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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 6 - Nov 2003
Volume 36, Issue 5 - Sep 2003
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Jul 2003
Volume 36, Issue 3 - May 2003
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Mar 2003
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Jan 2003
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On-off Regulation of 3' Exonuclease Excision to DNA Polymerization by Exo+ Polymerase
Zhang, Jia ; Li, Kai ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 525~528
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.6.525
The role of 3' exonuclease excision in DNA polymerization was evaluated in primer extensions using 3' allele-specific primers that had exonuclease-digestible and exonuclease-resistant 3' termini. With exonuclease-digestible unmodified 3' mismatched primers, the exo+ polymerase yielded template-dependent products. Using exonuclease-resistant 3' mismatched primers, no primer-extended product resulted from exo+ polymerase. As a control, polymerase without proofreading activity yielded primer-dependent products from 3' mismatched primers. These data indicated that a successful removal of the mismatch is required for DNA polymerization from the 3' mismatched primers by exo+ polymerase. In addition to the well-known proofreading from this mismatch removal, the premature termination in DNA polymerization, due to the failure of the efficient removal of the mismatched nucleotides, worked as an off-switch in maintaining the high fidelity in DNA replication from exo+ polymerase.
On/off Switch Mediated by Exo+ Polymerases: Experimental Analysis for Its Physiological and Technological Implications
Zhang, Jia ; Chen, Lin-Ling ; Guo, Zi-Fen ; Peng, Cui-Ying ; Liao, Duan-Fang ; Li, Kai ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 529~532
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.6.529
The potential physiological role and technological application of the premature termination of DNA polymerization through the off-switch of exo+ polymerases were studied using 3' phosphorothioate-modified or unmodified primers with single base mismatch distal to the 3' terminus. With exonuclease-digestible unmodified primers, a gradient premature termination of DNA polymerization was observed when amplified with exo+ polymerases. With 3' allele specific phosphorothioate-modified primers, an efficient off-switch effect occurred in the discrimination of a single nucleotide polymorphism when directly using genomic DNA. Clearly, the off-switch of exo+ polymerases is useful in biomedical research.
Transforming Growth Factor-β3 Gene SfaN1 Polymorphism in Korean Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and Palate Patients
Kim, Myung-Hee ; Kim, Hyo-Jin ; Choi, Je-Yong ; Nahm, Dong-Seok ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 533~537
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.6.533
The nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate (NSCL/P) is a congenital deformity of multifactorial origin with a relatively high incidence in the oriental population. Various etiologic candidate genes have been reported with conflicting results, according to race and analysis methods. Recently, the ablation of the TGF-
gene function induced cleft palates in experimental animals. Also, polymorphisms in the TGF-
gene have been studied in different races; however, they have not been studied in Koreans. A novel A
G single nucleotide polymorphism (defined by the endonuclease SfaN1) was identified in intron 5 of TGF-
(IVS5+104 A > G). It resulted in different genotypes, AA, AG, and GG. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the SfaN1 polymorphism in TGF-
and the risk of NSCL/P in the Korean population. The population of this study consisted of 28 NSCL/P patients and 41 healthy controls. The distribution of the SfaN1 genotypes was different between the cases and controls. The frequency of the G allele was significantly associated with the increased risk of NSCL/P [odds ratio (OR) = 15.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.3-41.0]. The risk for the disease increased as the G allele numbers increased (GA genotype: OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 0.38-11.68; GG genotype: OR = 110.2, 95% CI = 10.67 - 2783.29) in NSCL/P. A stratified study in patients revealed that the SfaN1 site IVS5+104A > G substitution was strongly associated with an increased risk of NSCL/P in males (p < 0.001), but not in females. In conclusion, the polymorphism of the SfaN1 site in TGF-
was significantly different between the NSCL/P patients and the control. This may be a good screening marker for NSCL/P patients among Koreans.
