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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 6 - Nov 2001
Volume 34, Issue 5 - Sep 2001
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Jul 2001
Volume 34, Issue 3 - May 2001
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Mar 2001
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Jan 2001
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Regulation of a Novel Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein Tissue Transglutaminase (
Im, Mie-Jae ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 2, 2001, Pages 95~101
Tissue transglutaminase (TGII,
) belongs to a family of enzymes which catalyze post-translational modification of proteins by forming isopeptides via
-dependent reaction. Although TGII-mediated formation of isopeptides has been implicated to play a role in a variety of cellular processes, the physiological function of TGII remains unclear. In addition to this Tease activity, TGII is a guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) which binds and hydrolyzes GTP It is now well recognized that the GTPase action of TGII regulates a receptor-mediated transmembrane signaling, functioning as a signal transducer of the receptor. This TGII function signifies that TGII is a new class of GTP-binding regulatory protein (G-protein) that differs from "Classical" heterotrimeric G-proteins. Regulation of enzyme is an important biological process for maintaining cell integrity. This review summarizes the recent development in regulation of TGII that may help for the better understanding of this unique enzyme. Since activation and inactivation of GTPase of TGII are similar to the heterotrimeric G-proteins, the regulation of heterotrimeric G-protein in the transmembrane signaling is also discussed.
Characterization of Protein Disulfide Isomerase during Lactoferrin Polypeptide Structural Maturation in the Endoplasmic Reticulum
Lee, Dong-Hee ; Kang, Seung-Ha ; Choi, Yun-Jaie ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 2, 2001, Pages 102~108
A time-dependent folding process was used to determine whether or not protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) plays an important role in the maturation of nascent lactoferrin polypeptides. Interaction between lactoferrin and PDI was analyzed according to the co-immunoprecipitation of the two proteins. The results indicate that lactoferrin folding requires a significant interaction with PDI and its binding is relatively brief compared to other nascent polypeptides. The amount of lactoferrin interacting with PDI increases up to half a minute and sharply decreases beyond this time point. During the refolding process that follows reduction by DTT, lactoferrin polypeptides heavily interact with PDI and the interaction period was extended compared to the normal folding process. In terms of the temperature effect on PDI-lactoferrin interaction, PDI binds to lactoferrin polypeptides longer at a lower temperature (here,
. The lactoferrin-PDI interaction was also studied in vitro. According to the in vitro experiment data, PDI was still functional in cell lysates assisting lactoferrin folding into the mature form. PDI interacts with lactoferrin polypeptides for an extended period during the folding in vitro. During the refolding process in vitro, intermolecular aggregates and refolding oligomers matured into a functional form after PDI binds to the lactoferrin. These results suggest that PDI provides a prolonged chaperoning activity in the refolding processes and that there appears to be a greater requirement for PDI chaperone activity in the refolding of lactoferrin polypeptides.
Importance of Leu-5 and Pro-6 in the Inhibitory Activity of the Serratia marcescens Metalloprotease Inhibitor (SmaPI)
Bae, Kwang-Hee ; Kim, Dong-Min ; Kim, Sun-Taek ; Kim, Tae-Hoon ; Shin, Yong-Chul ; Byun, Si-Myung ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 2, 2001, Pages 109~113
The Serratia marcescens metalloprotease inhibitor (SmaPI) is a proteinase inhibitor toward Serratia marcescens metalloprotease (SMP). The three-dimensional structure of SmaPI was calculated by computer modeling using the structure complex between SMP and the Erwinia chrysanthemi inhibitor as a template. Based on this model structure, the substitution of the amino acid residues, Ala4, Leu-5, Pro-6, and Thr-7, were located at the hinge region of the N-terminal segment by site-directed mutagenesis. Although the A4R and T7A mutant SmaPIs showed a nearly full inhibitory activity, the inhibitory activity of SmaPI decreased significantly when the Leu-5 was converted to Ala, Gly, Ile, or Val. Surprisingly, the L5I and L5V mutant SmaPIs showed less inhibitory activities than the L5A mutant. From these results, we suggested that the orientations and positions of respective aliphatic groups in the side-chain of position 5 mainly affected the inhibitory activity of SmaPI. The overall side-chain hydrophobicity was only slightly affected. The side-chain of the Leu-5 residue contributed approximately 0.79 kcal/mol out of 8.44 kcal/mol to the binding of SmaPI with SMP The inhibitory activities of P6A and F6G were also severely decreased. The Pro-6 may have a critical role in maintaining the strict conformation of the N-terminal portion that may be important in the inhibitory activity of SmaPI. In conclusion, Leu-5 and Pro-6 have crucial roles in the inhibitory function of SmaPI toward SMP.
