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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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Volume 32, Issue 6 - Nov 1999
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Sep 1999
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Jul 1999
Volume 32, Issue 3 - May 1999
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Mar 1999
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Jan 1999
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Reduction of Nitrosoarene by Purified NAD(P)H-Quinone Oxidoreductase
Kim, Kyung-Soon ; Suk, Hee-Won ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 4, 1999, Pages 321~325
NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase (EC 1. 6. 99. 2) was purified form S. cerevisiae. The enzyme readily reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, a quinonoid redox dye, as well as substituted benzo- and naphthoquinones, and could accept electrons from either NADH or NADPH. The purified NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase turned out to be capable of reducing nitrosoarenes as well as a variety of quinones. A chemical-trapping technique using 4-chloro-1-naphthol was used to show that the N,N-dimethyl-p-benzoquinonediiminium cation was produced in the reduction of 4-nitroso-N,N-dimethylaniline catalyzed by NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase.
Diethylpyrocarbonate Inactivation of Aspartase from Hafnia Alvei
Shim, Jae-Hee ; Kim, Hyo-Joon ; Yoon, Moon-Young ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 4, 1999, Pages 326~330
An aspartase purified from Hafnia alvei was inactivated by diethylpyrocarbonate (DEP) in a pseudo-first-order inactivation. The first-order plot was biphasic. The inactivation process was not saturable and the second order rate constant was
. The inactivated aspartase was reactivated with NH₂OH. The difference absorption spectrum of DEP-inactivated vs native enzyme preparations revealed a marked peak around 242 nm. The pH dependence of the inactivation rate suggests that an amino acid residue having a pK value of 7.2 was involved in the inactivation. L-aspartate, fumarate (substrates), and chloride ion (inhibitor) protected the enzyme against inactivation, indicating that histidine residues for the enzyme activity are located at the active site of this aspartase. Inspection of the presence and absence of
ion demonstrated that the number of essential histidine residues is less than two. Thus, one or two histidines are in or near the aspartate binding site and participate in an essential step of the catalytic reaction.
Effects of Common Bile Duct Ligation on Serum and Hepatic Carboxylesterase Activity in Ethanol-Intoxicated Rats
Ahn, Kwan-Wook ; Kim, You-Hee ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 4, 1999, Pages 331~338
Ethanol catabolism is thought to produce metabolic disorders resulting in alcoholic liver disease. To investigate the mutual effects of ethanol catabolism and cholestasis induced by common bile duct ligation on the activities of carboxylesterase, we have determined the enzyme activities in rat hepatic (cytosolic, mitochondrial, and microsomal) preparations as well as in rat serum using ten animal models: normal rats (group 1), sham-operated rats (group 2), common bile duct-ligated rats (group 3), ethanol-intoxicated rats (group 4), sham-operation plus chronic ethanol-intoxicated rats (group 5), common bile duct-ligated plus chronic ethanol-intoxicated rats at 1.5h and 24h (groups 7A and 7B), and duct-ligated and acute ethanol intoxicated rats at 1.5 h and 24 h (groups 8A and 8B). The
values of carboxylesterase from these hepatic preparations of cholestatic rat liver combined with chronic ethanol intoxication were also measured by using ethyl valerate as the substrate from the 14th day post-ligation. Carboxylesterase activities of all hepatic preparations and rat serum (group 3) showed significant decreases compared to the activities from the sham-operated control (group 2). Enzyme kinetic parameters indicated that
of carboxylesterase from all the hepatic preparations in cholestatic rats (group 3) decreased significantly, although the
values were about the same as in the sham-operated control (group 2). When cholestasis was combined with chronic ethanol intoxication (group 6), carboxylesterase activities showed further decrease in all the hepatic preparations and serum compared to the control activity (group 5). The
also decreased significantly, although
values did not change. When common bile duct ligation was combined with acute ethanol intoxication (group 8), the enzyme activities in the rat liver and serum showed significant decrease compared to the activity from acute ethanol-intoxicated rats (group 7). However, quite contrary to this, the activities of serum from acute ethanol intoxication 1.5 h (group 7A) increased significantly compared to the activities in the normal control (group 1). These results, therefore, suggest that the biosynthesis of hepatic carboxyl-esterase seems to decrease when cholestasis is combined with chronic and acute ethanol intoxication, and the decrease in activity is more significant than from cholestasis alone.
