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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 6 - Nov 2004
Volume 37, Issue 5 - Sep 2004
Volume 37, Issue 4 - Jul 2004
Volume 37, Issue 3 - May 2004
Volume 37, Issue 2 - Mar 2004
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Jan 2004
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An Important Role of Nrf2-ARE Pathway in the Cellular Defense Mechanism
Lee, Jong-Min ; Johnson, Jeffrey A. ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 2, 2004, Pages 139~143
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.2.139
The antioxidant responsive element (ARE) is a cis-acting regulatory element of genes encoding phase II detoxification enzymes and antioxidant proteins, such as NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1, glutathione S-transferases, and glutamate-cysteine ligase. Interestingly, it has been reported that Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) regulates a wide array of ARE-driven genes in various cell types. Nrf2 is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, which was originally identified as a binding protein of locus control region of ss-globin gene. The DNA binding sequence of Nrf2 and ARE sequence are very similar, and many studies demonstrated that Nrf2 binds to the ARE sites leading to up-regulation of downstream genes. The function of Nrf2 and its downstream target genes suggests that the Nrf2-ARE pathway is important in the cellular antioxidant defense system. In support of this, many studies showed a critical role of Nrf2 in cellular protection and anti-carcinogenicity, implying that the Nrf2-ARE pathway may serve as a therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases and cancers, in which oxidative stress is closely implicated.
Characterization of the Nucleotide Sequence of a Polyubiquitin Gene (PUBC1) from Arabian Camel, Camelus dromedarius
Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali A. ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 2, 2004, Pages 144~147
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.2.144
Molecular amplification and sequencing of genomic DNA that encodes camel polyubiquitin (PUBC1) was performed by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using various sets of primers. The amplification generated a number of DNA fragments, which were sequenced and compared with the polyubiquitin coding sequences of various species. One DNA fragment that conformed to 325 bp was found to be 95 and 88% homologous to the sequences of human polyubiquitin B and C, respectively. The DNA translated into 108 amino acids that corresponded to two fused units of ubiquitin with no intervening sequence, which indicates that it is a polyubiquitin and contains at least two units of ubiquitin. Although, variations were found in the nucleotide sequence when compared to those of other species, the amino acid sequence was 100% homologous to the polyubiquitin sequences of humans, mice, and rats. This is the first report of the polyubiquitin DNA coding sequence and its corresponding amino acid sequence from camels, amplified using direct genomic DNA preparations.
An Oligonucleotide Microarray Bait for Isolation of Target Gene Fragments
Shi, Rong ; Ma, Wen-li ; Liu, Cui-Hua ; Song, Yan-Bin ; Mao, Xiang-Ming ; Zheng, Wen-Ling ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 2, 2004, Pages 148~152
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.2.148
A new molecular-baiting method was studied by retrieving targeted gene fragments from an oligonucleotide microarray bait after hybridization. To make the microarray bait, 70-mer oligonucleotides that were designed to specifically represent the SSA1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were printed on the slide. Samples of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mRNA were extracted and labeled by the RD-PCR (Restriction Display PCR) method using the Cy5-labelled universal primer, then applied for hybridization. The sample fragments that hybridized to the microarray were stripped, and the eluted cDNAs were retrieved and cloned into the pMD 18-T vector for transformation, plasmid preparation, and sequencing. BLAST searching of the GenBank database identified the retrieved fragments as being identical to the SSA1 gene (from 2057-2541bp). A new method is being established that can retrieve the sample fragments using an oligo-microarray-bait.
Characterization of Insulin-like Growth Factor-free Interaction between Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 and Acid Labile Subunit Expressed from Xenopus Oocytes
Choi, Kyung-Yi ; Kyung, Yoon-Joo ; Lee, Chul-Young ; Lee, Dong-Hee ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 2, 2004, Pages 153~158
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.2.153
The acid-labile subunit (ALS) is known to interact with the IGF binding protein (IGFBP) in the presence of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). Studies, however, indicate that ALS forms a doublet with IGFBP3, independent of IGFs. To characterize the structural domain required for the IGF-free ALS-IGFBP3 interaction, seven recombinant human IGFBP3 mutants were generated: three deletion mutants and four site-specific mutants that had altering N-terminal regions of IGFBP3. ALS and IGFBP3 mRNAs were co-injected into Xenopus oocytes, and their products were cross-linked and immunoprecipitated using antisera against ALS or IGFBP3. Among the deletion mutants, the mutant of D40 (deleted in 11-40th amino acids) exerted no effect in the interaction with ALS, while D60 (
-60) demonstrated a moderate reduction. D88 (
-88), however, showed a significant decrease. In the case of site-specific mutants, the mutation that alterated the IGF binding site (codons 56 or 80) exerted a significant reduction in the interaction, whereas codons 72 or 87 showed no significant change in the interaction with ALS. The stability of the ALS-IGFBP3 interaction was analyzed according to a time-dependent mode. Consistent with the binding study, mutants on the IGF binding sites (56 or 80) consistently show a weakness in the ALS-IGFBP3 interaction when compared to the mutants that covered the non-IGF binding sites (72 or 87). This study suggests that the N-terminal of IGFBP3, especially the IGF binding site, plays an important role in interacting with ALS as well as in stabilizing the dual complex, independent of IGFs.