Identification of the Most Accessible Sites to Ribozymes on the Hepatitis C Virus Internal Ribosome Entry Site
Ryu, Kyung-Ju ; Lee, Seong-Wook ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 538~544
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.6.538
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major causative agent of chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The development of alternative antiviral therapies is warranted because current treatments for the HCV infection affect only a limited number of patients and lead to significant toxicities. The HCV genome is exclusively present in the RNA form; therefore, ribozyme strategies to target certain HCV sequences have been proposed as anti-HCV treatments. In this study, we determined which regions of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of HCV are accessible to ribozymes by employing an RNA mapping strategy that is based on a trans-splicing ribozyme library. We then discovered that the loop regions of the domain IIIb of HCV IRES appeared to be particularly accessible. Moreover, to verify if the target sites that were predicted to be accessible are truly the most accessible, we assessed the ribozyme activities by comparing not only the trans-splicing activities in vitro but also the trans-cleavage activities in cells of several ribozymes that targeted different sites. The ribozyme that could target the most accessible site identified by mapping studies was then the most active with high fidelity in cells as well as in vitro. These results demonstrate that the RNA mapping strategy represents an effective method to determine the accessible regions of target RNAs and have important implications for the development of various antiviral therapies which are based on RNA such as ribozyme, antisense, or siRNA.
Molecular Gene Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of Bovine Brain Glutamate Dehydrogenase
Kim, Dae-Won ; Eum, Won-Sik ; Jang, Sang-Ho ; Yoon, Chang-Sik ; Kim, Young-Hoon ; Choi, Soo-Hyun ; Choi, Hee-Soon ; Kim, So-Young ; Kwon, Hyeok-Yil ; Kang, Jung-Hoon ; Kwon, Oh-Shin ; Cho, Sung-Woo ; Park, Jin-Seu ; Choi, Soo-Young ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 545~551
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.6.545
A cDNA of bovine brain glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was isolated from a cDNA library by recombinant PCR. The isolated cDNA has an open-reading frame of 1677 nucleotides, which codes for 559 amino acids. The expression of the recombinant bovine brain GDH enzyme was achieved in E. coli. BL21 (DE3) by using the pET-15b expression vector containing a T7 promoter. The recombinant GDH protein was also purified and characterized. The amino acid sequence was found 90% homologous to the human GDH. The molecular mass of the expressed GDH enzyme was estimated as 50 kDa by SDS-PAGE and Western blot using monoclonal antibodies against bovine brain GDH. The kinetic parameters of the expressed recombinant GDH enzymes were quite similar to those of the purified bovine brain GDH. The
were 0.1 mM and
, respectively. The catalytic activities of the recombinant GDH enzymes were inhibited by ATP in a concentration-dependent manner over the range of 10 -
, whereas, ADP increased the enzyme activity up to 2.3-fold. These results indicate that the recombinant-expressed bovine brain GDH that is produced has biochemical properties that are very similar to those of the purified GDH enzyme.
NMR Studies on Turn Mimetic Analogs Derived from Melanocyte-stimulating Hormones
Cho, Min-Kyu ; Kim, Sung-Soo ; Lee, Myung-Ryul ; Shin, Joon ; Lee, Ji-Yong ; Lim, Sung-Kil ; Baik, Ja-Hyun ; Yoon, Chang-Ju ; Shin, In-Jae ; Lee, Weon-Tae ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 552~557
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.6.552
-aminooxy acids are reported to form very stable turn and helix structures, and they are supposed to be useful peptidomimetics for drug design. A recent report suggested that homochiral oxa-peptides form a strong eight-member-ring structure by a hydrogen bond between adjacent aminooxy-acid residues in a
solution. In order to design an
-MSH analog with a stable turn conformation, we synthesized four tetramers and one pentamer, based on
-MSH sequence, and determined the solution structures of the molecules by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and simulated annealing calculations. The solution conformations of the three peptidomimetic molecules (TLV, TDV, and TLL) in DMSO-
contain a stable 7-membered-ring structure that is similar to a
-turn in normal peptides. Newly-designed tetramer TDF and pentamer PDF have a ball-type rigid structure that is induced by strong hydrogen bonds between adjacent amide protons and carbonyl oxygens. In conclusion, the aminooxy acids, easily prepared from natural or unnatural amino acids, can be employed to prepare peptidomimetic analogues with well-defined turn structures for pharmaceutical interest.
