Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 6 - Nov 2003
Volume 36, Issue 5 - Sep 2003
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Jul 2003
Volume 36, Issue 3 - May 2003
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Mar 2003
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Jan 2003
Selecting the target year
A Critical Evaluation of DNA Adducts as Biological Markers for Human Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds
Godschalk, Roger W.L. ; Van Schooten, Frederik-Jan ; Bartsch, Helmut ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 1~11
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.1.001
The causative role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in human carcinogenesis is undisputed. Measurements of PAH-DNA adduct levels in easily accessible white blood cells therefore represent useful early endpoints in exposure intervention of chemoprevention studies. The successful applicability of DNA adducts as early endpoints depends on several criteria:i.adduct levels in easily accessible surrogate tissues should reflect adduct levels in target-tissues, ii. toxicokinetics and the temporal relevance should be properly defined.iii. sources of inter- and intra-individual variability must be known and controllable, and finally iv. adduct analyses must have advantages as compared to other markers of PAH-exposure. In general, higher DNA adduct levels or a higher proportion of subjects with detectable DNA adduct levels were found in exposed individuals as compared with non-exposed subjects, but saturation may occur at high exposures. Furthermore, DNA adduct levels varied according to changes in exposure, for example smoking cessation resulted in lower DNA adduct levels and adduct levels paralleled seasonal variations of air-pollution. Intra-individual variation during continuous exposure was low over a short period of time (weeks), but varied significantly when longer time periods (months) were investigated. Inter-individual variation is currently only partly explained by genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in PAH-metabolism and deserves further investigation. DNA adduct measurement may have three advantages over traditional exposure assessment: i. they can smooth the extreme variability in exposure which is typical for environmental toxicants and may integrate exposure over a longer period of time. Therefore, DNA adduct assessment may reduce the monitoring effort. ii. Biological monitoring of DNA adducts accounts for all exposure routes. iii. DNA adducts may account for inter-individual differences in uptake, elimination, distribution, metabolism and repair amongst exposed individuals. In conclusion, there is now a sufficiently large scientific basis to justify the application of DNA adduct measurement as biomarkers in exposure assessment and intervention studies. Their use in risk-assessment, however, requires further investigation.
Imidazole Ring-Opened DNA Purines and Their Biological Significance
Barbara, Tudek ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 12~19
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.1.012
Fragmentation of purine imidazole ring and production of formamidopyrimidines in deoxynucleosides (Fapy lesions) occurs upon DNA oxidation as well as upon spontaneous or alkali-triggered rearrangement of certain alkylated bases. Many chemotherapeutic agents such as cyclophosphamide or thiotepa produce such lesions in DNA. Unsubstituted FapyA and FapyG, formed upon DNA oxidation cause moderate inhibition of DNA synthesis, which is DNA polymerase and sequence dependent. Fapy-7MeG, a methylated counterpart of FapyG-, a efficiently inhibits DNA replication in vitro and in E.coli, however its mutagenic potency is low. This is probably due to preferential incorporation of cytosine opposite Fapy-7MeG and preferential extension of Fapy-7MeG:C pair. In contrast, FapyA and Fapy-7MeA possess miscoding potential. Both lesions in SOS induced E.coli preferentially mispair with cytosine giving rise to A
G transitions. Fapy lesions substituted with longer chain alkyl groups also show simult aneous lethal and mutagenic properties. Fapy lesions are actively eliminated from DNA by repair glycosylases specific for oxidized purines and pyrimidines both in bacteria and eukaryotic cells. Bacterial enzymes include E.coli formamidopyrimidine-DNA-glycosylase (Fpg protein), endonuclease III (Nth protein) and endonuclease VIII (Nei protein).
Activation of Dihaloalkanes by Thiol-dependent Mechanisms
Guengerich, F. Peter ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 20~27
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.1.020
Dihaloalkanes constitute an important group of chemicals because of their widespread use in industry and agriculture and their potential for causing toxicity and cancer. Chronic toxic effects are considered to depend upon bioactivation, either by oxidation or thiol conjugation. Considerable evidence links genotoxicity and cancer with glutathione conjugations reactions, and some aspects of the mechanisms have been clarified with 1,2-dihaloalkanes and dihalomethanes. Recently the DNA repair protein
-alkylguanine transferase has been shown to produce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity by mans of a thiol-dependent process with similarities to the glutathione reactions.
