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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 6 - Nov 2001
Volume 34, Issue 5 - Sep 2001
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Jul 2001
Volume 34, Issue 3 - May 2001
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Mar 2001
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Jan 2001
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Curcumin-Induced Apoptosis of A-431 Cells Involves Caspase-3 Activation
Shim, Joong-Sup ; Lee, Hyung-Joo ; Park, Sang-shin ; Cha, Bong-Gee ; Chang, Hae-Ryong ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 3, 2001, Pages 189~193
Curcumin a yellow pigment from Curcuma Tonga, has been known to possess antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties, as well as to induce apoptosis in some cancer cells. There have been, however, several contradictory reports that hypothesized curcumin (a hydrophobic molecule) can bind a membrane Gpid bilayer and induce nonspecific cytotoxicity in some cell lines. Why curcumin shows these contradictory effects is unknown. In A-431 cells, growth inhibition by curcumin is due mostly to the specific inhibition of the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor, as reported earlier by Korutla et al. Thus, we assumed that the cell death of A-431 by curcumin might be due to the specific induction of apoptosis. In this paper we clearly show that curcumin induces apoptosis in A-431 cells. The cureumin-induced cell death of A-431 exhibited various apoptotic features, including DNA fragmentation and nuclear condensation. Furthermore, the curcumin-induced apoptosis of A-431 cells involved activation of caspase-3-like cysteine protease. Involvement of caspase-3 was further confirmed by using a caspase-3 specific inhibitor, DEVD-CHO. In another study, decreased nitric oxide (NO) production was also shown in A-431 cells treated with curcumin, which seems to be the result of the inhibition of the iNOS expression by curcumin, as in other cell lines. However, 24 h after treatment of curcumin there was increased NO production in A-431 cells. This observation has not yet been clearly explained. We assumed that the increased NO production may be related to denitrosylation of the enzyme catalytic site in caspase-3 when activated. Taken together, this study shows that the cell death of A-431 by curcumin is due to the induction of apoptosis, which involves caspase-3 activation.
Binding of Lichen Phenolics to Purified Secreted Arginase from the Lichen Evernia prunastri
Legaz, Maria-Estrella ; Vicente, Carlos ; Pedrosa, Mercedes M. ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 3, 2001, Pages 194~200
Secreted arginase from Evernia prunastri thallus has been purified 616-fold from the incubation medium. Purified arginase was resolved as only one peak in a capillary electrophoresis with a pI value of 5.35. The protein contained high amounts of acidic amino acids, such as Asx and Glx, and a relatively high quantity of Ser and Gly. The molecular mass of native, purified arginase was estimated as about 26 kDa by SE-HPLC. Substrate saturated kinetic showed a typical Michaelis-Menten relationship with a K_m value of 3.3 mM L-arginine. Atranorin behaved as a mixed activator of the enzyme (apparent
= 0.96 mM); whereas evernic and usnic acid were revealed as non competitive inhibitors (apparent
values were 3.16 mM and 3.05 mM, respectively). Kinetics of atranorin binding indicated that saturation was reached from 0.18
of the total atranorin and the occurrence of multiple sites for the ligand. This agrees with a possible aggregation of several enzyme subunits during the interaction process. A value of binding sites of about 12 was obtained. The binding of evernic acid was saturated from 23 nmol of total phenol. The number of binding sites was about 5. The loss of the binding ability of evernic acid could be interpreted as a single negative cooperatively. Usnic acid behaves in a similar way to evernic acid, although the binding saturation occurs at
of the ligand. This binding appears to be unspecific, and has 28 usnic acid binding sites to the protein.
Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Flower-specific Thionin in Chinese Cabbage
Jung, Bae-Gyo ; Choi, Yeon-Ok ; Lee, Kyun-Oh ; Chi, Yong-Hun ; Kang, Soon-Suk ; Lee, Seung-Sik ; Park, Soo-Kwon ; Lee, Jung-Ro ; Lim, Chae-Oh ; Lee, Sang-Yeol ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 3, 2001, Pages 201~205
Thionins are a family of low molecular weight cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides. We isolated a cDNA encoding thionin gene from a flower bud cDNA library of Chinese cabbage (CFT). The gene contains 611 by nucleotides with 60 bp, and 150 by untranslated regions at its N- and C-terminal, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence encoded 133 amino acids containing precursor polypeptide. The protein reveals that the precursor has a tripartite structure: a putative signal sequence at the N-terminus, followed by a mature thionin peptide, and a C-terminal acidic domain, which facilitates transport of the mature thionin through membrane. Genomic Southern blot analysis suggests that the CFT gene may be present as a single or two copy gene in the Chinese cabbage genome. Northern blot analysis shows that the gene is specifically expressed in flowers, but not in leaves, stems, or roots. When we analyzed the antifungal activity of the recombinant CFT protein, which was expressed in E. coli using the truncated cDNA region corresponding to the mature protein part, it was not active on fungal growth inhibition.