Influence of Ginsenosides on the Kainic Acid-Induced Seizure Activity in Immature Rats
Park, Jin-Kyu ; Jin, Sung-Ha ; Choi, Keum-Hee ; Ko, Ji-Hun ; Baek, Nam-In ; Choi, Soo-Young ; Cho, Sung-Woo ; Choi, Kang-Ju ; Nam, Ki-Yeul ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 4, 1999, Pages 339~344
We studied the effects of ginsenosides in immature rats based upon the previous results that ginseng has a suppressive or anticonvulsive activity. To examine the suppressive effect of ginsenosides on kainic acid-induced seizures, the severities and frequencies were observed for 4 h after injection of kainic acid (KA; i.p., 2 mg/kg b.w.) using 10-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (
). Protopanaxadiol saponins such as ginsenoside-Rb1 (Rb1), ginsenoside-Rb2 (Rb2), ginsenoside-Rc (Rc), and ginsenoside-Rd(Rd) generally reduced the seizure activities while protopanaxatriol saponins such as ginsenoside-Rg1 (Rg1) and ginsenoside-Re (Re) rather increased stereotypic "paddling-like" movements. When vinyl-GABA (v-G) was injected together with Rb1 or Rc, KA-induced seizure severities were additionally reduced only by the injection of Rc, but not by Rb1. The level of gamma isozyme of protein kinase C (PKC-
) in the hippocampus increased about three times as much as that of normal rats at 4 h after KA injection. The increased level of PCK-
by KA was significantly reduced to about 35% by the coinjection with v-G alone, but it was not changed by v-G together with Rb1 or Rc. The increased level of PKC-
at 4 h after injection of KA was not consistent with the reduction of seizure severities between Rb1 and Rc. These results suggest that Rc and Rb1 may reduce seizure severity independent of PKC-
levels, and Rc may additionally act with v-G regarding the GABA metabolism during the stage of KA-induced seizures in the immature rats.
Role of the Promoter Region of a Chicken H3 Histone Gene in Its Cell Cycle Dependent Expression
Son, Seung-Yeol ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 4, 1999, Pages 345~349
We fused the promoter region of an H3.2 chicken histone gene, whose expression is dependent on the cell cycle, to the 5' coding region of an H3.3 chicken histone gene, which is expressed constitutively at a low level throughout the cell cycle. This fusion gene showed a cell cycle-regulated pattern of expression, but in a different manner. The mRNA level of the fusion gene increase during the S phase of the cell cycle by about 3.7-fold at 6 h and 2.7-fold at 12 h after the serum stimulation. The mRNA level of the intact H3.2 gene, however, increased by an average of 3.6-fold at 6 h and 8.7-fold at 12 h. This different expression pattern might be due to the differences in their 3' end region that is responsible for mRNA stability. The 3' end of the H3.2 mRNA contains a stem-loop structure, instead of a poly(A) tail present in the H3.3 mRNA. We also constructed a similar fusion gene using a H3.3 histone gene whose introns had been eliminated to rule out the possibility of involvement of the introns in cell cycle-regulated expression. The expression of this fusion gene was almost identical to the fusion gene made previously. These results indicate that the promoter region of the H3.2 gene is only partially responsible for its expression during the S phase of the cell cycle.
Carnosine and Related Compounds Protect Against Copper-Induced Damage of Biomolecules
Lee, Beom-Jun ; Lee, Yong-Soon ; Kang, Kyung-Sun ; Cho, Myung-Haing ; Hendricks, Deloy G. ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 4, 1999, Pages 350~357
At concentrations of 1 mM, the protective effects of carnosine and related compounds including anserine, homocarnosine, histidine,
-alanine were investigated against copper-catalyzed oxidative damage to deoxyribose, ascorbic acid, human serum albumin, liposome, and erythrocytes. Carnosine and anserine reduced Cu (II) to bathocuproine-reactive Cu (I) in a time- a and a dose-dependent manner while the others did not. Carnosine reduced 86% of
Cu (II) in 60 min. Carnosine, homocarnosine, anserine, and histidine inhibited copper-catalyzed deoxyribose degradation by 75, 66, 65, and 45%, respectively. In the presence of
Cu (II), carnosine and related compounds inhibited ascorbic acid oxidation by 55-85% after incubation for 20 min. In the presence of 0.15 mM ascorbic acid and 0.8 mM
, carnosine, anserine, homocarnosine, and histidine inhibited copper-catalyzed oxidation of human serum albumin by 41, 21, 29, and 24%, respectively, as determined by carbonyl formation. These compounds also significantly inhibited copper-catalyzed liposomal lipid peroxidation as measured by malondialehyde and lipid hydroperoxides. Carnosine, anserine, homocarnosine, and histidine inhibited hemolysis of bovine erythrocytes induced by 0.1 mM Cu (II). These results suggest that histidine-containing dipeptides may play an important role in protecting against free radical-mediated tissue damage.