Genetic Polymorphisms and Cancer Susceptibility of Breast Cancer in Korean Women
Kang, Dae-Hee ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 28~34
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.1.028
Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women in Western countries, and its prevalence is also increasing in Asia. The major risk factor for breast cancer can be traced to reproductive events that influence the lifetime levels of hormones. However, a large percentage of breast cancer cases cannot, be explained by these risk factors. The identification of susceptibility factors that predispose individuals to breast cancer (for instance, if they are exposed to particular environmental agents) could possibly give further insight into the etiology of this malignancy and provide targets for the future development of therapeutics. The most interesting candidate genes include those that mediate a range of functions. These include carcinogen metabolism, DNA repair, steroid hormone metabolism, signal transduction, and cell cycle control. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in South Korea to evaluate the potential modifying role of the genetic polymorphisms of selected low penetrance genes that are involved in carcinogen metabolisms (i.e., CYP1A1, CYP2E1, GSTM1/T1/P1, NAT1/2, etc.), estrogen synthesis and metabolism (i.e., CYP19, CYP17, CYP1B1, COMT, ER-
, etc.), DNA repair (i.e., XRCC1/3, ERCC2/4, ATM, AGT, etc.), and signal transduction as well as others (i.e., TGF-
, IGF-1, TNF-
, IL-1B, IL-1RN, etc.). We also took into account the potential interaction between these and the known risk factors of breast cancer. The results of selected genes will be presented in this mini-review.
Use of Transgenic and Mutant Animal Models in the Study of Heterocyclic Amine-induced Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis
Dashwood, Roderick H. ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 35~42
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.1.035
Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are potent mutagens generated during the cooking of meat and fish, and several of these compounds produce tumors in conventional experimental animals. During the past 5 years or so, HCAs have been tested in a number of novel in vivo murine models, including the following: lacZ, lacI, cII, c-myc/lacZ, rpsL, and
knock-outs, Apc mutant mice (
knock-in mice. Several of these models have provided insights into the mutation spectra induced in vivo by HCAs in target and non-target organs for tumorigenesis, as well as demonstrating enhanced susceptibility to HCA-induced tumors and preneoplastic lesions. This review describes several of the more recent reports in which novel animal models were used to examine HCA-induced mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in vivo, including a number of studies which assessed the inhibitory activities of chemopreventive agents such as 1,2-dithiole-3-thione, conjugated linoleic acids, tea, curcumin, chlorophyllin-chitosan, and sulindac.
The Role of Stem Cells and Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication in Carcinogenesis
Trosko, James E. ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 43~48
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.1.043
Understanding the process of carcinogenesis will involve both the accumulation of many scientific facts derived from molecular, biochemical, cellular, physiological, whole animal experiments and epidemiological studies, as well as from conceptual understanding as to how to order and integrate those facts. From decades of cancer research, a number of the "hallmarks of cancer" have been identified, as well as their attendant concepts, including oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, cell cycle biochemistry, hypotheses of metastasis, angiogenesis, etc. While all these "hallmarks" are well known, two important concepts, with their associated scientific observations, have been generally ignored by many in the cancer research field. The objective of the short review is to highlight the concept of the role of human adult pluri-potent stem cells as "target cells" for the carcinogenic process and the concept of the role of gap junctional intercellular communication in the multi-stage, multi-mechanism process of carcinogenesis. With these two concepts, an attempt has been made to integrate the other well-known concepts, such as the multi-stage, multi-mechanisn or the "initiation/promotion/progression" hypothesis; the stem cell theory of carcinogenesis; the oncogene/tumor suppression theory and the mutation/epigenetic theories of carcinogenesis. This new "integrative" theory tries to explain the well-known "hallmarks" of cancers, including the observation that cancer cells lack either heterologous or homologous gap junctional intercellular communication whereas normal human adult stem cells do not have expressed or functional gap junctional intercellular communication. On the other hand, their normal differentiated, non-stem cell derivatives do express connexins and express gap junctional intercellular communication during their differentiation. Examination of the roles of chemical tumor promoters, oncogenes, connexin knock-out mice and roles of genetically-engineered tumor and normal cells with connexin and anti-sense connexin genes, respectively, seems to provide evidence which is consistent with the roles of both stem cells and gap junctional communication playing a major role in carcinogenesis. The integrative hypothesis provides new strategies for chemoprevention and chemotherapy which focuses on modulating connexin gene expression or gap junctional intercellular communication in the premalignant and malignant cells, respectively.
