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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 6 - Nov 1998
Volume 31, Issue 5 - Sep 1998
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Jul 1998
Volume 31, Issue 3 - May 1998
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Mar 1998
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Jan 1998
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Recent Progress in Orphan Nuclear Hormone Receptors
Lee, Yoon-Kwang ; Tzameli, Iphigeoia ; Zavacki, Ann Marie ; Moore, David D. ;
BMB Reports , volume 31, issue 5, 1998, Pages 419~426
The nuclear hormone receptor superfamily currently includes approximately equal numbers of conventional receptors and orphan receptors, which do not have known ligands. Here, we review recent progress from this laboratory on three orphans, two of which are moving from orphan to conventional receptor status. Perhaps the most unusual is CAR, which is a constitutive transactivator in the absence of ligands but becomes transcriptionally inactive in the presence of its ligands, which are androgen metabolites. The response of CAR to its ligands is thus opposite to that of the conventional receptor paradigm. RIP14 (also known as FXR) is activated by both all-trans retinoic acid and a synthetic retinoid previously thought to specifically target the retinoic acid receptors (RARs), and thus appears to be a novel retinoid receptor. Finally, SHP is a novel orphan that lacks a DNA binding domain and interacts with a number of other receptor superfamily members. While it generally inhibits its targets, including CAR, the retinoid X receptor (RXR), and the estrogen receptor (ER), it stimulates transactivation by the orphan SF-1.
Expression of an Angiogenin Binding Peptide and Its Anti-Angiogenic Activity
Choi, Suk-Jung ; Ahn, Mi-Won ; Yoon, Kyoung-Bum ; Park, Jong-Won ;
BMB Reports , volume 31, issue 5, 1998, Pages 427~431
In the previous report (Choi et al., 1997), the angiogenin binding peptides identified from a phage-peptide library were analyzed by using the fusion proteins composed of the Escherichia coli maltose binding protein and its corresponding peptides. However, it was difficult to obtain a sufficient amount of the fusion proteins required for further analysis because of the low expression level. We now report a high level expression of the fusion protein and analysis of its anti-angiogenin activity. The use of strong T7 promoter and removal of signal sequence allowed about a 20-fold increase in the expression efficiency of the fusion protein. We were able to obtain about 10 mg of purified fusion protein from one liter of culture. The purified fusion protein showed angiogenin-specific affinity and inhibited the binding of biotinylated actin to human angiogenin at
of 0.6 mM. Its anti-angiogenin activity was also revealed by the chorioallantoic membrane assay.
Poliovirus Sabin 1 as a Live Vaccine Vector: Expression of HIV-1 p24 Core Protein
Jung, Hye-Rhan ; Bae, Yong-Soo ;
BMB Reports , volume 31, issue 5, 1998, Pages 432~443
The poliovirus Sabin 1 strain has features that make it a particularly attractive live recombinant mucosal vaccine vehicle. Sabin 1 cDNA was manipulated to have multiple cloning sites and a viral specific 3C-protease cutting site at the N-terminal end of the polyprotein. The gene for the N-terminal 169 amino acids of the HIV-1 p24 was cloned into the multiple cloning site of the manipulated Sabin cDNA. A recombinant progeny virus was produced from HeLa cells when it was transfected with the RNA synthesized from the p24-Sabin chimeric cDNA. The recombinant progeny virus expresses substantial amounts of the HIV-1 p24 protein, which was clearly detected in the infected cell lysates and culture supernatants in Western blot experiments with rabbit anti-p24 serum and AIDS patients' sera. Differing from the Mahoney strain, the recombinant Sabin 1 poliovirus maintained the foreign gene stably during the subsequent passages. Replication capacity was about 1 to 1.5 log lower than that of the wild-type Sabin 1. Other physicochemical stability characteristics of the recombinant virus were similar to that of the wild-type Sabin 1. These results suggest that the manipulated Sabin 1 poliovirus can be used as a live viral vaccine vector for the development of mucosal vaccines.
Redox Potential of a Soybean Ferric Leghemoglobin Reductase
Kim, Hyun-Mi ;
BMB Reports , volume 31, issue 5, 1998, Pages 444~452
The visible spectra of soybean ferric leghemoglobin reductase exhibited a charge transfer band at 530 nm under aerobic condition. Spectra of the oxidized enzyme show a flavin peak at 454 nm and the enzyme has three redox states associated with the active site of the enzyme. The enzyme has an active disulfide bridge and two-electron transfer may dominate in the ferric state of leghemoglobin reduction. The midpoint potentials of the enzyme were determined by spectrotitration to be -0.294 V for disulfide/dithiol and -0.318 V for FAD/
. Since the midpoint potentials for
/NADH and the ferrous/ferric states of leghemoglobin are -0.32 V and +0.22 V, respectively, it is proposed that two electrons are transferred sequentially from NADH to FAD, to the disulfide group, and then to the ferric state of leghemoglobin in the enzyme reaction.
