart and Rat Tissues
Lee, Jae-Yang ; Lee, Sang-Jik ;
BMB Reports , volume 28, issue 3, 1995, Pages 254~260
Cytochrome oxidase was purified from bovine-heart mitochondria and its enzymatic properties were examined. The purified cytochrome oxidase was identified by its absorption spectrum and chromatogram through gel filtration. The specific activity, purification degree and yield of purified cytochrome oxidase were 18 nmol/mg/ml/min, 24.83 fold and 0.93%, respectively. The activity of the enzyme assayed by a ferrocytochrome
system was optimized at
and pH 6.5. Examining the effect of nonionic detergents established that cytochrome oxidase was deactivated by Triton X-100. The oxidase was activated by Tween 80 and deactivated by Tween 20. The Michaelis constant and maximum velocity of the oxidase for ferrocytochrome c were 0.032~0.044 mM and 0.019~0.021 mM/min, respectively. After adaption to basal diet for a week, experimental diets containing 6 mg Cu/kg, or zero mg Cu/kg, or 12 mg Cu/kg were fed to a control group, a copper-free group and a copper-rich group of Sprague-Dawley rats, respectively, for 4 weeks. The specific activities assayed for the ferrocytochrome
system of isolated cytochrome oxidase from the rat liver of control, copper-free, and copper-rich group were 1.00, 1.19, and 0.878 nmol/mg/ml/min, respectively. Their degrees of purification were 11.38, 10.82 and 8.78 fold, respectively. The specific activities for liver and heart mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase of copper-free/copper-rich groups assayed using the ferrocytochrome
system were 81.4% and 96.4%/64.1% and 61.1%, respectively, compared with those of the control.
Fatty Acid Analysis from Leech Skin
Hong, Suk-Jin ; Kim, Dong-Ryeong ; Yoon, In-Joong ; Kang, Ke-Won ;
BMB Reports , volume 28, issue 3, 1995, Pages 261~264
The lipids of a Korean native blood-sucking leech (Hirudo nipponia) were isolated and analyzed. Cholesterol, fatty acids, triglycerides, glycerylether diester and cholesteryl esters were found from epidennal extracts. The major fatty acids in the leech skin were
components. These components were derived from cholesteryl esters, glycerides, fatty acids and other polar lipids. After 60 days fasting, cholesterol, fatty acids and triglycerides in the skin were reduced in number and the total fatty acid composition was changed slightly. The data of total fatty acids in fasted and fed leech showed that medium-chain fatty acids were more affected than long-chain fatty acids. Other trace fatty acids appeared to be decreased by fasting.
Functional Expression of Nicotiana tabacum Acetolactate Synthase Gene in Escherichia coli
Kim, Hyun-Ju ; Chang, Soo-Ik ;
BMB Reports , volume 28, issue 3, 1995, Pages 265~270
Acetolactate synthase (ALS, EC 126.96.36.199) is the first common enzyme in the biosynthesis of leucine, isoleucine, and valine. It is the target enzyme for several classes of herbicides, including the sulfonylureas, the imidazolinones, the triazolopyrimidines, the pyrimidyl-oxy-benzoates and the pyrimidyl-thio-benzens. The sulfonylurea-resistant ALS gene (SurB) from Nicotiana tabaccum [Lee et al. (1988) The EMBO J. 7, 1241-1248] was cloned into the bacterial expression plasmid pT7-7. The resulting recombinant plasmid pT7-ALS was used to transform an ALS-deficient Escherichia coli strain MF2000. MF2000 cells transformed with pT7-ALS grew in the absence of valine and isoleucine. ALS activities of 0.042 and 0.0002
protein were observed in the crude extracts prepared from MF2000 cells transformed with plasmids pT7-ALS and pT7-7, respectively. In addition, the former crude extract containing mutant ALS was insensitive to inhibition by K11570, a new chemical class of herbicides.
values for K11570 were
mM. For comparison, a plasmid pTATX containing the wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana ALS coding sequences was also expressed in MF2000. ALS activities of 0.037
protein were observed, and the wild type ALS was sensitive to two different classes of herbicides, K11570 and ALLY, a sulfonylurea.
values for K11570 and ALLY were
nM, respectively. Thus, the results suggest that the sulfonylurea-resistant tobacco ALS was functionally expressed in the bacteria, and that K11570 herbicides bind to the regulatoty site of ALS enzymes.
Effects of Light on Spinach Glycolate Oxidase Gene Expression
Park, Yang-Seo ; Jin, Yun-Hae ; Kim, Young-Chang ; Choi, Jung-Do ; Cho, Nam-Jeong ;
BMB Reports , volume 28, issue 3, 1995, Pages 271~274
Glycolate oxidase is one of the key enzymes in the pathway of photorespiration. In this study we investigated the effects of light on the expression of the spinach glycolate oxidase gene. Continuous exposure to white light resulted in a gradual increase in the steady-state level of glycolate oxidase mRNA within a time period of 2~24 h in both etiolated and dark-adapted green seedlings. A short white light pulse also increased the level of glycolate oxidase mRNA in etiolated seedlings. The mRNA level reached a maximum at 6~8 h after the pulse and decreased by 24 h after the pulse. The induction patterns of the glycolate oxidase gene by white light appeared similar to those of the rbcS gene, indicating that a common or coordinating regulatory system may be involved in the expression of the glycolate oxidase and rbcS genes. A red light pulse induced an increase in the amount of glycolate oxidase mRNA and this effect was reversed by a subsequent far-red light pulse, suggesting that the expression of the glycolate oxidase gene is regulated by phytochrome.
Nucleotide Binding Component of the Respiratory Burst Oxidase of Human Neutrophils
Park, Jeen-Woo ; Ahn, Soo-Mi ;
BMB Reports , volume 28, issue 3, 1995, Pages 275~280
The respiratory burst oxidase of neutrophils is a multicomponent enzyme, domant in resting cells, that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to
at the expense of NADPH. In the resting neutrophil, some of the components of the oxidase, including proteins p47 and p67, are in the cytosol, while the rest are in the plasma membrane. Recent evidence has suggested that at least some of the cytosolic oxidase components exist as a complex. The cytosolic complex with a molecular weight of ~240 kDa was found to bind to blue-agarose and 2',5'-ADP-agarose, which recognize nucleotide requiring enzymes. In order to identify the nucleotide binding component of the cytosolic complex we purified recombinant p47 and p67 fusion proteins using the pGEX system. Pure recombinant p47 was retained completely on 2',5'-ADP-agarose, whereas pure recombinant p67 did not bind to these affinity beads. On the basis of these results, we infer that p47 may contain the nucleotide binding site.