Platelet-derived Growth Factor Signaling and Human Cancer
Yu, Jiu-Hong ; Ustach, Carolyn ; ChoiKim, Hyeong-Reh ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 49~59
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.1.049
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a critical regulator of mesenchymal cell migration and proliferation. The vital functions of PDGFs for angiogenesis, as well as development of kidney, brain, cardiovascular system and pulmonary alveoli during embryogenesis, have been well demonstrated by gene knock-out approaches. Clinical studies reveal that aberrant expression of PDGF and its receptor is often associated with a variety of disorders including atherosclerosis, fibroproliferative diseases of lungs, kidneys and joints, and neoplasia. PDGF contributes to cancer development and progression by both autocrine and paracrine signaling mechanisms. In this review article, important features of the PDGF isoforms and their cell surface receptor subunits are discussed, with regards to signal transduction, PDGF-isoform specific cellular response, and involvement in angiogenesis, and tumorstromal interactions.
Cell Cycle and Cancer
Park, Moon-Taek ; Lee, Su-Jae ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 60~65
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.1.060
Cancer is frequently considered to be a disease of the cell cycle. As such, it is not surprising that the deregulation of the cell cycle is one of the most frequent alterations during tumor development. Cell cycle progression is a highly-ordered and tightly-regulated process that involves multiple checkpoints that assess extracellular growth signals, cell size, and DNA integrity. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and their cyclin partners are positive regulators of accelerators that induce cell cycle progression; whereas, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) that act as brakes to stop cell cycle progression in response to regulatory signals are important negative regulators. Cancer originates from the abnormal expression of activation of positive regulators and functional suppression of negative regulators. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms of the deregulation of cell cycle progression in cancer can provide important insights into how normal cells become tumorigenic, as well as how cancer treatment strategies can be designed.
Signal Transduction Pathways: Targets for Green and Black Tea Polyphenols
Bode, Ann M. ; Dong, Zigang ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 66~77
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.1.066
Tea is one of the most popular beverages consumed in the world and has been demonstrated to have anti-cancer activity in animal models. Research findings suggest that the polyphenolic compounds, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, found primarily in green tea, and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, a major component of black tea, are the two most effective anti-cancer factors found in tea. Several mechanisms to explain the chemopreventive effects of tea have been presented but others and we suggest that tea components target specific cell-signaling pathways responsible for regulating cellular proliferation or apoptosis. These pathways include signal transduction pathways leading to activator protein-1 (AP-1) and/or nuclear factor kappa B(NF-
). AP-1 and NF-
are transcription factors that are known to be extremely important in tumor promoter-induced cell transformation and tumor promotion, and both are influenced differentially by the MAP kinase pathways. The purpose of this brief review is to present recent research data from other and our laboratory focusing on the tea-induced cellular signal transduction events associated with the MAP kinase, AP-1, and NF-
Current Mechanistic Approaches to the Chemoprevention of Cancer
Steele, Vernon E. ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 78~81
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.1.078
The prevention of cancer is one of the most important public health and medical practices of the
century. We have made much progress in this new emerging field, but so much remains to be accomplished before widespread use and practice become common place. Cancer chemoprevention encompasses the concepts of inhibition, reversal, and retardation of the cancer process. This process, called carcinogenesis, requires 20-40 years to reach the endpoint called invasive cancer. It typically follows multiple, diverse and complex pathways in a stochastic process of clonal evolution. These pathways appear amenable to inhibition, reversal or retardation at various points. We must therefore identify key pathways in the evolution of the cancer cell that can be exploited to prevent this carcinogenesis process. Basic research is identifying many genetic lesions and epigenetic processes associated with the progression of precancer to invasive disease. Many of these early precancerous lesions favor cell division over quiescence and protect cells against apoptosis when signals are present. Many oncogenes are active during early development and are reactivated in adulthood by aberrant gene promoting errors. Normal regulatory genes are mutated, making them insensitive to normal regulatory signals. Tumor suppressor genes are deleted or mutated rendering them inactive. Thus there is a wide range of defects in cellular machinery which can lead to evolution of the cancer phenotype. Mistakes may not have to appear in a certain order for cells to progress along the cancer pathway. To conquer this diverse disease, we must attack multiple key pathways at once for a predetermined period of time. Thus, agent combination prevention strategies are essential to decrease cancer morbidity. Furthermore, each cancer type may require custom combination of prevention strategies to be successful.
Chemoprevention of Helicobacter pylori-associated Gastric Carcinogenesis in a Mouse Model; Is It Possible?