Determining a Detectable Threshold of Signal Intensity in cDNA Microarray Based on Accumulated Distribution
Gao, Xia ; Fu, Xuping ; Li, Tao ; Zi, Jian ; Luo, Yao ; Wei, Qing ; Zeng, Erliang ; Xie, Yi ; Li, Yao ; Mao, Yumin ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 558~564
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.6.558
In microarray data mining, one of the key problems is how to handle weak signals. Based on a bent piecewise linear accumulated distribution generally found in the microarray data, a new detectable threshold finding method is proposed to filter genes with unreliable information in this paper. More reliable and reproducible data is produced for the subsequent data mining.
Endotoxins of Enteric Pathogens Modulate the Functions of Human Neutrophils and Lymphocytes
Islam, Laila N. ; Nabi, A.H.M. Nurun ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 565~571
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.6.565
The locomotor responses of human peripheral blood neutrophils and lymphocytes were measured by the change from spherical to polarized shapes in the presence of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) of enteric pathogens: S. dysenteriae type 1, V. cholerae Inaba 569B, S. typhimurium, and K. pneumoniae. We reported earlier that these endotoxins are chemotactic factors for the neutrophils since they stimulated cell polarization within a few minutes of incubation. Endotoxins had an inhibitory effect upon neutrophil phagocytosis of opsonized yeast and the cells engulfed fewer yeasts. Interestingly, endotoxins increased neutrophil adhesion to clean glass surfaces, but stimulated the cells to exhibit increased random locomotion (chemokinesis) through cellulose nitrate filters and show an enhanced ability to reduce nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye. Unlike neutrophils, lymphocytes direct from blood do not show polarized morphology towards chemotactic factors but the cells acquire locomotor capacity during 24-72 h culture with mitogens such as phytohemagglutinin (PHA), phorbol myristate acetate or concanavalin A. Stimulation of blood lymphocytes with endotoxins did not induce cell polarization in short-term but long-term culture resulted in an increase in the proportion of polarized cells that acquired locomotor morphologies. The majority of these cells were identified as esterase negative B-lymphocytes that migrated through filters. Despite the optimum time of incubation for each of these cell types being different, we found that lymphocytes respond to much lower concentrations of endotoxins than the neutrophils. These findings suggest that endotoxins of enteric pathogens modulate the functions of human blood neutrophils and lymphocytes.
Isolation and Characterization of Major Royal Jelly cDNAs and Proteins of the Honey Bee (Apis cerana)
Srisuparbh, Duangporn ; Klinbunga, Sirawut ; Wongsiri, Siriwat ; Sittipraneed, Siriporn ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 572~579
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.6.572
An expressed sequence tag (EST) library was established from the hypopharyngeal glands of Apis cerana. Sixty-six recombinant clones, possessing inserts >500 bp, were randomly selected and unidirectional sequenced. Forty-two of these (63.6%) were identified as homologues of Major Royal Jelly Proteins families 1, 2, 3, and 4 of A. mellifera (AmMRJP) for which MRJP1 was the most abundant family. The open-reading frame of the MRJP1 homologue (AcMRJP1) was 1299 nucleotides that encoded 433 deduced amino acids with three predicted N-linked glycosylation sites. The AcMRJP1 sequence showed 93% and 90% homologies with nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of AmMRJP1, respectively. Two complete transcripts of apisimin, and one and two partial transcripts of
-glucosidase and glucose oxidase, were also isolated. In addition, the royal jelly proteins of A. cerana were purified and characterized using Q-Sepharose and Sephadex G-200 column chromatography. The native forms of protein peaks A1, A2, B1, and C1 were 115, 55, 50, and 300 kDa, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that A1 and C1 were dimeric and oligomeric forms of the 80 kDa and 50 kDa subunits, respectively. The ratio of the total protein quantities of A1 : A2 : B1 : C1 were 2.52 : 4.72 : 1 : 12.21. Further characterization of each protein, using N-terminal and internal peptide sequencing, revealed that the respective proteins were homologues of MRJP3, MRJP2, MRJP1, and MRJP1 of A. mellifera.
