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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 35, Issue 6 - Nov 2002
Volume 35, Issue 5 - Sep 2002
Volume 35, Issue 4 - Jul 2002
Volume 35, Issue 3 - May 2002
Volume 35, Issue 2 - Mar 2002
Volume 35, Issue 1 - Jan 2002
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Control of Singlet Oxygen-induced Oxidative Damage in Escherichia coli
Kim, Sun-Yee ; Kim, Eun-Ju ; Park, Jeen-Woo ;
BMB Reports , volume 35, issue 4, 2002, Pages 353~357
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2002.35.4.353
Singlet oxygen (
) is highly reactive form of molecular oxygen that may harm living systems by oxidizing critical cellular macromolecules. The oxyR gene product regulates the expression of the enzymes and proteins that are needed for cellular protection against oxidative stress. In this study, the role of oxyR in cellular defense against a singlet oxygen was investigated using Escherichia coli oxyR mutant strains. Upon exposure to methylene blue and visible light, which generates singlet oxygen, the oxyR overexpression mutant was much more resistant to singlet oxygen-mediated cellular damage when compared to the oxyR deletion mutant in regard to growth kinetics, viability and protein oxidation. Induction and inactivation of major antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide desmutase and catalase, were observed after their exposure to a singlet oxygen generating system in both oxyR strains. However, the oxyR overexpression mutant maintained significantly higher activities of anticxidant enzymes than did the oxyR deletion mutant. These results suggest that the oxyR regulon plays an important protective role in singlet oxygen-mediated cellular damage, presumably through the protection of antioxidant enzymes.
Stabilization of Retinol through Incorporation into Liposomes
BMB Reports , volume 35, issue 4, 2002, Pages 358~363
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2002.35.4.358
Chemical and photochemical processes during storage and preparation rapidly degrade retinol, the most active form of vitamin A. therefore, the efficacy of incorporation into liposomes in order to modulate the kinetics of retinol degradation was investigated. Retinol was readily incorporated into multilamellar liposomes that were prepared form soybean phosphatidylcholine; the extent of the incorporation was 98.14±0.93% at pH 9.0 at a ratio of 0.01 : 1 (wt:wt) retinol : phospholipid. It was only marginally lower at higher retinol concentrations. The pH of the hydration buffer had a small effect. The incorporation efficiency ranged from 99.25±0.47% at pH 3 to 97.45±1.13% at pH 11. The time course of the retinol degradation in the aqueous solution in liposomes was compared to that of free retinol and free retinol with α-tocopherol under a variety of conditions of pH(3, 7, and 11), temperature(4, 25, 37, and 50℃), and light exposure(dark, visible, and UV). The retinol that was incorporated into the liposomes degraded significantly slower than the free retinol or retinol with α-tocopherol at pH 7 and 11. At pH 3, where the free retinol degrades rapidly, the degradation kinetics were similar in liposomes and the presence of α-tocopherol. At pH 7.0 and 4℃ in the light, for example, free aqueous retinol was completely degraded within 2 days, while only 20% of the retinol in the liposomes were degraded after 8 days. In general, the protective effect of the liposome incorporation was greater at low temperatures, at neutral and high pH, and in the dark. The results suggest that protection is greater in the solid, gel phase than in the fluid liquid crystalline phase lipids. These results indicate that the incorporation into liposomes can extend the shelf-life of retinol under a variety of conditions of temperature, pH, and ambient light conditions.
Inhibition of Human Hemoglobin Autoxidaiton by Sodium n-Dodecyl Sulphate
Reza, Dayer Mohammad ; Ali Akbar, Moosavi-Movahedi ; Parviz, Norouzi ; Ghourchian, Ghourchian ; Hedayat-Olah, Hedayat-Olah ; Shahrokh, Safarian ;
BMB Reports , volume 35, issue 4, 2002, Pages 364~370
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2002.35.4.364
The effect of sodium n-dodecyl sulphate (SDS) on hemoglobin autoxidation was studied in the presence of a 100mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) by different methods. These included spectorphotometry, fluorescence technique, cyclic voltametry, differential scanning calorimetry, and densitometry. Spectroscopic studies showed that SDS concentrations up to 1 mM increased deoxy-, decreases oxy-, and had no significant effect on the met- conformation of hemoglobin. Therefore, a SDS concentration up to 1 mM increased the deoxy form of hemoglobin as the folded, compact state and decreases the oxy conformation. The turbidity measurements and differential scanning calorimetry techniques indicated a more stable conformation for hemoglobin in the presence of SDS up to 1mM. Electrochemical studies also confirmed a more difficult oxidation under these conditions. The induction of the deoxy form in the presence of SDS was confirmed by densitometry techniques. The compact structure of deoxyhemoglobin blocks the formation of met-conformation in low SDS concentrations.
