Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 6 - Nov 1999
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Sep 1999
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Jul 1999
Volume 32, Issue 3 - May 1999
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Mar 1999
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Jan 1999
Selecting the target year
Molecules of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor and Ligand Superfamilies: Endless Stories
Kwon, Byung-Suk ; Kwon, Byoung-Se ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 5, 1999, Pages 419~428
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor members have unique structures composed of 2-4 cysteine - rich pseudorepeats in the extracellular domain. On ligation by trimeric ligand molecules, oligomerization of three receptor molecules occurs, which in turn activates the receptor and recruits intracellular signaling molecules to the cytoplasmic tail to initiate biological events. Recently, the numbers of tumor necrosis factor receptor and ligand family members have been rapidly expanding. Functional characterization of the new members has indicated redundant roles with other known members as well as provided insights into novel functions. In particular, identification of soluble decoy receptors which have the ability to bind multiple ligands highlights a complex control mechanism of immune responses by these molecules. Studies of the new members have also revealed that the TNF receptor and ligand family members play an important role in other than the immune system.
Investigation of the Nature of the Endogenous Glucose Transporter(s) in Insect Cells
Lee, Chong-Kee ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 5, 1999, Pages 429~435
Unlike the mammalian glucose transporter GLUT1, little is known about the nature of the endogenous sugar transporter(s) in insect cells. In order to establish the transport characteristics and other properties of the sugar transport proteins of Sf9 cells, a series of kinetic analyses was performed. A saturable transport system for hexose uptake has been revealed in the insect cells. The apparent affinity of this transport system(s) for 2-deoxy-D-glucose was relatively high, the
for uptake being <0.5 mM. To further investigate the substrate and inhibitor recognition properties of the insect cell transporter, the ability of other sugars or drugs to inhibit 2-deoxy-D-glucose transport was examined by measuring inhibition constants (
). Transport was inhibited by D-mannose, D-glucose, and D-fructose. However, the apparent affinity of the C-4 epimer, D-galactose, for the Spodoptera transporter was relatively low, implying that the hydroxyl group at the C-4 position may play a role in the strong binding of glucose and mannose to the transporter. The results also showed that transport was stereoselective, being inhibited by D-glucose but not by L-glucose. It is therefore concluded that insect cells contain an endogenous glucose transport activity that in several aspects resembles the human erythrocyte glucose transporter. However, the mammalian and insect transporters were different in some of their kinetic properties, namely, their affinities for fructose and for cytochalasin B.
Cloning and Nucleotide Sequence of the recA Gene from Shigella sonnei KNIH104S Isolated in Korea
Park, Yong-Chjun ; Shin, Hee-Jung ; Kim, Young-Chang ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 5, 1999, Pages 436~439
Shigella sonnei is an important cause of human enteric infections. S. sonnei KNIH104S was previously reported to be isolated from Korean shigellosis patients. We cloned a 2.8-kb KpnI fragment containing the recA gene encoding a recombinase from the chromosomal DNA of S. sonnei KNIH104S. This recombinant plasmid was named pRAK28. E. coli HB101, a recA mutant, cannot grow on Luria-Bertani medium in the presence of the alkylating agent methylmethane sulfonate, however, E. coli HB101 harboring pRAK28 was found to grow on this medium. As far as we know, we are the first to sequence the recA gene from S. sonnei. This gene is composed of 1062 base pairs with an ATG initiation codon and a TAA termination codon. Nucleotide sequence comparison of the S. sonnei recA gene exhibited 99.7% and 99.5% identity with those of S. flexneri and E. coli, respectively.