Mechanism Study of dTDP-D-Glucose 4,6-Dehydratase: General Base in Active Site Domain
Sohng, Jae-Kyung ; Noh, Hyung-Rae ; Yoo, Jin-Cheol ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 4, 1999, Pages 358~362
dTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase as an oxidoreductase catalyzes the conversion of dTDP-D-glucose to dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose, which is essential for the formation of 6-deoxysugars. dTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase shows remarkable sterochemical convergence in which displacement of the C-6 hydroxyl group by a C-4 hydrogen proceeds intramolecularly with inversion of configuration. The reaction mechanism is known to be oxidation, dehydration, and reduction by bases mediating proton transfer and
cofactor. In this study, the bases in the active site domain are proposed to be His-79 and His-300 from a comparison of the peptides of the dehydratase and UDP-D-glucose epimerase. His-79 and His-300 were mutated to prepare the mutants H79L (mutation of histidine to leucine at the 79th amino acid) and H300A (mutation of histidine to alanine at the 300th amino acid) by site-directed mutagenesis. The H79L protein was inactive, showing that His-79 participates in the reaction mechanism.
Expression of orf8 (chlD) as Glucose-1-Phosphate Thymidylyltransferase Gene Involved in Olivose Biosynthesis from Streptomyces antibioticus Tü99 and Biochemical Properties of the Expressed Protein
Yoo, Jin-Cheol ; Lee, Eun-Ha ; Han, Ji-Man ; Bang, Hee-Jae ; Sohng, Jae-Kyung ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 4, 1999, Pages 363~369
The orf8(chlD) gene cloned from Streptomyces antibioticus T
99 was overexpressed using an E. coli system to confirm its biological function. Induction of the E. coli strain transformed with recombinant plasmid pRFJ 1031 containing orf8 resulted in the production of a 43,000 dalton protein. Glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase activity of the cell extract obtained from the transformed strain was 4-5 times higher than that of the control strain. The expressed protein was purified 18-fold from E. coli cell lysate using three chromatographic steps with a 17% overall recovery to near homogeneity. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein agrees with the nucleotide sequence predicted from the orf8 gene. The SDS-PAGE estimated subunit mass of 43,000 dalton agrees well with that calculated from the amino acid composition deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the orf8 gene (43,000 Da). Also, the native enzyme has a monomeric structure with a molecular mass of 43,000 dalton. The purified protein showed glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase activity catalyzing a reversible bimolecular group transfer reaction, and was highly specific for dTTP and
-D-glucose 1-phosphate as substrates in the forward reaction, and for dTDP-D-glucose and pyrophosphate in the reverse reaction.
Effect of Carnosine and Related Compounds on Glucose Oxidation and Protein Glycation In Vitro
Lee, Beom-Jun ; Park, Jae-Hak ; Lee, Yong-Soon ; Cho, Myung-Haing ; Kim, Young-Chul ; Hendricks, Deloy G. ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 4, 1999, Pages 370~378
The effects of carnosine and related compounds (CRC) including anserine, homocarnosine, histidine, and
-alanine, found in most mammalian tissues, were investigated on in vitro glucose oxidation and glycation of human serum albumin (HSA). Carnosin and anserine were more reactive with D-glucose than with L-lysine. In the presence of
Cu (II), although carnosine and anserine at low concentrations effectively inhibited formation of
-ketoaldehyde from D-glucose, they increased generation of
in a dose-dependent manner. Carnosine, homocarnosine, anserine, and histidine effectively inhibited hydroxylation of salicylate and deoxyribose degradation in the presence of glucose and
Cu (II). In the presence of 25 mM D-glucose, copper and ascorbic acid stimulated carbonyl formation from HSA. Except for
-alanine, CRC effectively inhibited the copper-catalyzed carbonyl formation from HSA. The addition of 25 mM D-glucose and/or
Cu (II) to low density lipoprotein (LDL) increased formation of conjugated dienes. CRC effectively inhibited the glucose and/or copper-catalyzed LDL oxidation. CRC also inhibited glycation of HSA as determined by hydroxymethyl furfural and lysine with free
-amino group. These results suggest that CRC may play an important role in protecting against diabetic complications by reacting with sugars, chelating copper, and scavenging free radicals.