Anti-Angiogenic Activity of Mouse N-/C-terminal deleted Endostatin
Cho, Hee-Yeong ; Kim, Woo-Jean ; Lee, Sae-Won ; Kim, Young-Mi ; Choi, Eu-Yul ; Park, Yong-Suk ; Kwon, Young-Guen ; Kim, Kyu-Won ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 3, 2001, Pages 206~211
Endostatin, a proteolytic fragment of collagen XVIII, is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and the growth of several primary tumors. However, the opinions on the activity of endostatin derivatives deleted N- or C- terminal are still controversial. In this regard, we produced mouse endostatin and its derivatives in the prokaryotic system, and studied their anti-tumor activity. The [
]-thymidine incorporation assay demonstrated that N-terminal deleted mouse endostatin, and a C- and N-terminal deleted mutant, effectively inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The biological activity of endostatin was also shown by its in vivo anti-angiogenic ability on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of a chick embryo. Treatment of
of mouse endostatin, or N-terminal deleted mouse endostatin, inhibited capillary formation of CAM 45 to 71%, which is comparative to a 80% effect of positive control,
of retinoic acid. An in vivo mouse tumor growth assay showed that N-terminal deleted mouse endostatin, and the N-/C-terminal deleted mutant, significantly repressed the growth of B16F10 melanoma cells in mice as did the full-length mouse endostatin. According to these results, N-and N-/C-terminal deleted mouse endostatins are the potent inhibitors of tumor growth and angiogenesis.
Cell Cycle-Dependent Activity Change Of
Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II In NIH 3T3 Cells
Kim, Dae-Sup ; Suh, Kyong-Hoon ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 3, 2001, Pages 212~218
Although the blockage of a cell cycle by specific inhibitors of
calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II) is well known, the activity profile of CaMK-II during the cell cycle in the absence of any direct effectors of the enzyme is unclear. The activity of native CaMK-II in NIH 3T3 cells was examined by the use of cell cycle-specific arresting and synchronizing methods. The total catalytic activity of CaMK-II in arrested cells was decreased about 30% in the M phase, whereas the
-independent autonomous activity increased about 1.5-fold in the M phase and decreased about 50% at the G1/S transition. The in vivo phosphorylation level of CaMK-II was lowest at G1/S and highest in M. The CaMK-II protein level was unchanged during the cell cycle. When the cells were synchronized, the autonomous activity was increased only in M. These results indicate that the physiologically relevant portion of CaMK-II is activated only in M, and that the net activation of CaMK-II is required in mitosis.
Purification and Characterization of Antioxidative Peptides from Bovine Skin
Kim, Se-Kwon ; Kim, Yong-Tae ; Byun, Hee-Guk ; Park, Pyo-Jam ; Ito, Hisashi ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 3, 2001, Pages 219~224
To identify the antioxidative peptides in the gelatin hydrolysate of bovine skin, the gelatin was hydrolyzed with serial digestions in the order of Alcalase, pronase E, and collagenase using a three-step recycling membrane reactor. The second enzymatic hydrolysate (hydrolyzed with pronase E) was composed of peptides ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 kDa, and showed the highest antioxidative activity, as determined by the thiobarbituric acid method. Three different peptides were purified from the second hydrolysate using consecutive chromatographic methods. This included gel filtration on a Sephadex G-25 column, ion-exchange chromatography on a SP-Sephadex C-25 column, and high-performance liquid chromatography on an octadecylsilane chloride column. The isolated peptides were composed of 9 or 10 amino acid residues. They are: Gly-Glu-Hyp-Gly-Pro-Hyp-Gly-Ala-Hyp (PI), Gly-ProHyp-Gly-Pro-Hyp-Gly-Pro-Hyp-Gly (PII), and Gly-ProHyp-Gly-Pro-Hyp-Gly-Pro-Hyp (PIII), as characterized by Edman degradation and fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The antioxidative activities of the purified peptides were measured using the thiobarbituric acid method, and the cell viability with a methylthiazol tetrazolium assay The results showed that PII had potent antioxidative activity on peroxidation of linoleic acid. Moreover, the cell viability of cultured liver cells was significantly enhanced by the addition of the peptide. These results suggest that the purified peptide, PII, from the gelatin hydrolysate of bovine skin is a natural antioxidant, which has potent antioxidative activity.