Inactivation of Copper, Zinc Superoxide Dismutase by the Lipid Peroxidation Products Malondialdehyde and 4-Hydroxynonenal
Koh, Young-Ho ; Yoon, Seon-Joo ; Park, Jeen-Woo ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 5, 1999, Pages 440~444
Membrane lipid peroxidation processes yield reactive aldehydes that may react with copper,zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn SOD), one of the key antioxidant enzymes against oxidative stress. We investigated this possibility and found that exposing Cu,Zn SOD to malondialdehyde (MDA) or 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) caused the loss of dismutase activity, cross-linking of peptides, and an increase in protein oxidation, reflected by the increased level of carbonyl groups. When Cu,Zn SOD that had been exposed to MDA or HNE was subsequently analyzed by amino acid analysis, histidine content was found to be significantly lost. Both MDA-and HNE-treated Cu,Zn SOD were resistant to proteolysis, which may imply that damaged proteins exist in vivo for a longer period of time than the native enzyme. The lipid peroxidation-mediated damage to Cu,Zn SOD may result in the perturbation of cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms, and subsequently lead to a pro-oxidant condition.
Purification of Bovine Pregnancy-Associated Proteins by Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis
Hwang, Sun-Il ; Lim, Jin-Kyu ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 5, 1999, Pages 445~450
We purified and characterized a bovine pregnancy-associated protein in pregnant cow urine using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Urine from cows was collected according to their status of pregnancy and non-pregnancy. Proteins in the cow urine were fractionated with 50% ammonium sulfate prior to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteins separated on the gels were compared in terms of expression level and new expression by molecular mass and isoelectric point. We localized two pregnancy-associated protein spots on the gels at molecular masses of 24 kDa and 20 kDa and isoelectric points of 5.5 and 5.7, respectively. Likewise, two non-pregnancy specific proteins were localized at 27 kDa and 28 kDa with isoelectric points of 5.7 and 5.9, respectively. To rule out the possibility that environmental or genetic factors might influence the expression of the proteins, we demonstrated the pregnancy-associated expression of the proteins in two-dimensional gels with pregnant urine taken from cows raised in a different institute. The pregnancy-associated protein with molecular mass of 20 kDa and isoelectric point of 5.7, namely spot 2, was microsequenced and found to be highly homologous to the bovine collagen alpha 1 chain.
Biosynthesis and Metabolism of Vitamin C in Suspension Cultures of Scutellaria baicalensis
Ahn, Young-Ock ; Kwon, Suk-Yoon ; Lee, Haeng-Soon ; Park, Il-Hyun ; Kwak, Sang-Soo ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 5, 1999, Pages 451~455
The concentrations of L-ascorbic acid (AsA, ascorbate, vitamin C) and its biosynthetic and metabolically-related enzymes such as L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDase), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and ascorbate oxidase (ASO) were investigated in suspension cultures of Scutellaria baicalensis. Cells growing from 4 days after subculture (DAS) to 9 DAS and from 16 DAS to 19 DAS showed a diauxic growth, and then growth rapidly decreased with further culturing. The AsA content slowly increased to 19 DAS, reached a maximum at 21 DAS (ca
dry cell wt), and then rapidly decreased with further culturing. GLDase and ASO activity were well correlated with the cell growth curve, showing a maximum at 19 DAS, whereas APX activity showed a good correlation with the changes in AsA content, showing a maximum at 21 DAS. The total ascorbate contents (reduced form, AsA, and oxidized form, dehydroascorbate, DHA) were markedly enhanced at 10 DAS when L-galactose and L-galactono-1,4-lactone (25 mM) were added to SH medium supplemented with 20 g/l sucrose at 9 DAS, by 5.5 and 6.8 times, respectively. DHA composed more than 90% of the total ascorbate contents in suspension cultures of S. baicalensis, even though the ratio of reduced to oxidized form slightly varied with cell growth stage. The results indicate that L-galactose and L-galactono-1,4-lactone are effective precursors of AsA in cell cultures of S. baicalensis, and that in vitro cultured cells provide suitable biomaterials for the study of biosynthesis and metabolism of AsA.