TAK1-dependent Activation of AP-1 and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase by Receptor Activator of NF-κB
Lee, Soo-Woong ; Han, Sang-In ; Kim, Hong-Hee ; Lee, Zang-Hee ;
BMB Reports , volume 35, issue 4, 2002, Pages 371~376
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2002.35.4.371
The receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily. It plays a critical role in osteoclast differentiaion, lymph node organogenesis, and mammary gland development. The stimulation of RANK causes the activation of transcription factors NF-
and activator protein 1 (AP1), and the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). In the signal transduction of RANK, the recruitment of the adaptor molecules, TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs), is and initial cytoplasmic event. Recently, the association of the MAPK kinase kinase, transforming growth factor-
-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), with TRAF6 was shown to mediate the IL-1 signaling to NF-
and JNK. We investigated whether or not TAK1 plays a role in RANK signaling. A dominant-negative form of TAK1 was discovered to abolish the RANK-induced activation of AP1 and JNK. The AP1 activation by TRAF2, TRAF5, and TRAF6 was also greatly suppressed by the dominant-negative TAK1. the inhibitory effect of the TAK1 mutant on RANK-and TRAF-induced NF-
activation was also observed, but less efficiently. Our findings indicate that TAK1 is involved in the MAPK cascade and NF-
pathway that is activated by RANK.
Arsenic Trioxide Induces Apoptosis in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia K562 Cells:Possible Involvement of p38 MAP Kinase
Shim, Moon-Jeong ; Kim, Hyun-Jeong ; Yang, Seung-Ju ; Lee, In-Soo ; Choi, Hyun-Il ; Kim, Tae-Ue ;
BMB Reports , volume 35, issue 4, 2002, Pages 377~383
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2002.35.4.377
Arsenic trioxide (
) was recently demonstrated to be an effective inducer of apoptosis in patients with relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) as well as patients with APL in whom all-trans-retinoic acid and conventional chemotherapy failed. Chronic myelogenous leukemia cells are highly resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs. To determine if
might be useful for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, we examined the ability of
to induce apoptosis in K562 cells. In vitro cytotoxicity of
was evaluated in K562 cells by a MTT assay: the
was determined to be
. When analyzed by agarose gel electorphoresis, the DNA fragments became evident after incubation of the cells with
for 24 h. We also found morphological changes and chromatin condensation of the cells undergoing apoptosis. Activation of caspase-3 was observed 6 h after treatment with
by a Western blot analysis. Next, we examined the MAP kinase-signaling pathway of
-induced apoptosis in K562 cells.
strongly induced the activation of p38, inhibited
induced apoptotic cell death. These results suggest that
is able to induce the apoptotic activity in K562 cells, and its apoptotic mechanism may be associated with the activation of p38.
Ratiometric pH Measurements Using LysoSensor DND-192
Kang, Jung-Sook ; Kostov, Yordan ;
BMB Reports , volume 35, issue 4, 2002, Pages 384~388
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2002.35.4.384
A method for the ratiometric pH sensing using LysoSensor DND-192 is presented in this paper. It works in the physiological pH range. It is based on the use of two fluorophores which differ significantly in their lifetimes. As the discrimination of their emissions is performed through two different frequencies, this method can allow significant overlap of the emission spectra. A simple long-pass filter, or a combination of long-and short-pass filters, was used instead of narrow-bandpass devices. Importantly, the measurements were carried out under strong ambient light. The method could be used in a wide variety of applications, such as intracellular measurements, microscopy, bioprocess monitoring, etc.
Dynamics of Supercoiled and Relaxed pTZ18U Plasmids Probed with a Long-Lifetime Metal-Ligand Complex
Kang, Jung-Sook ; Abugo, Omoefe O. ; Lakowicz, Joseph R. ;
BMB Reports , volume 35, issue 4, 2002, Pages 389~394
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2002.35.4.389
Sorting and Function of the Human Folate Receptor Is Independent of the Caveolin Expression in Fisher Rat Thyroid Epithelial Cells
Kim, Chong-Ho ; Park, Young-Soon ; Chung, Koong-Nah ; Elwood, Patrick C. ;
BMB Reports , volume 35, issue 4, 2002, Pages 395~402
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2002.35.4.395
Caveolae are small, flask-shaped, non-clathrin coated invaginations of the plasma membrane of many mammalian cells. Caveolae have a coat that includes caveolin. They have been implicated in numerous cellular processes, including potocytosis. Since the human folate receptor (hFR) and other glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-tailed proteins have been co-localized to caveolae, we studied the caveolin role in the hFR function by transfecting hFR and/or caveolin cDNA into Fischer rat thyroid epithelial (FRT) cells that normally do not express detectable levels of either protein. We isolated and characterized stable clones as follows: they express (1) high levels of caveolin alone, (2) hFR and caveolin, or (3) hFR alone. We discovered that hFR is correctly processed, sorted, and anchored by a GPI tail to the plasma membrane in FRT cells. No difference in the total folic acid binding or cell surface folic acid binding activity were found between the FRT cells that were transfected with hFR, or cells that were transfected with hFR and caveolin. The hFR that was expressed on the cell surface of clones that were transfected with hFR was also sensitive to phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) release, and incorporated radiolabeled ethanolamine that supports the attachment of a GPI-tail on hFR. We conclude that the processing, sorting, and function of hFR is independent on the caveolin expression in FRT cells.