Bioreduction of N,N-dimethyl-p-nitrosoaniline
Kim, Kyung-Soon ; Shin, Hae-Yong ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 3, 2001, Pages 225~229
Besides a variety of quinones, purified bovine liver quinone reductase catalyzed the reduction of N,N-p-nitrosoaniline to N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine. The formation of N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine was identified by TLC, GC, GC-MS and NMR. Quinone reductase can utilize either NADH or NADPH as a source of reducing equivalents. The apparent Km for 1,4-benzoquinone and N,N-dimethyl-p-nitrosoaniline was 1.64 mM and 0.22 mM, respectively The reduction of N,N-dimethyl-p-nitrosoaniline was almost entirely hampered by dicumarol or Cibacron blue 3GA, potent inhibitors of mammalian quinone reductase. During the bovine liver quinone reductase-catalyzed reduction of N,N-dimethyl-p-nitrosoaniline, benzoquinonediiminium ion was produced.
Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Glucose-1-phosphate Thymidylyltransferase: Cloning, Sequencing, and Expression in E.coli
Eun, Suk-Ho ; Kim, Dae-Jin ; Kim, Yu-Sam ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 3, 2001, Pages 230~236
dTDP-rhamnose is synthesized from dTTP and glucose-1-phosphate by four enzymatic steps in the gram-negative bacteria. By using a homologous PCR product, a gene cluster encoding four genes (rfbA, rfbB, rfbC, rfbD) involved in L-rhamnose biosynthesis by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus was isolated and sequenced. The four genes were clustered on the biosynthetic operon in the order of rfbB, D, A, C. A gene, rfbA, encoding glucose-l-phosphate thymidylyltransferase (RfbA), was cloned from A. calcoaceticus pathogenic and encapsulated in the gram-negative bacterium. This enzyme catalyzes the formation of dTDP-D-glucose From
-D-glucose-1-phosphate and dTTP.RfbA was amplified by PCR and inserted into the
expression system. The activity of RfbA was determined by the capillary electrophoresis. The
values for dTTP and
-D-glucose-1-phosphate were calculated to be 1.27 mM and 0.80 mM, respectively by using the Line-Weaver Burk plot. RfbA is inactivated by diethylpyrocarbonate.
The Anticancer Mechanisms of Taxol-Diethylenetriamine pentaacetate Conjugate in HT29 Human Colorectal Cancer cells
Lee, Na-Kyung ; Kim, Hyun-Jeong ; Yang, Seung-Ju ; Kim, Yoon-Suk ; Choi, Hyun-Il ; Shim, Moon-Jeong ; Awh, Ok-Doo ; Kim, Tae-Ue ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 3, 2001, Pages 237~243
Taxol, a natural product extracted from the Taxus brevifolia, is known to have significant anti-tumor activities against many common cancers, including ovarian and breast cancers. Despite the pronounced anti-tumor activity of this compound, its poor solubility in aqueous solutions hampers its clinical applications. We studied the anticancer mechanisms of the water-soluble taxol diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) used for radiolabeling, and compared it to that of taxol. In vitro cytotoxicities of taxol and taxol-DTPA conjugate were tested in HT29 human colorectal cancer cells by the MTT method. As the result, the
value of the taxol-DTPA conjugate was about three fold higher than that of taxol. When analyzed by an agarose gel electrophoresis, the DNA ladders became evident after the incubation of cells with the taxol-DTPA conjugate for 24 h. We also found morphological changes of the cells undergoing apoptosis with electron microscopy Next, we examined the signal pathway of taxol-DTPA conjugate-induced apoptosis in HT29 cells. The activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) occurred at 10, 30, 60 and 120 min after 200 nM taxol-DTPA conjugate treatment. The pretreatment of the MEK inhibitor (PD98059) completely blocked the taxol-DTPA conjugate-induced ERK1/2 activation. The activated ERK1/2 translocated into the nucleus at the same time and phosphorylated its transcriptional factor, c-Jun. These results suggest that the taxol-DTPA conjugate has an apoptotic activity in HT29 cells, and that its proapoptic activity might be related with the signal transduction via ERK1/2 and c-Jun similar to that of taxol.