Hahm, Ki-Baik ; Song, Young-Joon ; Oh, Tae-Young ; Lee, Jeong-Sang ; Surh, Young-Joon ; Kim, Young-Bae ; Yoo, Byung-Moo ; Kim, Jin-Hong ; Ha, Sang-Uk ; Nahm, Ki-Taik ; Kim, Myung-Wook ; Kim, Dae-Yong ; Cho, Sung-Won ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 82~94
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.1.082
Although debates still exist whether Helicobacter pylori infection is really class I carcinogen or not, H. pylori has been known to provoke precancerous lesions like gastric adenoma and chronic atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia as well as gastric cancer. Chronic persistent, uncontrolled gastric inflammations are possible basis for ensuing gastric carcinogenesis and H. pylori infection increased COX-2 expressions, which might be the one of the mechanisms leading to gastric cancer. To know the implication of long-term treatment of antiinflammatory drugs, rebamipide or nimesulide, on H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis, we infected C57BL/6 mice with H. pylori, especially after MNU administration to promote carcinogenesis and the effects of the long-term administration of rebamipide or nimesulide were evaluated. C57BL/6 mice were sacrificed 50 weeks after H. pylori infection. Colonization rates of H. pylori, degree of gastric inflammation and other pathological changes including atrophic gastritis and metaplasia, serum levels and mRNA transcripts of various mouse cytokines and chemokines, and NF-
binding activities, and finally the presence of gastric adenocarcinoma were compared between H. pylori infected group (HP), and H. pylori infected group administered with long-term rebamipide containing pellet diets (HPR) or nimesulide mixed pellets (HPN). Gastric mucosal expressions of ICAM-1, HCAM, MMP, and transcriptional regulations of NF-
binding were all significantly decreased in HPR group than in HP group. Multi-probe RNase protection assay showed the significantly decreased mRNA levels of apoptosis related genes and various cytokines genes like IFN-
, RANTES, TNF-
, TNFR p75, IL-
in HPR group. In the experiment designed to provoke gastric cancer through MNU treatment with H. pylori infection, the incidence of gastric carcinoma was not changed between HP and HPR group, but significantly decreased in HPN group, suggesting the chemoprevention of H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis by COX-2 inhibition. Long-term administration of antiinflammatory drugs should be considered in the treatment of H. pylori since they showed the molecular and biologic advantages with possible chemopreventive effect against H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. If the final concrete proof showing the causal relationship between H. pylori infection and gastric carcinogenesis could be obtained, that will shed new light on chemoprevention of gastric cancer, that is, that gastric/cancer could be prevented through either the eradication of H. pylori or lessening the inflammation provoked by H. pylori infection in high risk group.
Oxidative Stress, Chromatin Remodeling and Gene Transcription in Inflammation and Chronic Lung Diseases
Rahman, Irfan ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 95~109
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.1.095
Inflammatory lung diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation and oxidant/antioxidant imbalance. The sources of the increased oxidative stress in patients with chronic inflammatory lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) derive from the increased burden of inhaled oxidants, and from the increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by several inflammatory, immune and various structural cells of the airways. Increased levels of ROS produced in the airways is reflected by increased markers of oxidative stress in the airspaces, sputum, breath, lungs and blood in patients with lung diseases. ROS, either directly or via the formation of lipid peroxidation products such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal may play a role in enhancing the inflammation through the activation of stress kinases (JNK, MAPK, p38) and redox sensitive transcription factors such as NF-
and AP-1. Recent evidences have indicated that oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory mediators can alter nuclear histone acetylation/deacetylation allowing access for transcription factor DNA binding leading to enhanced pro-inflammatory gene expression in various lung cells. Understanding of the mechanisms of redox signaling, NF-
/AP-1 regulation, the balance between histone acetylation and deacetylation and the release and expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators may lead to the development of novel therapies based on the pharmacological manipulation of antioxidants in lung inflammation and injury. Antioxidants that have effective wide spectrum activity and good bioavailability, thiols or molecules which have dual antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, may be potential therapeutic agents which not only protect against the direct injurious effects of oxidants, but may fundamentally alter the underlying inflammatory processes which play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory lung diseases.
Histone Deacetylase in Carcinogenesis and Its Inhibitors as Anti-cancer Agents
Kim, Dong-Hoon ; Kim, Min-Jung ; Kwon, Ho-Jeong ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 110~119
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.1.110
The acetylation state of histone is reversibly regulated by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and deacetylase (HDAC). An imbalance of this reaction leads to an aberrant behavior of the cells in morphology, cell cycle, differentiation, and carcinogenesis. Recently, these key enzymes in the gene expression were cloned. They revealed a broad use of this modification, not only in histone, but also other proteins that involved transcription, nuclear transport, and cytoskeleton. These results suggest that HAT/HDAC takes charge of multiple-functions in the cell, not just the gene expression. HDAC is especially known to play an important role in carcinogenesis. The enzyme has been considered a target molecule for cancer therapy. The inhibition of HDAC activity by a specific inhibitor induces growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis of transformed or several cancer cells. Some of these inhibitors are in a clinical trial at phase I or phase II. The discovery and development of specific HDAC inhibitors are helpful for cancer therapy, and decipher the molecular mode of action for HDAC.