Taxol-Induced Apoptosis and Nuclear Translocation of Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP) Kinase in HeLa Cells
Kim, Sung-Su ; Kim, Yoon-Suk ; Jung, Yon-Woo ; Choi, Hyun-Il ; Shim, Moon-Jeong ; Kim, Tae-Ue ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 4, 1999, Pages 379~384
Taxol, a natural product with significant anti-tumor activity, stabilizes microtubules and arrests cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. It has been reported that taxol has additional effects on the cell such as an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins and activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. This phosphorylated kinase translocates into the nucleus and phosphorylates its substrate c-jun, c-fos, ATF2, and ATF3. The MAP kinase family is comprised of key regulatory proteins that control the cellular response to both proliferation and stress signals. First examination was cytotoxicity and apoptosis-induced concentration with paclitaxel in HeLa cell. A half-maximal inhibition of cell proliferation (
) occurred at 13 nM paclitaxel. When DNA fragmentation was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, a nucleosomal ladder became evident 24 h after a taxol (50 nM) addition to the cells. In addition, an apoptotic body was detected by electron microscopy. Taxol-treated cells were arrested at the S phase at 10 nM. Treatment of 50 nM taxol activated the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1), and a fraction of the activated MAP kinases entered the nucleus. It was also discovered that nucleus substrates c-jun was phosphorylated and activated in the cell. The activated ERK1 could subsequently translocate into the nucleus and phosphorylate its substrate c-jun as well. This study suggests that taxol-induced apoptosis might be related with signal transduction via MAP kinases.
Regulation of NAD
- Specific Isocitrate Dehydrogenase from Pythium ultimum
Kim, Hak-Ryul ; Weete, John D. ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 4, 1999, Pages 385~392
-specific activity of a dual coenzyme-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH; EC 22.214.171.124) from the primitive fungus Pythium ultimum was investigated to elucidate the regulatory factors that may influence the intracellular distribution of carbon and the availability of intermediates, e.g. citrate, for fatty acid synthesis. Inhibition of
-IDH activity by diphospho- and triphosphonucleotides (ATP, ADP, and GTP) reflected the sensitivity of this enzyme to cellular energy charge even though monophosphonucleotides (AMP and GMP) had little effect on activity. NADPH, but not NADH, substantially inhibited
-IDH activity, showing noncompetitive inhibition with isocitrate. Oxalacetate and
-ketoglutarate showed competitive inhibition with isocitrate, while citrate and cis-aconitate showed mixed-noncompetitive inhibition with isocitrate. Inhibition by these substances ranged from 29 to 46% at 10 mM. The inhibitory effect of oxalacetate was increased synergistically by glyoxylate, which alone caused 31% uncompetitive inhibition at 10 mM, and a mixture of the two substances at 1 mM each showed 98% inhibition of
-IDH activity. The regulation of
-IDH in Pythium ultimum seems to be a complex process involving mitochondrial metabolites. The addition of glyoxylate (3 mM) and oxalacetate (3 mM) to the culture medium resulted in the production of 49% more lipid by P. ultimum.
Separation and Characterization of Two Forms of Acetolactate Synthase from Etiolated Pea Seedlings
Shin, Yong-Soo ; Chong, Chom-Kyu ; Choi, Jung-Do ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 4, 1999, Pages 393~398
Acetolactate synthase (ALS) catalyzes the first reaction common to the biosynthesis of L-valine, L-leucine, and L-isoleucine. ALS is the target site of several classes of herbicides, including the sulfonylureas, the imidazolinones, and the triazolopyrimidines. Two forms of ALS (ALS I and ALS II) which have different affinity for Heparin have been separated from etiolated pea seedlings. The substrate saturation curves of both ALS I and ALS II were hyperbolic in contrast to previous reports. The two forms of ALS showed significant differences in their physical and kinetic properties. The values of
for ALS I and ALS II were 9.0 mM and 4.8 mM, respectively. The pI values for ALS I and ALS II were determined to be 5.3 and 5.75 by isoelectric focusing, respectively. The native molecular weights for ALS I and ALS II obtained by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis and activity staining were 124 and 244 kDa, respectively. They also exhibited different sensitivity to feedback inhibition by end-product amino acids and inhibition by Cadre, an imidazolinone herbicide.