Purification and Characterization of the Anabolic Acetolactate Synthase III from Serratia marcescens ATCC 25419
Joo, Han-Seung ; Kim, Soung-Soo ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 3, 2001, Pages 244~249
The anabolic acetolactate synthase III was purified to homogeneity from Serratia marcescens using DEAE-Sepharose, Phenyl-Sepharose, and hydroxylapatite column chromatography The native molecular weight of the enzyme was approximately 165 kDa. The enzyme is composed of two large and two small subunits with molecular weights of 64 and 15 kDa, respectively. The N-terminal sequence of the large and small subunit of the enzyme was Ser-Ala-Thr-Pro-Gln-Pro-Ser-Thr-Arg-Phe-Thr-Cys-Ala-Gln-Leu-Ile-Ala-His-Leu and Met-Leu-Gln-Pro-Gln-Asp-Lys-Pro-Gln-Val-Ile-Leu-Glu-Leu-Ala-Val-Arg-Asn-His-Pro-Gly-Val-Met-Ser-His-Val, respectively. The optimum pH and pI value were 7.5 and 5.5, respectively The
for valine and herbicide SU7, respectively. The substrate specificity ratio, R value, was determined to be approximately 40, which suggests that this enzyme prefers the formation of
-hydroxybutyrate leading to the synthesis of isoleucine.
Ethanol Eluted Extract of Rhus verniciflua Stokes Showed both Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Effects on Mouse Thymocytes Depending on the Dose and Time of the Treatment
Lee, Jeong-Chae ; Kim, Ju ; Lim, Kye-Taek ; Yang, Moon-Sik ; Jang, Yong-Suk ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 3, 2001, Pages 250~258
For a long time Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) has traditionally been used as a herbal plant. It is known to contain various biological activities. Previously, a crude ethanol extract from RVS was reported to have antioxidant effects, and antiproliferative activities, on human cancer cell lines. In this report, we prepared a highly purified ethanol extract from RVS, which did not contain the urushiol derivatives, named REEE-1 (
xtract-1), to investigate the mechanisms of the scavenging activity of hydroxyl radicals using mouse thymocytes. The results from the deoxyribose, DNA nicking, and glucose/glucose oxidase enzyme assays showed that REEE-1 contained a strong scavenging activity of oxygen free radicals, especially of hydroxyl radicals. However, interestingly, REEE-1 also showed cytotoxicity against the thymocytes, although the effect was variable, depending on the concentrations and times of treatment. The REEE-1-mediated cytotoxicity against thymocytes, which has been used as one of the well-characterized models for apoptosis studies, was verified to be apoptotic. This was proven by the following: the appearance of DNA laddering, increases in DNA fragmentation, low fluorescence intensity in the nuclei after propidium iodide staining, and positive Annexin V staining of the cells. These results suggested that REEE-1 had both antioxidative activity and cytotoxicity against the thymocytes, although the effect of the cytotoxicity was variable, depending on the dose and time of the treatment.
Sequence of the Wound-responsive Lipoxygenase Gene from Maize Seedlings
Kim, Eun-Seon ; Back, Kyung-Whan ; Baik, Myung-Gi ; Choi, Eun-Young ; Han, Ok-Soo ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 3, 2001, Pages 259~261
Cloning and Expression of Alkaline Phosphatase Gene from Schizosaccharomyces pombe
Kang, Sung-Won ; Cho, Young-Wook ; Park, Eun-Hee ; Ahn, Ki-Sup ; Lim, Chang-Jin ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 3, 2001, Pages 262~267
A cDNA coding alkaline phosphatase (AP) homologue was isolated from a cDNA library of Schizosaccharomyces pombe by colony hybridization. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned cDNA appeared to lack the N-terminal coding region. The genomic DNA encoding alkaline phosphatase homologue was isolated from S. pombe chromosomal DNA using PCR. The amplified DNA fragment was ligated into plasmid pRS315 to generate the recombinant plasmid pSW20. The DNA insert was subcloned as two smaller fragments for nucleotide sequencing. The sequence contains 2,789 by and encodes a protein of 532 amino acids with a molecular mass of 58,666 daltons. The S. pombe cells containing plasmid pSW20 showed much higher AP activity compared with the yeast cells with vector only This indicates that the cloned AP gene apparently encodes AP The predicted amino acid sequence of the S. pombe AP shares homology with those of other known APs.