Secretory Production of Biologically Active Human Thrombopoietin by Baculovirus Expression System
Koh, Yeo-Wook ; Lim, Seung-Wook ; Park, Seung-Kook ; Park, Myung-Hwan ; Na, Doe-Sun ; Yang, Jai-Myung ;
BMB Reports , volume 31, issue 5, 1998, Pages 453~458
Human thrombopoietin (hTPO) was expressed to high levels in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. Full-length hTPO cDNA containing a native signal peptide sequence was amplified by PCR from a human fetal liver cDNA library and cloned into the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) expression vector. Immunoblot analysis with antiserum against hTPO indicated that an approximately 55 kDa protein was produced in recombinant AcNPV infected insect cells. Recombinant hTPO was produced 4-fold higher in Trichoplusia ni (Tn5) cells than in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells. with most of the hTPO produced in Tn5 cells secreted into the culture medium. Addition of tunicamycin in the culture medium resulted in the reduction of the size of hTPO to 35-38 kDa, and most of the protein remained within the cell. These results suggest that N-glycosylation of hTPO is required for the secretion of the protein into the culture medium in insect cells. hTPO produced in insect cells induced proliferation and maturation of megakaryocyte progenitors, indicating that it is in a biologically active form.
3D-QSAR of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: Functional Group Interaction Energy Descriptors for Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships Study of ACE Inhibitors
Kim, Sang-Uk ; Chi, Myung-Whan ; Yoon, Chang-No ; Sung, Ha-Chin ;
BMB Reports , volume 31, issue 5, 1998, Pages 459~467
A new set of functional group interaction energy descriptors relevant to the ACE (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme) inhibitory peptide, QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships), is presented. The functional group interaction energies approximate the charged interactions and distances between functional groups in molecules. The effective energies of the computationally derived geometries are useful parameters for deriving 3D-QSAR models, especially in the absence of experimentally known active site conformation. ACE is a regulatory zinc protease in the renin-angiotensin system. Therapeutic inhibition of this enzyme has proven to be a very effective treatment for the management of hypertension. The non bond interaction energy values among functional groups of six-feature of ACE inhibitory peptides were used as descriptor terms and analyzed for multivariate correlation with ACE inhibition activity. The functional group interaction energy descriptors used in the regression analysis were obtained by a series of inhibitor structures derived from molecular mechanics and semi-empirical calculations. The descriptors calculated using electrostatic and steric fields from the precisely defined functional group were sufficient to explain the biological activity of inhibitor. Application of the descriptors to the inhibition of ACE indicates that the derived QSAR has good predicting ability and provides insight into the mechanism of enzyme inhibition. The method, functional group interaction energy analysis, is expected to be applicable to predict enzyme inhibitory activity of the rationally designed inhibitors.
Requirement of EGF Receptor Kinase for Signaling by Calcium-Induced ERK Activation and Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells
Park, Jung-Gyu ; Jo, Young-Ah ; Kim, Yun-Taik ; Yoo, Young-Sook ;
BMB Reports , volume 31, issue 5, 1998, Pages 468~474
Membrane depolarization in PC12 cells induces calcium influx via an L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channel (L-VSCC) and increases intracellular free calcium, which leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and the associated adaptor protein, She. This activated EGF receptor complex then can activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, as in nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor activation. In the present study, we investigated the role of EGF receptor in the signaling pathway initiated by membrane depolarization of PC12 cells. Prolonged membrane depolarization induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) within 1 min in undifferentiated PC12 cells. Pretreatment of PC12 cells with the calcium chelator EGTA abolished depolarization-stimulated ERK phosphorylation, but NGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK was not affected. The chronic treatment of phorbol ester, which down-regulated the activity of protein kinase C (PKC), did not affect the phosphorylation of ERK upon depolarization. In the presence of an inhibitor of EGF receptor, neither depolarization nor calcium ionophore increased the level of ERK phosphorylation. These data imply that the EGF receptor is functionally necessary to activate ERK and neurite outgrowth in response to the prolonged depolarization in PC12 cells, and also that PKC is apparently not involved in this signaling pathway.