Identificaiton of the dITP- and XTP-Hydrolyzing Protein from Escherichia coli
Chung, Ji-Hyung ; Park, Hyun-Young ; Lee, Jong-Ho ; Jang, Yang-Soo ;
BMB Reports , volume 35, issue 4, 2002, Pages 403~408
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2002.35.4.403
A hypothetical 21.0 kDa protein (ORF O197) from Escherichia coli K-12 was cloned, purified, and characterized. The protein sequence of ORF O197(termed EcO197) shares a 33.5% identity with that of a novel NTPase from Methanococcus jannaschii. The EcO197 protein was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, protease digestion, and gel filtration column. It hydrolyzed nucleoside triphosphates with an O6 atom-containing purine base to nucleoside monophosphate and pyrophosphate. The EcO197 protein had a strong preference for deoxyinosine triphosphate (dITP) and xanthosine triphosphate (XTP), while it had little activity in the standard nucleoside triphosphates (dATP, dCTP, dGTP, and dTTP). These aberrant nucleotides can be produced by oxidative deamination from purine nucleotides in cells; they are potentially mutagenic. The mutation protection mechanisms are caused by the incorporation into DNA of unwelcome nucleotides that are formed spontaneously. The EcO197 protein may function to eliminate specifically damaged purine nucleotide that contains the 6-keto group. This protein appears to be the first eubacterial dITP-and XTP-hydrolyzing enzyme that has been identified.
Transcription of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Thioltransferase-1 in Response to Stress Conditions
Kim, Min-Jung ; Lim, Chang-Jin ; Kim, Dae-Myung ;
BMB Reports , volume 35, issue 4, 2002, Pages 409~413
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2002.35.4.409
Thioltransferase, also known as glutaredoxin, is an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a variety of disulfide compounds. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, two thioltransferases were reported and the cDNA of one of the thioltransferases (thioltransferase-1) was cloned. Using a Northern blot assay, we investigated the thioltransferase transcription in response to various stress conditions. When the culture was shifted to a high temperature, the thioltransferases transcription was not significantly changed compared to the unshifted
culture. Treatment of zinc chloride to exponentially-growing cells remarkably increased the thioltransferase transcription, whereas the treatment of mercury chloride greatly reduced the transcription. Treatment of hydrogen peroxide and cadmium chloride caused no significant effects on the transcription of the thioltransferase. These results suggest that the transcription of thioltransferase-1 in S. pombe is induced in response to metal stress that is caused by zinc chloride, but not in response to heat stress or oxidative stress that is caused by hydrogen peroxide.
DNA Fingerprinting of Jute Germplasm by RAPD
Hossain, Mohammad Belayat ; Haque, Samiul ; Khan, Haseena ;
BMB Reports , volume 35, issue 4, 2002, Pages 414~419
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2002.35.4.414
The genotype characteristic of cultivars was investigated, along with varieties of both of the jute species, Corchorus olitorius and Corchorus capsularis, in the germplasm collection at the Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI). DNA fingerprinting was generated for 9 different varieties and 12 accessions of jute cultivars by using random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD). A total of 29 arbitrary oligonucleotide primers were screened. Seven primers gave polymorphism within the varieties, and 6 primers detected polymorphism within the accessions that were tested. A dendrogram was engendered from these data, and this gave a distinct clustering of the cultivated species of jute. Therefore, we generated RAPD markers, which are species-specific. These primers can distinguish between C. olitorius and C. capsularis. From the dendrogram that we generated between the various members of these two species, we found the existing genetic classification that agrees with our molecular marking data. A different dendrogram showed that jute accessions could be clustered into three groups. These data will be invaluable in the conservation and utilization of the genetic pool in the germplasm collection.