Transcriptional Regulation of the VP16 Gene of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1
Kwun, Hyun-Jin ; Jun, Hong-Ki ; Lee, Tae-Ho ; Jang, Kyung-Lib ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 5, 1999, Pages 456~460
The promoter of the HSV-1 VP16 gene contains binding sites for the cellular transcription factors such as USF, CTF, and Sp1, each of which affects basal level expression of the VP16 gene. Transcription of the VP16 gene was induced by viral immediate-early proteins, ICP0 and ICP4, in a synergistic manner but repressed by ICP22. To gain further insight into the role of ICP0 in the expression of the VP16 gene during virus infection, several mutants with deletions in each of their transcriptional regulatory elements were generated. According to transient gene expression assays of these mutants using the CAT gene as a reporter, the USF and CTF binding sites were necessary for efficient induction of the promoter in the presence of transfected ICP0 or during virus infection, whereas the Sp1 binding site had little effect on ICP0-mediated VP16 expression. These results indicate that the immediate early proteins of HSV-1 regulate expression of the VP16 gene during virus infection by modulating the activities of cellular transcription factors such as USF and CTF.
Defining B Cell Epitopes of Ovalbumin for the C57BL/6 Mice Immunized with Recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis
Kim, Hyo-Joon ; Lee, Yang-Min ; Hwang, Joon-Sung ; Won, Ho-Shik ; Kim, Bok-Hwan ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 5, 1999, Pages 461~467
Recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing ovalbumin was used to immunize C57BL/6(H-
) mice, and the humoral immunity against recombinant ovalbumin was analyzed. Antibodies were purified by denatured ovalbumin-conjugated affinity chromatography. The epitopes of the antibodies were screened with a random peptide library displayed on the tip of fUSE5 filamentous phage pIII minor coat proteins. Two peptides, IRLADR and SPGAEV, were selected predominantly by the recognition of purified antibodies using biopanning methods. The composition of the peptide sequence with the primary structure of OVA revealed that the peptide sequence analogizes to INEAGR, part of the
sequence previously reported as the antigenic determinant for murine Band also Th cell epitopes (I-
binding). Also, the structures of these mimotopes obtained from restrained molecular dynamic computations resulted in the formation of a
-turn proven to be a secondary structure of the parent peptide within the ovalbumin molecule, enabling us to confirm the structural similarity. This study demonstrates that immunization with recombinant M. smegmatis can generate neutralizing antibodies identical with those induced by the administration of natural antigenic proteins and supports the potential use of mycobacteria as vaccine delivery vehicles.
Functional Analysis of the Heptasequence SPTSPTY in the Transcriptional Activation Domain of Rat Nuclear Factor 1-A
Hwang, Jung-Su ; Son, Kyung-No ; Rho, Hyune-Mo ; Kim, Ji-Young ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 5, 1999, Pages 468~473
Nuclear Factor 1 (NF1) proteins are a family of transcriptional factors consisting of four different types: NF1-A, -B, -C, and -X. Some NF1 transcription factors contain a heptasequence motif, SPTSPSY, which is found as a repeat sequence in the carboxy terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. A similar heptasequence, SPTSPTY, is contained in rat liver NF1-A at a position between residues 469 and 475. In order to investigate the roles of the individual amino acids of the heptasequence of rat liver NF1-A in transcriptional activation, we systematically substituted single and multiple amino acid residues with alanine residue(s) and evaluated the transcriptional activities of the mutated NF1-A. Substitution of a single amino acid reduced transcriptional activity by 10 to 30%, except for the proline residue at position 473, whose substitution with alanine did not affect transcriptional activity. However, changes of all four serine and threonine residues to alanine or of the tyrosine residue along with the serine residue at position 469 to alanine reduced the activity to almost background levels. Our results indicate that multiple serine and threonine residues, rather than a single residue, may be involved in the modulation of the transcriptional activities of the factor. Involvement of the tyrosine residue is also implicated.