Method for Cloning Biosynthetic Genes of Secondary Metabolites Including Deoxysugar from Actinomycetes
Sohng, Jae-Kyung ; Oh, Tae-Jin ; Kim, Chun-Gyu ;
BMB Reports , volume 31, issue 5, 1998, Pages 475~483
Many antibiotics contain partially deoxygenated sugar components that are usually essential for biological activity, affinity, structural stability, and solubility of antibiotics. Gene probes of the biosynthetic genes related with the deoxysugar were obtained from PCR. Primers were designed from the conserved peptide sequences of the known dTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratases, which are the key step enzymes in the biosynthesis of deoxysugar. The primers were applied to amplify parts of dehydratase genes to 27 actinomycetes that produce the metabolites containing deoxysugar as structural constituents. About 180 and 340 bp DNA fragments from all of the actinomycetes were produced by PCR and analyzed by Southern blot and DNA sequencing. The PCR products were used as gene probes to clone the biosynthetic gene clusters for the antibiotic mithramycin, rubradirin, spectinomycin, and elaiophyrin. This method should allow for detecting of the biosynthetic gene clusters of a vast array of secondary metabolites isolated from actinomycetes because of the widespread existence of deoxysugar constituents in secondary metabolites.
Cloning and Characterization of the Catalytic Subunit of Human Histone Acetyltransferase, Hat1
Chung, Hyo-Young ; Suh, Na-Young ; Yoon, Jong-Bok ;
BMB Reports , volume 31, issue 5, 1998, Pages 484~491
Acetylation of lysine residues within the aminoterminal domains of the core histones plays a critical role in chromatin assemhly as well as in regulation of gene expression. To study the biochemical function of histone acetylation, we have cloned a cDNA encoding the catalytic subunit of human histone acetyltransferase, Hat1. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of human Hat1 revealed an open reading frame of 419 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 49.5 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.5. The amino acid sequence of human Hat1 is homologous to those of known and putative Hat1 proteins from various species throughout the entire open reading frame. The recombinant human Hat1 protein expressed in bacteria possesses histone H4 acetyltransferase activity in vitro. Both RbAp46 and RbAp48, which participate in various processes of histone metabolism, enhance the histone acetyltransferase activity of the recombinant human Hat1, indicating that they are both able to functionally interact with the human Hat1 in vitro.
Hydroxyl Radical-Generating Function of Horseradish Cu,Zn-Superoxide Dismutase
Eum, Won-Sik ; Kwon, Oh-Bin ; Kang, Jung Hoon ;
BMB Reports , volume 31, issue 5, 1998, Pages 492~497
Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) was purified from horseradish by using Mono Q and Superose 12 FPLC column chromatography. The native molecular mass of the purified enzyme was approximately 33 kDa, as determined by gel filtration. The subunit molecular weight, as estimated by SDS-PAGE, was 16 kDa. These results indicated that the native enzyme is a homodimer. We investigated the free radical-generating function of horseradish Cu,Zn-SOD by using a chromogen, 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) which reacts with
radicals to form
The formation of
was required for both active Cu, Zn-SOD and
. The optimal pH for the free radical-generating activity of this enzyme was 6.0-8.0, and it retained about
of its maximum activity when exposed at
for 15 min. A neutral scavenger, ethanol, inhibited the
formation by horseradish Cu, Zn-SOD more effectively than that by the mammalian enzyme. These results suggest that the active channel of horseradish enzyme is slightly larger than that of the mammalian enzyme.
HBV Polymerase Residues
, Invariant at Motifs A and C are Essential to DNA Binding
Kim, Youn-Hee ; Hong, Young-Bin ; Jung, Gu-Hung ;
BMB Reports , volume 31, issue 5, 1998, Pages 498~502
HBV polymerase shares several regions of amino acid homology with other DNA-directed and RNA-directed polymerases. The amino acid residues
in the conserved motifs A, B', C, D, and E in the polymerase domain of HBV polymerase were mutated to alanine or histidine by in vitro site-directed mutagenesis. Those mutants were overexpressed, purified, and analyzed against DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity and affinity for DNA binding. All those mutants did not show DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activities indicating that those five amino acid residues are all critical in DNA polymerase activity. South-Western analysis shows that amino acid residues
are essential to DNA binding, and
also affect DNA binding to a certain extent.
Effects of the Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Gene on the Expression of the Ferritin Gene in Escherichia coli
Chung, Yun-Jo ; Kim, Kyung-Suk ; Jeon, Eun-Soon ; Park, Kie-In ; Park, Chung-Ung ;
BMB Reports , volume 31, issue 5, 1998, Pages 503~507
To investigate the effects of the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) gene on the production of a heterologous protein, a comparative expression system for VHb and ferritin was constructed. First, the VHb gene was inserted into the downstream and upstream regions of the ferritin gene to construct pHF2 and pHF3, respectively. Next, the two plasmids pACHB1 and pVUTFH10, having the VHb gene and the ferritin gene respectively, were constructed in order to express the two genes in different plasmids by using a coplasmid expression system. It was observed that the cell growth was improved in all strains containing the VHb gene. Furthermore, in our coplasmid expression system, the presence of the VHb gene increased production of the ferritin by 1.8 times, as much as that in a strain not having the VHb gene.