Identification and Characterization of a Novel Angiostatin-binding Protein by the Display Cloning Method
Kang, Ha-Tan ; Bang, Won-Ki ; Yu, Yeon-Gyu ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 2, 2004, Pages 159~166
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.2.159
Angiostatin is a potent anti-angiogenic protein. To examine the angiostatin-interacting proteins, we used the display-cloning method with a T7 phage library presenting human cDNAs. The specific T7 phage clone that bound to the immobilized angiostatin was isolated, and a novel gene encoding the displayed polypeptide on the isolated T7 phage was identified. The displayed angiostatin-binding sequence was expressed in E. coli as a soluble protein and purified to homogeneity. This novel angiostatin-binding region interacted specifically to angiostatin with a dissociation constant of
. A sequence analysis showed that the identified sequence was a part of the large ORF of 1,998 amino acids, whose function has not yet been characterized. A Northern analysis indicated that the gene containing the angiostatin-binding sequence was expressed differentially in the developmental stages or cell types.
Increased DNA Polymerase Fidelity of the Lamivudine Resistant Variants of Human Hepatitis B Virus DNA Polymerase
Hong, Young-Bin ; Choi, Yong-Wook ; Jung, Gu-Hung ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 2, 2004, Pages 167~176
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.2.167
Although efficient antiviral lamivudine is used for HBV-infected patients, a prolonged treatment with nucleoside analogs often results in lamivudine-resistant variants. In this study, we evaluated the fidelity of the lamivudine-resistant variants. The FLAG-tagged wild-type (FPolE) and Met550 variants (FPolE/M550A, M550V, and M550I) of HBV DNA polymerases were expressed in insect cells then purified. Like many other reverse transcriptases, no
exonuclease activity was detected in the HBV DNA polymerase. Since there is no proofreading activity, then the use of the site-specific nucleotide misincorporation method is beneficial. From the
value analysis, it is evident that M550I and M550V exhibit higher fidelity values than the wild-type HBV DNA polymerase, while M550A exhibits similar fidelity values. It is therefore suggested that lamivudine resistance comes from the stringency to dNTP binding and the discrimination of dCTP and lamivudine in M550V and M550I.
Molecular Structure and Organization of Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone Genes of Penaeus monodon
Wiwegweaw, Amporn ; Udomkit, Apinunt ; Panyim, Sakol ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 2, 2004, Pages 177~184
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.2.177
The Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) has been shown to exist as multiple molecular forms in several crustacean species. In Penaeus monodon, a gene encoding CHH (so-called Pem-CHH1) was recently described. In this study, the molecular structures of two other CHH genes (Pem-CHH2 and Pem-CHH3) are reported. Both the Pem-CHH2 and Pem-CHH3 genes contain three exons that are separated by two introns that are similar to the structure of other genes in the same family. An analysis of the upstream nucleotide sequences of each Pem-CHH gene has identified the putative promoter element (TATA box) and putative binding sites for several transcription factors. The binding sites for CREB, Pit-1, and AP-1 were found upstream of all three Pem-CHH genes. A Southern blot analysis showed that at least one copy of each Pem-CHH gene was located within the same 10 kb genomic DNA fragment. These results suggest that the CHH genes are arranged in a cluster in the genome of P. monodon, and that their expression may be modulated by similar mechanisms.