Development and Immunochemical Properties of Two Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
Kim, You-Hee ; Koh, Kwan-Sam ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 5, 1999, Pages 474~479
Using a hybridoma technique, spleen cells of Balb/c mice immunized with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were fused with NS-1 mouse myeloma cells. Two hybrid cell lines, clones KS-8 and KS-19, secreting monoclonal antibodies to hCG, were isolated. KS-8 and KS-19 belong to the immunoglobulin
subclass. With the aid of a double-antibody radioimmunoassay, it was established that the KS-8 monoclonal antibody recognizes an immunodeterminant of the
-subunit of hCG, whereas the KS-19 monoclonal antibody recognizes an epitope present on the
-subunit of hCG. The KS-8 monoclonal antibody specifically reacts with human chorionic gonadotropin and shows cross-reactivity of less than 0.3% to other related human glycoprotein hormones. On the other hand, using a hemagglutination test based on antibody-induced agglutination of sheep red blood cells coated with hCG, It was shown that only the KS-19 monoclonal antibody was capable of inducing a positive reaction, although both monoclonal antibodies had similar binding capacity to the coated cells. The results from the dual screening procedures demonstrate that KS-8 and KS-19 monoclonal antibodies show high sensitivity in two different assays, and are hence useful for the qualitative and quantitative determination of hCG by both radioimmunoassay and hemagglutination inhibition tests.
Characterization of Thermostable Tyrosine Phenol-Lyase from an Obligatory Symbiotic Thermophile, Symbiobacterium sp. SC-1
Lee, Seung-Goo ; Hong, Seung-Pyo ; Kwak, Mi-Sun ; Esaki, Nobuyoshi ; Sung, Moon-Hee ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 5, 1999, Pages 480~485
Tyrosine phenol-lyase of thermophilic Symbiobacterium sp. SC-1, which is obligately and symbiotically dependent on thermophilic Bacillus sp. SK-1, was purified and characterized. The enzyme is composed of four identical subunits and contains approximately 1 mol of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) per mol subunit as a cofactor. The enzyme showed absorption maxima at 330 and 420 nm, and lost this absorption profile by treatment with phenylhydrazine. The apparent dissociation constsnt,
, for PLP was determined with the apoenzyme to be about
. The isoelectric point was 4.9. The optimal temperature and pH for the
-elimination of L-tyrosine were found to be
and pH 8.0, respectively. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was very broad: L-amino acids including L-tyrosine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA), L-cysteine, L-serine, S-methyl-L-cysteine,
-chloro-L-alanine, and S-(o-nitrophenyl)-L-cysteine all served as substrates. D-Tyrosine and D-serine were also decomposed into pyruvic acid and ammonia at rates of 7% and 31% relative to their corresponding L-enantiomers, respectively. D-Alanine, which was inert as a substrate in a,
-elimination, was the only D-amino acid racemized by the enzyme. The
values for L-tyrosine, L-DOPA, S-(o-nitrophenyl)-L-cysteine,
-chloro-L-alanine, and S-methyl-L-cysteine were 0.19, 9.9, 0.36, 12, and 5.5 mM, respectively.
Heterologous Expression of Lignin Peroxidase H2 in Escherichia coli: In Vitro Refolding and Activation
Lee, Dong-Ho ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 5, 1999, Pages 486~491
An engineered cDNA from Phanerochaete chrysosporium encoding both the mature and propeptide-sequence regions of lignin peroxidase H2 (Lip H2) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) to evaluate its catalytic characteristics and potential application as a pollution scavenger. All expressed proteins were aggregated in an inactive inclusion body, which might be due to inherent disulfide bonds. Active enzyme was obtained by refolding with glutathione-mediated oxidation in refolding solution containing
, heme, and urea. Propeptide-sequence region was not processed as evidenced by N-terminal sequence analysis. Recombinant Lip H2 (rLip H2) had the same physical properties of the native protein but differed in the
. Catalytic efficiency (
) of rLip H2 was slightly higher than that of the native enzyme. In order to express an active protein, fusion systems with thioredoxin or Dsb A, which have disulfide isomerase activity, were used. The fused proteins expressed by the Dsb A fusion vector were aggregated, whereas half of the thioredoxin fusion proteins were recovered as a soluble form but still catalytically inactive. These results suggest that Lip H2 may not be expressed as an active enzyme in Escherichia coli although the activity can be recovered by in vitro refolding.