Conditioned Media of ASC-17D Sertoli Cells Induce G1-Growth Arrest of DU145 Human Prostate Cancer Cells
Kang, Hyeog ; Kang, Sang-Wook ; Choi, Sang-Hyun ; Lee, Kwang-Ho ; Chun, Boe-Gwun ; Min, Bon-Hong ;
BMB Reports , volume 31, issue 5, 1998, Pages 508~514
We studied the effects of ASC-17D rat Sertoli cell-conditioned media (rSCCM) on the proliferation of the DU145 prostate cancer cells. rSCCM was prepared from ASC-17D cells cultured in DMEM/F-12 serum-free media at a nonpermissive temperature of
, which is the condition for the high expression of c1usterin. We found that rSCCM could inhibit the proliferation of DU145 cells by arresting the cell cycle in the G1 phase in a dose-dependent manner. This growth arresting activity was abolished by boiling rSCCM for 5 min. The G1 growth-inhibiting activity of rSCCM was also detected in other prostate-originated cancer cells examined (i.e., LNCaP and PC-3) but not in other cells (ASC-17D, HepG2, SK-N-SH, and NIH3T3). Western blot analysis of partially purified growth inhibiting fractions with the clusterin antibody showed that the cytostatic factor in rSCCM was not c1usterin. This cytostatic factor was semi purified by DEAE-Sepharose, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and Phenyl-Sepharose column chromatography, and was estimated to have a molecular weight of 88 kDa by Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration.
Analysis of the Potent Platelet Glycoprotein IIb-IIIa Antagonist from Natural Sources
Kang, In-Cheol ; Kim, Doo-Sik ;
BMB Reports , volume 31, issue 5, 1998, Pages 515~518
Adhesive interaction of the platelet glycoprotien IIb-IIIa (GP IIb-IIIa) with a plasma protein, such as fibrinogen, plays an important role in thrombosis and hemostasis. The specific sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) is critical for the binding of fibrinogen to platelet. To examine and characterize the GP IIb-IIIa antagonist from natural sources, we have developed a simple enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) system. The GP IIb-IIIa complex was purified to homogeneity from platelet Iysates by the combination of two affinity chromatographic methods using the synthetic RGD peptide (GRGDSPK)-immobilized Sepharose and wheat germ lectin-Sepharose. The synthetic peptide GRGDSP inhibits GP IIb-IIIa binding to immobilized fibrinogen with an
. Venoms of three different snake species and a Korean scolopendra extract have strong antagonistic activities for the binding of human fibrinogen to the platelet GP IIb-IIIa complex. The
values of the snake venom s and scolopendra were in the range of
. These results provide meaningful information for developing antiplatelet agents.
The Reactivity of Antiserum Raised against Native Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase with Denatured Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase in Competitive ELISA
Kim, Moon-Hee ;
BMB Reports , volume 31, issue 5, 1998, Pages 519~523
We have previously reported that anti-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) serum raised against native G6PD (nG6PD) enzyme recognized nG6PD antigen poorly in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Kim, 1997). In the present study, we investigated whether anti-G6PD serum raised against nG6PD can react with denatured G6PD effectively in competitive ELISA. We used partially active G6PD (paG6PD) by repeated freeze-thawing or SDS-denatured G6PD (SDS-G6PD) as both immobilized and soluble antigens, and anti-G6PD serum raised against nG6PD for competitive ELISA. The polystyrene cuvettes coated with either paG6PD or SDS-G6PD were challenged with a mixture of a limiting amount of anti-G6PD serum and various doses of paG6PD or SDS-G6PD as competitors, followed by incubation with alkaline phosphatase-anti-IgG conjugate. The competitive ELISA with paG6PD or SDS-G6PD antigen exhibited the sigmoidal dose-response curve characteristic of competition immunoassays. Furthermore, Triton-denatured G6PD (Triton-G6PD) was used in competitive ELISA. The paG6PD, SDS-G6PD, or Triton-G6PD used as competitors increased the inhibition of antibody binding to immobilized either of nG6PD or denatured G6PD compared with nG6PD competitor. The inhibition by denatured G6PD competitors was more pronounced at high competitor concentrations than at low counterparts. We conclude that anti-G6PD serum raised against nG6PD can effectively react with denatured G6PD in competitive ELISA and that our anti-G6PD serum recognizes denatured enzymes better than active enzymes.