cDNA Microarray Analysis of the Differential Gene Expression in the Neuropathic Pain and Electroacupuncture Treatment Models
Ko, Je-Sang ; Na, Doe-Sun ; Lee, Young-Han ; Shin, Soon-Young ; Kim, Ji-Hoon ; Hwang, Byung-Gil ; Min, Byung-Il ; Park, Dong-Suk ;
BMB Reports , volume 35, issue 4, 2002, Pages 420~427
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2002.35.4.420
Partial nerve injury is the main cause of neuropathic pain disorders in humans. Acupuncture has long been used to relieve pain. It is known to relieve pain by controlling the activities of the autonomic nervous system. Although the mechanism of neuropathic pain and analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) have been studied in a rat model system, its detailed mechanism at the molecular level remains unclear. To identify genes that might serve as either markers or explain these distinct biological functions, a cDNA microarray analysis was used to compare the expression of 8,400 genes among three sample groups. Messenger RNAs that were pooled from the spinal nerves of 7 normal. 7 neuropathic pain, and 7 EA treatment rat models were compared. Sixty-eight genes were differentially expressed more than 2-fold in the neuropathic rat model when compared to the normal, and restored to the normal expression level after the EA treatment. These genes are involved in a number of biological processes, including the signal transduction, gene expression, and nociceptive pathways. Confirmation of the differential gene expression was performed by a dot-blot analysis. Dot-blotting results showed that the opioid receptor sigma was among those genes. This indicates that opioid-signaling events are involved in neuropathic pain and the analgesic effects of EA. The potential application of these data include the identification and characterization of signaling pathways that are involved in the EA treatment, studies on the role of the opioid receptor in neuropathic pain, and further exploration on the role of selected identified genes in animal models.
Disrupting Escherichia coli: A Comparison of Methods
Benov, Ludmil ; Al-Ibraheem, Jameela ;
BMB Reports , volume 35, issue 4, 2002, Pages 428~431
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2002.35.4.428
The often-encountered problem of disrupting bacteria for the purpose of extracting soluble protein has generated various methods. Many require specialized equipment. Very often, especially during preliminary studies, investigators need a simple, fast, and inexpensive method for cell disruption that preserves biological activity. This paper compares some simple and inexpensive methods for cell disruption, such as bead-vortexing, freesing-thawing, French pressing, and sonication. It also provides some tips to increase protein yield and preserve biological activity. If performed under optimal conditions, bead-vortexing gives protein yields that are comparable to French pressing and sonication. It also preserves the activities of labile enzymes and releases periplasmic enzymes. Vortexing with glass beads appears to be the simplest method for cell disruption.
Chloroplast-type Ferredoxin Involved in Reactivation of Catechol 2,3-Dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp.S-47
Park, Dong-Woo ; Chae, Jong-Chan ; Kim, Young-Soo ; Iida, Toshiya ; Kudo, Toshiaki ; Kim, Chi-Kyung ;
BMB Reports , volume 35, issue 4, 2002, Pages 432~436
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2002.35.4.432
Pseudomonas sp. S-47 is capable of degrading catechol and 4-chlorocatechol via the meta-cleavage pathway. XyITE products catalyze the dioxygenation of the aromatics. The sylT of the strain S-47 is located just upstream of the xylE gene. XylT of the strain S-47 is located just upstream of the xylE gene. XyIT is typical chloroplast-type ferredoxin, which is characterized by 4 cystein residues that are located at positions 41, 46, 49, and 81. The chloroplast-type ferredoxin of Pseudomonas sp. S-47 exhibited a 98% identity with that of P. putida mt-2(TOL plasmid) in the amino acid sequence, but only about a 40 to 60% identity with the corresponding enzymes from other organisms. We constructed two recombinant plasmids (pRES1 containing xylTE and pRES101 containing xylE without xylT) in order to examine the function of XyIT for the reactivation of the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (XyIE) that is oxidized with hydrogen peroxide was recovered in the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) activity about 4 mimutes after incubation, but the pRES101 showed no recovery. That means that the typical chloroplast-type ferredoxin (XyIT) of Pseudomonas sp. S-47 is involved in the reactivation of the oxidized C23O in the dioxygenolytic cleavage of aromatic compounds.
Activity of Human Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Is Reduced by Mutation at Threonine-44 of FAD-binding Region to Valine
Kim, Hak-Jung ;
BMB Reports , volume 35, issue 4, 2002, Pages 437~441
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2002.35.4.437
Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) is a member of the pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family. Thr residues are highly conserved. They are at the active site disulfide-bond regions of most E3s and other oxidoreductases,. The crystal structure of Azotobacter vinelandii E3 suggests that the hydroxyl group of Thr that are involved in the FAD binding interact with the adenosine phosphate of FAD. However, several prokaryotic E3s have Val instead of Thr. To investigate the meaning and importance of the Thr conservation in many E3s, the corresponding residue, Thr-44, in human E3 was substituted to Val by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant’s E3 activity showed about a 2.2-fold decrease. Its UV-visible and fluorescence spectra indicated that the mutant might have a slightly different microenvironment at the FAD-binding region.