Molecular Discrimination of Cervidae Antlers and Rangifer Antlers
Kim, Eun-Jin ; Jung, Young-Ja ; Kang, Shin-Jung ; Chang, Seung-Yup ; Huh, Keun ; Nam, Doo-Hyun ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 2, 2001, Pages 114~117
Cervi Parvum Cornu is widely used as a hemopoietic, tonifying, growth-promoting, cardiotonic, and immuno-modulating agent in Korea. In order to develop the quality control method of Cervi Parvum Cornu by the identification of the biological source or origin, the molecular approach was applied using PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and PCR-RFLF (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis. In the PCR analysis of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene and cytochrome b gene regions, no distinctive DNA bands from Cervidae (deer) antlers and Rangifer (reindeer) antlers were observed. However, when the amplified products in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene region were subjected to restriction digestion with TaqI, Cervidae antlers showed an undigested state of 380 by band, differently from two bands of 230 by and 1S0 by from Rangifer antlers. Based on this finding, the base sequences of amplified PCR products in the range of mitochondria) cytochrome b gene from Cervidae antlers and Rangifer antlers were determined and subjected to restriction analysis by various endonucleases. The results showed that antlers from Rangifer species could be simply discriminated with other antlers from 8 Cervidae species (Chinese deer, Russian deer, Hong Kong deer, New Zealand deer, Kazakhstan deer, elk, red deer and Sika deer) by PCR-RFLP analysis using AtuI, HaeIII, HpaII or Sau3AI(MboI) as well as TaqI in the range of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.
The In Vitro Translocation of Escherichia coli Ribose-binding Protein via Various Targeting Routes
Lee, Byoung-Chul ; Kim, Hyoung-Nan ; Hwang, Yong-Il ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 2, 2001, Pages 118~122
The translocation of ribose-binding protein (RBP) into the inverted membrane vesicles (IMV) of Escherichia coli and eukaryotic microsomes was studied using the in vitro translation/translocation system. It was found that RBP was translocated into heterologous eukaryotic microsomes co-translationally, as well as post-translationally However, RBP was translocated only past-translationally into IMV. Degradation fragments of RBP with the molar mass of 14 and 16 kDa were produced during the translocation into IMV However, the amount of the degradation products decreased and the mature form of RBP appeared in the presence of phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF). PMSF and GTP accelerated the translocation of RBF It was also found that SecB enhanced the post-translational translocation of RBP It appears that RBP is translocated via at least two targeting paths.
p53 Nuclear Accumulation as a Possible Biomarker for Biological Radio-dosimetry in Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells
Kim, Youn-Young ; Kim, Jong-il ; Kim, Jin ; Yook, Jong-In ; Kim, The-Hwan ; Son, Young-Sook ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 2, 2001, Pages 123~129
Cellular response to ionizing radiation is affected by cell types, radiation doses, and post-irradiation time. Based on the trypan blue dye exclusion assay in normal oral mucosal cells (OM cells), a 48 h post-irradiation was sufffcient and an adequate time point for the evaluation of radiation sensitivity Its
was approximately 1.83 Gy To investigate possible biomarkers useful for the biological radiodosimetry of normal epithelial cells (p53, c-fos, cyclin D1, cdc-2, pRb) EGF receptor phosphorylation and Erk activation were evaluated at different radiation doses and different post-irradiation times. From 0.5 Gy, p53 was accumulated in the nucleus of basal cells of the OM raft culture at 4 h post-irradiation and sustained up to 24 h post-irradiation, which suggests that radiation-induced apoptosis or damage repair was not yet completed. The number of p53 positive cells and biosynthesis of p53 were correlated with radiation doses. Both cyclin D1 and c-fos were only transiently induced within 1 h post-irradiation. Cyclin D1 was induced at all radiation doses. However, cfos induction was highest at 0.1 Gy, approximately 7.3 fold more induction than the control, whose induction was reduced in a reverse correlation with radiation dose. The phosphorylation pattern of cdc-2 and pRb were unaffected by radiation. In contrast to A431 tails overexpressing the EGF receptor approximately 8.5 fold higher than normal epithelial, the OM cells reduced the basal level of the EGF receptor phosphorylation in a radiation dose dependent fashion. In conclusion, among radiation-induced biomolecules, the p53 nuclear accumulation may be considered for the future development of a useful marker far biological radiodosimetry in normal epithelial tissue since it was sustained for a longer period and showed a dose response relationship. Specific c-fos induction at a low dose may also be an important finding in this study It needs to be studied further for the elucidation of its possible connection with the low dose radio-adaptive response.