Hypoxia-induced Angiogenesis during Carcinogenesis
Choe, Gyu-Sil ; Bae, Mun-Gyeong ; Jeong, Ju-Won ; Mun, Hyo-Eun ; Kim, Gyu-Won ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 120~127
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.1.120
The formation of new blood vessels, angiogenesis, is an essential process during development and disease. Angiogenesis is well known as a crucial step in tumor growth and progression. Angiogenesis is induced by hypoxic conditions and regulated by the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). The expression of HIF-1 correlates with hypoxia-induced angiogenesis as a result of the induction of the major HIF-1 target gene, vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF). In this review, a brief overview of the mechanism of angiogenesis is discussed, focusing on the regulatory processes of the HIF-1 transcription factor. HIF-1 consists of a constitutively expressed HIF-1 beta(HIF-1β) subunit and an oxygen-regulated HIF-1 alpha(HIF-1α) subunit. The stability and activity of HIF-1α are regulated by the interaction with various proteins, such as pVHL, p53, and p300/CBP as well as by post-translational modifications, hydroxylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation. It was recently reported that HIF-1α binds a co-activator of the AP-1 transciption factor, Jab-1, which inhibits the p53-dependent degradation of HIF-1 and enhances the transcriptional activity of HIF-1 and the subsequent VEGF expression under hypoxic conditions. ARD1 acetylates HIF-1α and stimulates pVHL-mediated ubiquitination of HIF-1α. With a growing knowledge of the molecular mechanisms in this field, novel strategies to prevent tumor angiogenesis can be developed, and form these, new anticancer therapies may arise.
Roles of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Tumor Metastasis and Angiogenesis
Yoon, Sang-Oh ; Park, Soo-Jin ; Yun, Chang-Hyun ; Chung, An-Sik ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 128~137
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.1.128
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), zinc dependent proteolytic enzymes, cleave extracellular matrix (ECM: collagen, laminin, firbronectin, etc) as well as non-matrix substrates (growth factors, cell surface receptors, etc). The deregulation of MMPs is involved in many diseases, such as tumor metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontal disease. Metastasis is the major cause of death among cancer patients. In this review, we will focus on the roles of MMPs in tumor metastasis. The process of metastasis involves a cascade of linked, sequential steps that involve multiple host-tumor interactions. Specifically, MMPs are involved in many steps of tumor metastasis. These include tumor invasion, migration, host immune escape, extravasation, angiogenesis, and tumor growth. Therefore, without MMPs, the tumor cell cannot perform successful metastasis. The activities of MMPs are tightly regulated at the gene transcription levels, zymogen activation by proteolysis, and inhibition of active forms by endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP), and RECK. The detailed regulations of MMPs are described in this review.
Molecular Aspects of Hepatitis B Viral Infection and the Viral Carcinogenesis
Ryu, Wang-Shick ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 138~143
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.1.138
Of many viral causes of human cancer, few are of greater global importance than the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Over 250 million people worldwide are persistently infected with HBV. A significant minority of these develop severe pathologic consequences, including chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Earlier epidemiological evidence suggested a link between chronic HBV infection and HCC. Further, the existence of related animal viruses that induce acute and chronic infections of the liver, and eventually HCC, confirms the concept that HBV belongs to one of the few human oncogenic viruses. Although it is clear that chronic HBV infections are major risk factors, relatively little is understood about how the viral factors contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis. This review will introduce molecular aspects of the viral infection, and highlight recent findings on the viral contribution to hepatocarcinogenesis.
Kim, In-Gyu ; Lee, Yun-Sil ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 1, 2003, Pages 144~148
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.1.144
During the past 2 decades, radiation tumorigenesis researchers have focused on cellular and molecular mechanisms. We reviewed some of these research fields, since they may specifically relate to the induction of cancer by ionizing radiation. First, radiation-mediated mutation was discussed. Then the initiating event in radiation carcinogenesis, as well as other genetic events that may by involved, is discussed in terms of the possible role of the activation of genes and the loss of cell-cycle checkpoints.