Biochemical Characterization of the Herpes Simplex Virus-1 DNA Polymerase
Song, Byeong-Doo ; Lehman, I. Robert ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 5, 1999, Pages 492~496
We have investigated the biochemical properties of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA polymerase without the UL42 protein (Pol), purified from insect cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus containing the UL30 gene. BSA and DTT have inhibitory effects on dAMP incorporation. Pol showed a greater turnover rate of steady-state single nucleotide incorporation at 12 mM
than at 2 mM
. However, it showed a greater processivity of DNA synthesis at lower
concentration (1 mM, 2 mM) than at a higher
concentration (12.5 mM). These results are consistent with a slow DNA dissociation at lower
concentrations. Pol does not incorporate a correct nucleotide into the primer with an incorrect nucleotide at the end; instead, it preferentially excises the incorrect nucleotide at the 3' end of the primer. Pol has DNA polymerase activity at pHs 6.5 and 7.5 but little at pHs 5.5, 8.5, and 9.5. It has exonuclease activity at pHs 6.5, 7.5, and 8.5 but little at pHs 4.5, 5.5, and 9.5. The finding that Pol has exonuclease activity but not DNA polymerase at pH 8.5 suggests that DNA binds to Pol, but deoxynucleotide binding or incorporation does not occur at pH 8.5.
Novel Vectors for the Convenient Cloning and Expression of In Vivo Biotinylated Proteins in Escherichia coli
Cho, Eun-Wie ; Park, Jung-Hyun ; Na, Shin-Young ; Kim, Kil-Lyong ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 5, 1999, Pages 497~501
Biotinylation of recombinant proteins is a powerful tool for the detection and analysis of proteins of interest in a large variety of assay systems. The recent development of in vivo biotinylation techniques in E. coli has opened new possibilities for the production of site-specifically biotinylated proteins without the need for further manipulation after the isolation of the recombinantly expressed proteins. In the present study, a novel vector set was generated which allows the convenient cloning and expression of proteins of interest fused with an N-terminal in vivo biotinylated thioredoxin (TRX) protein. These vectors were derived from the previously reported pBIOTRX vector into which was incorporated part of the pBluescript II+phagemid multiple cloning site (MCS), amplified by PCR using a pair of sophisticated oligonucleotide primers. The functionality of these novel vectors was examined in this system by recombinant expression of rat transforming growth factor-
. Western-blot analysis using TRX-specific antibodies or peroxidase-conjugated streptavidin confirmed the successful induction of the fusion protein and the in vivo conjugation of biotin molecules, respectively. The convenience of molecular subcloning provided by the MCS and the effective in vivo biotinylation of proteins of interest makes this novel vector set an interesting alternative for the production of biotinylated proteins.
Isolation and Characterization of cDNA Encoding Pyridoxal Kinase from Ovine Liver
Lee, Hyun-Shik ; Choi, Soo-Young ; Kwon, Oh-Shin ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 5, 1999, Pages 502~505
cDNA fragments of ovine liver pyridoxal kinase were amplified by PCR using degenerate oligonucleotide primers derived from partial amino acids sequences of the enzyme. Using PCR products as probes, several overlapping cDNA clones were isolated independently from an ovine liver and a human brain cDNA library. The largest cDNA clone for each was selected for sequence analysis. The ovine liver cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 297 amino acid residues with Mr of 32,925, whereas the human clone is comprised of an open reading frame encoding 312 amino acid residues with Mr of 35,102. The deduced sequence of the human brain enzyme is completely identical to that of human testes cDNA recently reported (Hanna et al., 1997). The ovine enzymes have approximately 77% sequence identity with the human enzyme although the two sequences are completely different in the N-terminus comprising 32 residues. This result suggests that pyridoxal kinase is highly homologous in mammalian species.