Protective Role of Tissue Transglutaminase in the Cell Death Induced by TNF-α in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells
Kweon, Soo-Mi ; Lee, Zee-Won ; Yi, Sun-Ju ; Kim, Young-Myeong ; Han, Jeong-A ; Paik, Sang-Gi ; Ha, Kwon-Soo ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 2, 2004, Pages 185~191
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.2.185
Tissue transglutaminase (tTGase) regulates various biological processes, including extracellular matrix organization, cellular differentiation, and apoptosis. Here we report the protective role of tTGase in the cell death that is induced by the tumor necrosis factor
) and ceramide, a product of the TNF-
signaling pathway, in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Treatment with retinoic acid (RA) induced the differentiation of the neuroblastoma cells with the formation of extended neurites. Immunostaining and Western blot analysis showed the tTGase expression by RA treatment. TNF-
ceramide, a cell permeable ceramide analog, induced cell death in normal cells, but cell death was largely inhibited by the RA treatment. The inhibition of tTGase by the tTGase inhibitors, monodansylcadaverine and cystamine, eliminated the protective role of RA-treatment in the cell death that is caused by TNF-
-ceramide. In addition, the co-treatment of TNF-
and cycloheximide ecreased the protein level of tTGase and cell viability in the RA-treated cells, supporting the role of tTGase in the protection of cell death. DNA fragmentation was also induced by the co-treatment of TNF-
and cycloheximide. These results suggest that tTGase expressed by RA treatment plays an important role in the protection of cell death caused by TNF-
Suppression of Ceramide-induced Cell Death by Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein
Kim, Jung-Su ; Ryu, Ji-Yoon ; Hwang, Soon-Bong ; Lee, Soo-Young ; Choi, Soo-Young ; Park, Jin-Seu ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 2, 2004, Pages 192~198
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.2.192
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is believed to be one of viral proteins that are capable of preventing virus-infected cell death upon various stimuli. But, the effect of the HCV core protein on apoptosis that is induced by various stimuli is contradictory. We examined the possibility that the HCV core protein affects the ceramide-induced cell death in cells expressing the HCV core protein through the sphingomyelin pathway. Cell death that is induced by
-ceramide and bacterial sphingomyelinase was analyzed in 293 cells that constitutively expressed the HCV core protein and compared with 293 cells that were stably transfected only with the expression vector. The HCV core protein inhibited the cell death that was induced by these reagents. The protective effects of the HCV core protein on ceramide-induced cell death were reflected by the reduced expression of
and the sustained expression of the Bcl-2 protein in the HCV core-expressing cells with respect to the vector-transfected cells. These results suggest that the HCV core protein in 293 cells plays a role in the modulation of the apoptotic response that is induced by ceramide. Also, the ability of the HCV core protein to suppress apoptosis might have important implications in understanding the pathogenesis of the HCV infection.
Purification and Characterization of Six Fibrinolytic Serine-Proteases from Earthworm Lumbricus rubellus
Cho, Il-Hwan ; Choi, Eui-Sung ; Lim, Hun-Gil ; Lee, Hyung-Hoan ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 2, 2004, Pages 199~205
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.2.199
The six lumbrokinase fractions (F1 to F6) with fibrinolytic activities were purified from earthworm Lumbricus rubellus lysates using the procedures of autolysis, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and column chromatography. The proteolytic activities on the casein substrate of the six iso-enzymes ranged from 11.3 to 167.5 unit/mg with the rank activity orders of F2 > F1 > F5 > F6 > F3 > F4. The fibrinolytic activities of the six fractions on the fibrin plates ranged from 20.8 to 207.2 unit/mg with rank orders of F6 > F2 > F5 > F3 > F1 > F4. The molecular weights of each iso-enzyme, as estimated by SDS-PAGE, were 24.6 (F1), 26.8 (F2), 28.2 (F3), 25.4 (F4), 33.1 (F5), and 33.0 kDa (F6), respectively. The plasminogen was activated into plasmin by the enzymes. The optimal temperature of the six iso-enzymes was
, and the optimal pH ranged from pH 4-12. The four iso-enzymes (F1-F4) were completely inhibited by PMSF. The two enzymes (F5 and F6) were completely inhibited by aprotinin, TLCK, TPCK, SBTI, LBTI, and leupeptin. The N-terminal amino acid (aa) sequences of the first 20 to 22 residues of each fraction had high homology. All six isoenzymes had identical aa residues 2-3 and 13-15. The N-terminal 21-22 aa sequences of the F2, F3, and F4 isoenzymes were almost the same. The N-terminal aa sequences of F5 and F6 were identical.