Isolation and Localization of New Germination-related Sequences from Wheat Embryos
Caliskan, Mahmut ; Bashiardes, Stavros ; Ozcan, Birgul ; Cuming, Andrew C. ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 580~585
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.6.580
Subtractive library hybridization was used to isolate the cDNA clones that corresponded to the transcripts that were specifically up-regulated during wheat embryo germination. The clones with numbers 5, 6, 7, 8, 24, and 26 appeared to be more abundant in germinating wheat embryos. Among the isolated clones, we identified four new members of the wheat "germin" gene family. We also identified two novel sequences which exhibited distinct germination up-regulation, and displayed characteristic spatial patterns of expression. One of these, represented by clone pSB10, was principally expressed in the root tissue of germinating embryos. The second was represented by the pSB7 clone and was expressed in both the root and shoot primordia of the embryonic axis, as well as within the coleoptile.
Cloning and Characterization of the Promoters of Temperate Mycobacteriophage L1
Chattopadhyay, Chandrani ; Sau, Subrata ; Mandal, Nitai C. ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 586~592
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.6.586
Four putative promoters of the temperate mycobacteriophage L1 were cloned by detecting the
-galactosidase reporter expression in E. coli transformants that carried L1 specific operon-fusion library. All of the four L1 promoters were also found to express differentially in the homologous environment of mycobacteria. Of the four promoters, two were suggested to be the putative early promoters of L1 since they express within 0 to 10 min of the initiation of the lytic growth of L1. One of the putative early promoters showed a relatively better and almost identical activity in both E. coli and M. smegmatis. By a sequence analysis, we suggest that the L1 insert that contained the stronger early promoter possibly carries two convergent E. coli
-like L1 promoters, which are separated from each other by about 300 nucleotides. One of them is the early promoter of L1 as it showed a 100% similarity with the early
promoter of the homoimmune phage L5. The second promoter, designated P4, was suggested for its appreciable level of reporter activity in the absence of the -10 element of the
equivalent of L1. By analyzing most of the best characterized mycobacteriophages-specific promoters, including the L1 promoter P4, we suggest that both the -10 and -35 hexamers of the mycobacteriophage promoters are highly conserved and almost similar to the consensus -10 and -35 hexamers of the E. coli
Nω-Nitro-L-Arginine Methylester Ameliorates Myocardial Toxicity Induced by Doxorubicin
Mansour, Mahmoud Ahmed ; El-Din, Ayman Gamal ; Nagi, Mahmoud N. ; Al-Shabanah, Othman A. ; Al-Bekairi, Abdullah M. ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 593~596
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.6.593
The effects of
-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) and L-arginine on cardiotoxicity that is induced by doxorubicin (Dox) were investigated. A single dose of Dox 15 mg/kg i.p. induced cardiotoxicity, manifested biochemically by a significant elevation of serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity [EC 18.104.22.168]. Moreover, cardiotoxicity was further confirmed by a significant increase in lipid peroxides, measured as malon-di-aldehyde (MDA) in cardiac tissue homogenates. The administration of L-NAME 4 mg/kg/d p.o. in drinking water 5 days before and 3 days after the Dox injection significantly ameliorated the cardiotoxic effects of Dox, judged by the improvement in both serum CPK activity and lipid peroxides in the cardiac tissue homogenates. On the other hand, the administration of L-arginine 70 mg/kg/d p.o. did not protect the cardiac tissues against the toxicity that was induced by the Dox treatment. The findings of this study suggest that L-NAME can attenuate the cardiac dysfunction that is produced by the Dox treatment via the mechanism(s), which may involve the inhibition of the nitric oxide (NO) formation. L-NAME may, therefore, be a beneficial remedy for cardiotoxicity that is induced by Dox and can then be used to improve the therapeutic index of Dox.