The 2,3-Dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-Dioxygenase Gene (phnQ) of Pseudomonas sp. DJ77: Nucleotide Sequence, Enzyme Assay, and Comparison with Isofunctional Dioxygenases
Kim, Seong-Jae ; Shin, Hee-Jung ; Park, Yong-Chjun ; Kim, Young-Soo ; Min, Kyung-Hee ; Kim, Young-Chang ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 4, 1999, Pages 399~404
2,3-Dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase (2,3-DHBD), which catalyzes the ring meta-cleavage of 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl, is encoded by the phnQ gene of biphenyl- and phenanthrene-degrading Pseudomonas sp. strain DJ77. We determined the nucleotide sequence of a DNA fragment of 1497 base pairs which included the phnQ gene. The fragment lncluded an open reading frame of 903 base pairs to accommodate the enzyme. The predicted amino acid sequence of the enzyme subunit consisted of 300 residues. In front of the gene, a sequence resembling an E. coli promoter was identified, which led to constitutive expression of the cloned gene in E. coli. The deduced amino acid sequence of the PhnQ enzyme exhibited 85.6% identity with that of the corresponding enzyme in Sphingomonas yanoikuyae Q1 (formerly S. paucimobilis Q1) and 22.1% identity with that of catechol 1,2,3-dioxygenase from the same DJ77 strain. PhnQ showed broader substrate preference than previously-cloned PhnE, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase. Ten amino acid residues, considered to be important for the role of extradiol dioxygenases, were conserved.
Glutamic Acid Rich Helix II Domain of the HIV-1 Vpu has Transactivation Potential in Yeast
Hong, Seung-Keun ; Bae, Yong-Soo ; Kim, Jung-Woo ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 4, 1999, Pages 405~408
The transactivation potential of HIV-1 Vpu was identified from the yeast two-hybrid screening process. The helix II domain of HIV-1 Vpu protein and mutant Vpu protein lacking the transmembrane domain exhibited transactivation of the LacZ and Leu2 reporter genes carrying LexA upstream activating sequences, but full-length HIV-1 Vpu and the helix I domain of HIV-1 Vpu did not. The helix II domain of HIV-1 Vpu consists of a number of acidic amino acids, and is especially rich in glutamic acid, a characteristic of many transcription factors. This result suggests that protein-protein interaction may occur through the acidic helix II domain of HIV-1 Vpu.
Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Human GM3 Synthase (hST3Gal V)
Kim, Kyung-Woon ; Kim, Kyoung-Sook ; Kim, Cheorl-Ho ; Kim, June-Ki ; Lee, Young-Choon ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 4, 1999, Pages 409~413
The cDNA encoding CMP-NeuAc:lactosylceramide
,3-sialyltransferase (GM3 synthase) was isolated from a human fetal brain cDNA library using sequence information obtained from amino acid sequences found in the conserved regions of the previously-cloned mouse GM3 synthase (mST3Gal V) and human sialyltransferases. The cDNA sequence included an open reading frame coding for 362 amino acids, and the primary structure of this enzyme predicted all the structural features characteristic of other sialyltransferases, including a type II membrane protein topology and both sialylmotifs. Comparative analysis of this cDNA with mST3Gal V showed 85% and 86% identity of the nucleotide and amino acid residues, respectively. The expression of this gene is highly restricted in both human fetal and adult tissues.
Properties of Malonyl-CoA Decarboxylase from Rhizobium trifolii
An, Jae-Hyung ; Lee, Gha-Young ; Song, Jong-Hee ; Lee, Dai-Woon ; Kim, Yu-Sam ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 4, 1999, Pages 414~418
A novel gene for malonyl-CoA decarboxylase was discovered in the mat operon, which encodes a set of genes involved in the malonate metabolism of Rhizobium trifolii (An and Kim, 1998). The subunit mass determined by SDS-PAGE was 53 kDa, which correspond to the deduced mass from the sequence data. The molecular mass of the native enzyme determined by field flow fractionation was 208 kDa, indicating that R. trifolii malonyl-CoA decarboxylase is homotetrameric. R. trifolii malonyl-CoA decarboxylase converted malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA with a specific activity of 100 unit/mg protein. Methylmalonyl-CoA was decarboxylated with a specific activity of 0.1 unit/mg protein. p-Chloromercuribenzoate inhibited this enzyme activity, suggesting that thiol group(s) is(are) essential for this enzyme catalysis. Database analysis showed that malonyl-CoA decarboxylase from R. trifolii shared 32.7% and 28.1% identity in amino acid sequence with those from goose and human, respectively, and it would be located in the cytoplasm. However, there is no sequence homology between this enzyme and that from Saccharopolyspora erythreus, suggesting that malonyl-CoA decarboxylases from human, goose, and R. trifolii are in the same class, whereas that from S. erythreus is in a different class or even a different enzyme, methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase. According to the homology analysis, Cys-214 among three cysteine residues in the enzyme was found in the homologous region, suggesting that the cysteine was located at or near the active site and plays a critical role in catalysis.