Identification, Characterization and Phylogenic Analysis of Conserved Genes within the odvp-6e/odv-e56 Gene Region of Choristoneura fumiferana Granulovirus
Rashidan, Kianoush Khajeh ; Nassoury, Nasha ; Giannopoulos, Paresa N. ; Mauffette, Yves ; Guertin, Claude ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 2, 2004, Pages 206~212
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.2.206
The genes that are located within the odvp-6e/odv-e56 region of the Choristoneura fumiferana granulovirus (ChfuGV) were identified by sequencing the 11 kb BamHI restriction fragment on the ChfuGV genome. The global GC content that was calculated from the data obtained from this genomic region was 34.96%. The open-reading frames (ORFs), located within the odvp-6e/odv-e56 region, are presented and compared to the equivalent ORFs that are located at the same region in other GVs. This region is composed of 14 ORFs, including three ORFs that are unique to ChfuGV with no obvious homologues in other baculoviruses as well as eleven ORFs with homologues to granuloviral ORFs, such as granulin, CfORF2, pk-1, ie-1, odv-e18, p49, and odvp-6e/odv-e56. In this study, the conceptual products of seven major conserved ORFs (granulin, CfORF2, IE-1, ODV-E18, p49 and ODVP-6E/ODV-E56) were used in order to construct phylogenetic trees. Our results show that granuloviruses can be grouped in 2 distinct groups as follows: Group I; Choristoneura fumiferana granulovirus (ChfuGV), Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV), Phthorimaea operculella granulovirus (PhopGV), and Adoxophyes orana granulovirus (AoGV). Group II; Xestia c-nigrum granulovirus (XcGV), Plutella xylostella granulovirus (PxGV), and Trichoplusia ni granulovirus (TnGV). The ChfuGV conserved proteins are most closely related to those of CpGV, PhopGV, and AoGV. Comparative studies, performed on gene arrangements within this region of genomes, demonstrated that three GVs from group I maintain similar gene arrangements.
Species Identification of the Tropical Abalone (Haliotis asinina, Haliotis ovina, and Haliotis varia) in Thailand Using RAPD and SCAR Markers
Klinbunga, Sirawut ; Amparyup, Piti ; Leelatanawit, Rungnapa ; Tassanakajon, Anchalee ; Hirono, Ikuo ; Aoki, Takashi ; Jarayabhand, Padermsak ; Menasveta, Piamsak ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 2, 2004, Pages 213~222
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.2.213
A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to identify the species- and population-specific markers of abalone; Haliotis asinina, H. ovina, and H. varia in Thai waters. Fifteen species-specific and six population-specific RAPD markers were identified. In addition, an 1650 bp band (UBC195) that was restricted to H. ovina from the Gulf of Thailand (east) was also found. All of the specific RAPD markers were cloned and sequenced. Twenty pairs of primers were designed and specificity-tested (N = 12 and 4 for target and non-target species, respectively). Seven primer pairs (CUHA1, 2, 4, 11, 12, 13, and 14) were specifically amplified by H. asinina DNA, whereas a single pair of primers showed specificity with H. ovina (CUHO3) and H. varia (CUHV1), respectively. Four primer pairs, including CUHA2, CUHA12, CUHO3, and CUHV1, were further examined against 216 individuals of abalone (N = 111, 73, and 32, respectively). Results indicated the species-specific nature of all of them, except CUHO3, with the sensitivity of detection of 100 pg and 20 pg of the target DNA template for CUHA2 and CUHA12 and CUHV1, respectively. The species-origin of the frozen, ethanol-preserved, dried, and boiled H. asinina specimens could also be successfully identified by CUHA2.
Activity of Some Hepatic Enzymes in Schistosomiasis and Concomitant Alteration of Arylsulfatase B
Balbaa, Mahmoud ; El-Kersh, Mohamed ; Mansour, Hamdy ; Yacout, Galila ; Ismail, Mohamed ; Malky, Ahmed ; Bassiouny, Khaled ; Abdel-Monem, Nihad ; Kandeel, Kamal ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 2, 2004, Pages 223~228
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.2.223
The levels of arylsulfatases A and B,
-amylase, aspartate transcarbamylase, and
-glutamyl transpeptidase were investigated during the infection of mice with schistosoma mansoni. This infection caused a significant (p<0.001) increase in the activity of hepatic arylsulfatase B (ASB), aspartate transcarbamylases and
-glutamyl transpeptidase. A non-significant difference occurred for
-amylase (p<0.3) and arylsulfatase A (p>0.5) when compared to the control. The specific activity of hepatic ASB was progressively increased with the progression of the Schistosoma-infection. Moreover, the kinetic studies of hepatic ASB in Schistosoma-infection showed that a slight decrease in the value of
and about a 40% increase in
when compared to the control. In addition, the pH optimum of hepatic ASB was altered from 6 to 7 as a result of schistosomiasis. These observations suggest that there are schistosomiasis-associated changes of the catalytic and kinetic properties of hepatic ASB.