Inactivation of Brain Glutamate Dehydrogenase Isoproteins by MDL 29951
Lee, Eun-Young ; Yoon, Hye-Young ; Kim, Tae-Ue ; Choi, Soo-Young ; Won, Moo-Ho ; Cho, Sung-Woo ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 3, 2001, Pages 268~273
In addition to the recognition site for glutamate, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-preferring glutamate receptor subtype shows a binding site for glycine. In this paper, we present the effects of 3-(4,6-dichloro-2-carboxymethylamino-5,7-dichloroquinoline-2-carboxylic acid (MDL 29951), a potent inhibitor of glycine binding to the NMDA receptor, on glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) from bovine brains. The incubation of GDH isoproteins from bovine brains with MDL 29951 resulted in a dose-dependent loss of enzyme activity Separately or together, 2-oxoglutarate and NADH did not give an efficient protection against the inhibition, indicating that GDH isoproteins saturated with NADH or 2-oxoglutarate are still open to attack by MDL 29951. MDL 29951 was an uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to both 2-oxoglutarate and NADH for GDH isoproteins. These results suggest that the binding site of MDL 29951 is not directly located at the catalytic site, and the inhibition of GDH isoproteins by MDL 29951 is probably due to a steric hindrance, or a conformational change altered upon the interaction of the enzyme with its inhibitor. The inhibitory effects of MDL 29951 on GDH isoproteins were significantly diminished in the presence of ADP. GDH I reacted more sensitively with ADP than GDH II on the inhibition by MDL 29951. Our results suggest a possibility that the two types of GDHs are differently regulated by MDL 29951, depending on the physiological concentrations of ADP.
Isolation, Analysis, and Expression of Lipase with Cephalosporin-C Deacetylation Activity from Staphylococcus sp.
Lee, Hyun-Woo ; Ko, Jung-Youn ; Kim, Woo-Jung ; Byun, Si-Myung ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 3, 2001, Pages 274~277
Lipase of Staphylococcus sp. was purified from the culture supernatant, and its molecular mass estimated to be 44 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Its optimum temperature and pH for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl substrates was
and pH 8.5, respectively The gene encoding the lipase was cloned in Escherichia coli in the
-teminally truncated form by using the shotgun method, and sequenced. The mature enzyme had a 49-93% amino acid sequence homology with other staphylococcal lipases. This lipase was used for the hydrolysis of the 3-O-acetate of cephalosporin-C to give an intermediate, deacetylated cephalosporin-C that is useful for further chemical elaborations.
Growth-Dependent Variations in Antioxidant and Redox Enzyme Activities of Schizosaccharomyces pombe
Cho, Young-Wook ; Park, Eun-Hee ; Ahn, Ki-Sup ; Kim, Dae-Myung ; Lim, Chang-Jin ;
BMB Reports , volume 34, issue 3, 2001, Pages 278~283
Antioxidant and redox enzyme activities are known to be involved in the cellular responses to various stresses. Their variations were observed according to the growth cycle of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Peroxidase activity appeared to be notably higher in the early exponential phase than in the mid-exponential and stationary phases. However, catalase activity showed a variation pattern resembling the growth curve. Glutathione S-transferase activity was higher in the early exponential and late stationary phases. Activities of the two redox enzymes, thioredoxin and thioltransferase (glutaredoxin), were high in the stationary phase. However, their activities appeared to increase from the early exponential to mid-exponential phase. Total glutathione content had a varying pattern similar to that of thioredoxin and thioltransferase. However, its content in the early exponential phase was high. These results propose that antioxidant and redox enzymes tested are also involved in the mechanism of cell growth.