"25-kDa Thiol Peroxidase" (TPx II) Acts as a "Housekeeping" Antioxidant
Cha, Mee-Kyung ; Kim, II-Han ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 5, 1999, Pages 506~510
The newly-found thiol peroxidases (TPx) with a conserved cysteine as the primary site of catalysis are capable of catalyzing the thiol-dependent reduction of peroxides. However, the cellular distributions of the isoforms remain poorly understood. As a first step in understanding the physiological functions of the TPx isoforms, we examined the cellular and tissue distribution of the isoenzymes in various bovine tissues. The tissue distributions of TPx isoenzymes indicate that two types of TPx are widely distributed throughout all of the tested tissues. These two forms are the predominant proteins, with levels of the proteins being quite different from each other. The level of predominant TPx proteins, named type II (TPx II) and type V (TPx V), appeared to be very different with respect to tissue type. The cellular distribution and level of TPx isoenzymes also varied with the types of cells. Immunoblot analysis of the mitochondrial and cytosol fractions from various tissues indicates that TPx III is a unique mitochondrial form. Based on the different tissue and cellular distribution of TPx isoenzymes, we discuss the physiological function of TPx isoenzymes, especially the ubiquitous TPx II.
Thermosensitizing Effects of Amiloride and 4,4-Diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic Acid on FsaII Mouse Fibrosarcoma
Lee, Soo-Young ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 5, 1999, Pages 511~514
Enhancement of the hyperthermia effect in FsaII fibrosarcoma of C3H mice in vivo by amiloride and 4,4- diisothiocyanatostilbene.2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) was studied. Heating alone significantly increased the tumor lactic acid content and lowered the tumor energy levels, as indicated by the PCr and ATP contents which were measured using invasive chemical analysis. An i.p. injection of amiloride, DIDS, or amiloride combined with DIDS prior to heating further increased the lactic acid content and reduced the energy status in the tumors. Amiloride and DIDS may be useful in increasing the therapeutic efficacy of hyperthermia treatments by enhancing the reduction in tumor pH.
Chemical Modification of Brain Glutamate Dehydrogenase Isoproteins with Phenylglyoxal
Ahn, Jee-Yin ; Cho, Eun-Hee ; Lee, Kil-Soo ; Choi, Soo-Young ; Cho, Sung-Woo ;
BMB Reports , volume 32, issue 5, 1999, Pages 515~520
Incubation of two types of glutamate dehydrogenase isoproteins from bovine brain with the arginine-specific dicarbonyl reagent phenylglyoxal resulted in a biphasic loss of enzyme activity. Reaction of the glutamate dehydrogenase isoproteins with phenylglyoxal caused a rapid loss of 53~62% of the enzyme activities and modification of two residues of arginine per enzyme subunit. Prolonged incubation of the glutamate dehydrogenase isoproteins with phenylglyoxal resulted in the modification of an additional four residues of arginine per enzyme subunit without further loss of the residual activities. Partial protection against inactivation was provided by the coenzyme NADH or substrate 2-oxoglutarate. The most marked decrease in the rate of inactivation was observed by the combined addition of NADH and 2-oxoglutarate, suggesting that the first two modified arginine residues are in the vicinity of the catalytic site. However, inactivation of the glutamate dehydrogenase isoproteins by phenylglyoxal appears to be partial with approximately 40% activity remained after an extended reaction time with excess reagent, suggesting that the modified arginine residues may not be directly involved in catalysis. The lack of complete protection by substrates also suggest the possibility that the modified arginine residues are not directly involved at the active site, and the partial loss of activity by the modification of arginine residues may be due to a conformational change. There were no significant differences between the two glutamate dehydrogenase isoproteins in sensitivities to inactivation by phenylglyoxal, indicating that the microenvironmental structures of the glutamate dehydrogenase isoproteins are very similar to each other.