Differential Responses of Rice Acid Phosphatase Activities and Isoforms to Phosphorus Deprivation
Lim, Jeong-Hyun ; Chung, Ill-Min ; Ryu, Sang-Soo ; Park, Myoung-Ryoul ; Yun, Song-Joong ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 597~602
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.6.597
Acid phosphatases (APases) play a role in the release of phosphate in organic complexes in soil. We investigated tissue- and isoform-specific responses of APases to phosphorus (P) deficiency in three rice genotypes; Dasan-byeo, Sobi-byeo, and Palawan. The levels of shoot APase activity per protein were similar in the three genotypes. They significantly decreased with P deprivation that was longer than seven days. Root APase activity per protein was two- to three-fold higher in Dasan than in Sobi and Palawan. In all genotypes the APase activity increased in P-deficient plants, but the increase was higher in Sobi and Palawan. After 21 days of P deprivation, secreted APase activity increased more than eight-fold in Dasan and two-fold in Sobi and Palawan. Isoform profiles of shoot and root APases were most diverse in Dasan. The activities of the major isoforms in P-deficient shoots decreased in all three genotypes. Depending on the genotypes, further increases in constitutive isoforms and new induction of one to four isoforms occurred in P-deficient roots. The results indicate that tissue and genotype differences in the response of APase to P deficiency are primarily facilitated by the different responses of the isoforms.
Resistance Function of Rice Lipid Transfer Protein LTP110
Ge, Xiaochun ; Chen, Jichao ; Li, Ning ; Lin, Yi ; Sun, Chongrong ; Cao, Kaiming ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 603~607
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.6.603
Abstract Plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are a class of proteins whose functions are still unknown. Some are proposed to have antimicrobial activities. To understand whether LTP110, a rice LTP that we previously identified from rice leaves, plays a role in the protection function against some serious rice pathogens, we investigated the antifungal and antibacterial properties of LTP110. A cDNA sequence, encoding the mature peptide of LTP110, was cloned into the Impact-CN prokaryotic expression system. The purified protein was used for an in vitro inhibition test against rice pathogens, Pyricularia oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae. The results showed that LTP110 inhibited the germination of Pyricularia oryzae spores, and its inhibitory activity decreased in the presence of a divalent cation. This suggests that the antifungal activity is affected by ions in the media; LTP110 only slightly inhibited the growth of Xanthomonas oryzae. However, the addition of LTP110 to cultured Chinese hamster ovarian cells did not retard growth, suggesting that the toxicity of LTP110 is only restricted to some cell types. Its antimicrobial activity is potentially due to interactions between LTP and microbe-specific structures.
Growth of Escherichia coli in Iron-enriched Medium Increases HPI Catalase Activity
Zaid, Tarrik ; Srikumar, Trivandrum Sukumaran Nair ; Benov, Ludmil ;
BMB Reports , volume 36, issue 6, 2003, Pages 608~610
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2003.36.6.608
Escherichia coli has two catalases, HPI and HPII. HPI is induced during logarithmic growth in response to low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. This induction is OxyR-dependent. On the other hand, HPII is not peroxide-inducible but is induced in entry to the stationary phase. We demonstrate here that E. coli displayed higher HPI catalase activity when compared to the cultures that were grown in a normal medium, if grown in a medium supplemented with iron-citrate. Iron supplementation had no effect on HPII catalase. This increase of HPI activity was OxyR-independent and not observed in a
mutant. The physiological significance of the increase of HPI activity is unclear, but it appears that the katG gene that codes for HPI catalase is among the genes that are regulated by Fur.