Prediction of Lytic Segments from Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis 130 kDa and 72 kDa Proteins
Suvarchala Devi, V. ; Jamil, Kaiser ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 2, 2001, Pages 130~133
The amino acid sequences of 130 kDa and 72 kDa proteins responsible for the larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis (Bti) were analyzed by hydrophobic moment plots. A search for highly amphiphilic
-helices was made in these proteins using the helical hydrophobic moment as a criterion of amphiphilicity The protein segments of the largest hydrophobic moments were analyzed. In the present communication we report the surface seeking helices in 130 kDa and 72 kDa proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis. It is assumed that the surface seeking segments may participate in one of the membrane-related functions of Bacillus thuringiensis.
The Effect of Sodium Chloride on the Serine-type Fibrinolytic Enzymes and the Thermostability of Extracellular Protease from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DJ-4
Choi, Nack-Shick ; Kim, Seung-Ho ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 2, 2001, Pages 134~138
By adding sodium chloride (2.5%) into a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DJ-4 culture broth, two serine-type fibrinolytic proteases with a molecular weight of 29 (subtilisin DJ-4) and 38-kDa were stimulated on the SDS-fibrin zymogram or inhibitor gels. B. amyloliquefaciens DJ-4 showed the highest proteolytic activity (5.52 plasmin NIH unit/ml) on the fibrin plate based on the molar ratio when cells were subjected to the 2.5% NaCl. Using a fibrin plate, the secreted protease from this strain in the presence of 5% NaCl showed that about 49% of the enzyme's activity remained after incubation at
for 30 min, but as the salt concentration was increased (10% NaCl) the activity nearly disappeared (0.14 plasmin NIH unit/ml). However, through a fibrin zymography assay, three fibrinolytic enzymes (38, 53 and 80-kDa) from the cells in the presence of 10% NaCl were detected. Also, two salt-activated serine-type fibrinolytic professes (29 and 38kDa) showed thermostability from 65 to
for 30 min. Furthermore, these professes also showed stability, pH 6-11. In particular, 29-kDa (subtilisin DJ-4) was very stable in the pH range of 4-11 at
for 48 h.
Essential Cysteine Residues of Yeast Thioredoxin 2 for an electron donor to Thioredoxin Peroxidases
Lee, Song-Mi ; Kim, Kang-Hwa ; Choi, Won-Ki ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 2, 2001, Pages 139~143
Thioredoxin (Trx) is a redox protein possessing conserved sequence Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys in ail organisms. Trx acts as an electron donor of many proteins including thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx). Yeast Trx 2 has two redox active cysteine residues at positions 31 and 34. To investigate the redox activity of each cysteine, we generated mutants C31S, C34S, and C31S/C34S using site directed mutagenesis and examined the redox activity of Trx variants as an electron donor for yeast TPx enzymes. None of the three Cysmutated Trx proteins was active as a redox protein in the 5', 5'-dithiobis-(2-dinitrobenzoic acid) reduction under the condition of the presence of NADPH and thioredoxin reductase, and in the thioredoxin dependent peroxidase activity of yeast TPx II. C34S enhanced the glutamine synthetase protection activity of yeast TPx I, even though 100 times more protein was needed to exhibit the same activity to WT. The formation of a mixed disulfide intermediate between Trx and TPx II subunits was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The mixed dieter form of TPx II was found only for C34S. These results suggest that Cys-31 more effectively acts as an electron donor for TPx enzymes.
The Stimulatory Effect of Garnoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus on the Antioxidant Enzyme Catalase
Park, Jin-Seu ; Lee, Byung-Ryong ; Jin, Li Hua ; Kim, Choong-Kwon ; Choi, Kyung-Soon ; Bahn, Jae-Hoon ; Lee, Kil-Soo ; Kwon, Hyeok-Yil ; Chang, Hyun-Woo ; Baek, Nam-In ; Lee, Hwang-Eunjoo ; Kang, Jung-Hoon ; Cho, Sung-Woo ; Choi, Soo-Young ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 2, 2001, Pages 144~149
Antioxidant enzymes, scavengers of the reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI), are involved in numerous defense systems in cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the hot-water extracts of two medicinally potent mushrooms (Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus) on the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes in vitro and in vivo. The mushroom extracts stimulated the catalase activity in a dose-dependent manner in vitro, whereas the other antioxidant enzymes (such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) were unaffected by the extracts. The catalytic activity of catalase in the liver and brain was significantly increased after the oral treatment of the mushroom extracts (2.5 g/kg) to ICR mice for 2 months. Western blot analysis of the liver and brain tissues revealed that the expression level of catalase in the mice, treated with both mushroom extracts, was significantly increased compared to that of the control mice. However, the level of the SOD expression in the mice treated with the natural product extracts was unchanged under the same experimental conditions. Although the mechanisms for the stimulatory effect of the catalase expression by these extracts remains unclear, these results suggest that the ingredients of the Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus extracts act as an activator of catalase, and regulate the expression of catalase at the translational or transcriptional level.
Redesign of an Interhelical Loop of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4B delta-endotoxin for Proteolytic Cleavage
Krittanai, Chartchai ; Lungchukiet, Panida ; Ruangwetdee, Sarinthip ; Tuntitippawan, Tipparut ; Panyim, Sakol ; Katzenmeier, Gerd ; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 2, 2001, Pages 150~155
The mosquito-larvicidal Cry4B protein from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensds was expressed in Escherichia coli. Upon activation by trypsin, the 130-kDa protoxin was processed into the 65-kDa active toxin containing two polypeptide fragments of ca. 47 and ca. 20 kDa. These two polypeptides are products of internal cleavages on the exposed loop connecting helices 5 and 6 in the seven-helical bundle domain. PCR-based mutagenesis was employed to introduce an additional cleavage site into the loop connecting helices 3 and 4. A series of amino acid changes were introduced into the targeted loop, resulting in seven mutant protoxins. Upon digestion with trypsin, a group of mutants with arginine introduced into the loop (EPRNQ, EPNRNQ, EPRNP, ESRNP and SSRNP) produced polypeptide products similar to those of the wild type (EPNNQ). When the loop, SSRNP, was expanded by an insertion of either asparagine (NSSRNP) or valine (VSSRNP), an additional cleavage was detected with proteolytic products of 47,12 and 6 kDa. This cleavage was confirmed to be at the introduced arginine residue by N-terminal sequencing. The mosquito larvicidal assay against Aedes aegypti demonstrated a relatively unchanged toxicity for the mutants without cleavage and reduced toxicity for those with an additional cleavage.
Molecular Cloning and Recombinant Expression of the Long Form of Leptin Receptor (Ob-Rb) cDNA as Isolated from Rat Spleen
Ju, Sung-Kyu ; Park, Jung-Hyun ; Na, Shin-Young ; You, Kwan-Hee ; Kim, Kil-Lyong ; Lee, Myung-Kyu ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 2, 2001, Pages 156~165
Leptin is a circulating non-glycosylated protein that is mainly produced in adipocytes. Leptin acts in the brain to regulate food intake and energy expenditure. Previously we reported our success in the isolation of a partial cDNA of the long form of the leptin receptor, OB-Rb, from rat spleen, and showed that leptin might also play a role in peripheral immune organs. In the present study, for the first time, the complete coding region of OB-Rb cDNA was cloned from rat splenocytes, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The cDNA was then further expressed in E. coli and mammalian cells, thereby confirming the functional integrity of this receptor. Prokaryotically overexpressed OB-R protein was then used as an immunizing antigen in BALE/c mice to produce leptin receptor-specific antibodies. By using them, we confirmed the cell surface expression of OB-Rb in transfected CHO cells. It is our belief that the reagents, as produced in this study, will be of great use in further studies of the biological role of rat leptin.
Effect of Diets Supplemented with Pharbitis Seed Powder on Serum and Hepatic Lipid Levels, and Enzyme Activities of Rats Administered with Ethanol Chronically
Oh, Suk-Heung ; Cha, Youn-Soo ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 2, 2001, Pages 166~171
The levels of
-aminobutyric acid (GAGA) have been analyzed from pharbitis seeds by an AccQ-Tag amino acid analysis procedure. The GABA level of the pharbitis seeds was 125 nmole per gram fresh weight. To investigate the effects of pharbitis seed diets on serum and hepatic lipid levels, as well as enzyme activities of rats administered with ethanol chronically, Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed with either a AIN-76 diet (control), a control diet plus ethanol, a control plus pharbitis seed diet, or a control plus pharbitis seed diet plus ethanol for 30 days. Pharbitis seed diets decreased the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, and
-GTP levels that were increased by the chronic ethanol administration. In addition, pharbitis seed diets decreased the liver triglyceride and total lipid levels that were increased by the ethanol administration. However, ethanol metabolism was not retarded by the pharbitis seed supplemented diets. The present Endings, plus previous data showing the differences in the effects of cabbage diets having a high or a low level of GABA on the lipid levels and the enzyme activities of rats (Cha and Oh  J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 29, 500-505), raise the possibility that GABA in plants could have a nutraceutical role in the recovery of chronic alcohol-related diseases.
Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Two Cysteines (155, 202) in Catechol 1,2-dioxygenase
of Acinetobacter lwoffii K24
Kim, Seung-Il ; Kim, Soo-Jung ; Leem, Sun-Hee ; Oh, Kye-Heon ; Kim, Soo-Hyun ; Park, Young-Mok ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 2, 2001, Pages 172~175
) is the first enzyme of the
-ketoadipate pathway in Acinetobacter lowffii K24.
has two cysteines (155, 202) and its enzyme activity is inhibited by the cysteine inhibitor,
. Two mutants,
C202V, were obtained by site-directed mutagenesis. The two mutants were overexpressed and the mutated amino acid residues (Cys
Val) were characterized by peptide mapping and amino acid sequencing. Interestingly,
C155V was inhibited by
C202V was not inhibited. This suggests that
is the sole inhibition site by
and is close to the active site of the enzyme. However, the results of the biochemical assay of mutated
suggest that the two cysteines are not directly involved in the activity of the catechol 1,2-dioxygenase of
Co-expression of MDRI and HLA-B7 Genes in a Mammalian Cell Using a Retrovirus
Lee, Seong-Min ; Lee, Kyoo-Hyung ; Kim, Hag-Dong ; Lee, Je-Hwan ; Lee, Jung-Shin ; Kim, Joon ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 2, 2001, Pages 176~181
Using a retrovirus, foreign genes can be introduced into mammalian cells. The purpose of this study is to produce a retrovirus that can make the infected cells express two genes; the human multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) and the HLA-B7 gene, which is one of the major human histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes. For the expression of these genes, the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) was used, which was derived from the encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus. In order to produce retroviruses, a retroviral vector was transfected into a packaging cell line and the transfected cells were treated with vincristine, which is an anti-cancer drug and a substrate for the MDRI gene product. This study revealed that two genes were incorporated into chromosomes of selected cells and expressed in the same cells. The production of the retrovirus was confirmed by the reverse transcription (RT)-PCR of the viral RNA. The retrovirus that was produced infected mouse fibroblast cells as well as the human U937. This study showed that packaging cells produced the retroviruses, which can infect the target cells. Once the conditions for the high infectivity of retrovirus into human cells are optimized, thus virus will be used to infect hematopoietic stem cells to co-express MDRl and HLA-B7 genes, and develop the lymphocytes that can be used for the immnogene therapy.
Carbachol-induced Phosphorylation of Phospholipase D1 through Protein Kinase C is required for the Activation in COS-7 cells
Lee, Byoung-Dae ; Kim, Yong ; Han, Jung-Min ; Suh, Pann-Ghill ; Ryu, Sung-Ho ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 2, 2001, Pages 182~187
Phospholiapse D (PLD), and phosphatidic acid generated by it, have been implicated in receptor-mediated intracellular signaling. Carbachol (CCh) is known to activate PLD1, and protein kinase C (PKC) is known to mediate in this signaling pathway In recent reports (Kim et al., 1999b; Kim et al., 2000), we published our observations of the direct phosphorylation of PLD1 by PKC and we described the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of PLD1 activity. In this study, we investigated the phasphorylation and compartmentalization of PLD1 in terms of CCh signaling in M3 muscarinic receptor (M3R)-expressing COS-7 cells. CCh treatment of COS-7 cells transiently coexpressing PLD1 and M3R stimulated PLD1 activity and induced direct phosphorylation of PLD1 by PKC. The CCh-induced activation and phosphorylation of PLD1 was completely blocked upon pretreatment of the cells with PKC-specific inhibitors. We looked at the localization of the PLD1 phosphorylation by PKC and found that PLD1 was mainly located in the caveolin-enriched membrane (CEM) fraction. Based on these results, we conclude that CCh induces the activation and phosphorylation of PLD1 via PKC and that the phosphorylation of PLD1 occurs in caveolae.