Purification and Partial Characterization of a Lectin from the Fresh Leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Andr.) Haw
Adenike, Kuku ; Eretan, Oladiran Babalola ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 2, 2004, Pages 229~233
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.2.229
A haemagglutinating protein from the saline extracts of Kalanchoe crenata leaves, which agglutinate all human blood types, was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-Cellulose column followed by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column. The purified protein showed one band, both in non-denaturing PAGE and SDS-PAGE. The
that was determined by SDS-PAGE was 44,000 Da and that estimated from gel filtration was 47,000. Treatment of the haemagglutinating protein with 5 mM EDTA diminished the haemagglutinating activity to 50% of the original level. The addition of divalent cations, 10 mM
, 10 mM
, or 10 mM
, totally restored and enhanced the activity. The protein showed maximum activity over the 3-7 pH range and was heat-resistant. It was also a glycoprotein containing about 1.5% carbohydrate.
Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Mutation and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Turkish Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus
Yilmaz, Hulya ; Agachan, Bedia ; Ergen, Arzu ; Karaalib, Zeynep Ermis ; Isbir, Turgay ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 2, 2004, Pages 234~238
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.2.234
This study was designed to investigate, in the Turkish population, the association of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Our study included 249 patients with type II diabetes mellitus (102 men, 147 women) and 214 healthy volunteers as controls (91 men, 123 women). MTHFR C677T genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. No differences were observed in the distribution of MTHFR genotypes or allele frequencies in the cases versus the controls. The frequency of the MTHFR-mutated allele (T) was 31.7% in the type II diabetes mellitus versus 31.1% of the controls. The homozygous mutation (T/T) in the MTHFR gene was identified in 12% of the type II diabetes mellitus versus 9.3% of the controls. Patients with the TT genotype showed a higher prevalence of LVH when compared to patients with the CC and CT genotypes (p = 0.01). The MTHFR gene C677T mutation may be a possible risk factor for the development of LVH in the type II diabetic patients.
Pyruvate Protection against Endothelial Cytotoxicity Induced by Blockade of Glucose Uptake
Chung, Se-Jin ; Lee, Se-Hee ; Lee, Yong-Jin ; Park, Hyoung-Sook ; Bunger, Rolf ; Kang, Young-Hee ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 2, 2004, Pages 239~245
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.2.239
We have previously demonstrated that the redox reactant pyruvate prevents apoptosis in the oxidant model of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAEC), and that the anti-apoptotic mechanism of pyruvate is mediated in part via the mitochondrial matrix compartment. However, cytosolic mechanisms for the cytoprotective feature of pyruvate remain to be elucidated. This study investigated the pyruvate protection against endothelial cytotoxicity when the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) was applied to BPAEC. Millimolar 2DG blocked the cellular glucose uptake in a concentration- and time-dependent manner with >85% inhibition at
5 mM within 24 h. The addition of 2DG evoked BPAEC cytotoxicity with a substantial increase in lipid peroxidation and a marked decrease in intracellular total glutathione. Exogenous pyruvate partially prevented the 2DG-induced cell damage with increasing viability of BPAEC by 25-30%, and the total glutathione was also modestly increased. In contrast, 10 mM L-lactate, as a cytosolic reductant, had no effect on the cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation that are evoked by 2DG. These results suggest that 2DG toxicity may be a consequence of the diminished potential of glutathione antioxidant, which was partially restored by exogenous pyruvate but not L-lactate. Therefore, pyruvate qualifies as a cytoprotective agent for strategies that attenuate the metabolic dysfunction of the endothelium, and cellular glucose oxidation is required for the functioning of the cytosolic glutathione/NADPH redox system.
Detection of Germline Mutations in Argentine Retinoblastoma Patients: Low and Full Penetrance Retinoblastoma Caused by the Same Germline Truncating Mutation
Dalamon, Viviana ; Surace, Ezequiel ; Giliberto, Florencia ; Ferreiro, Veronica ; Fernandez, Cecilia ; Szijan, Irene ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 2, 2004, Pages 246~253
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.2.246
Constitutional RB1 gene mutations were studied in a series of 21 families with unilateral and bilateral retinoblastoma patients. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were analyzed by "exon by exon" PCR-heteroduplex and sequencing. Mutations were identified in 6 (29%) of the patients. One mutation corresponded to an intronic polymorphism in g.174351T > A. The other five mutations resulted C to T exonic transitions, four were CGA sequences (g.65386, g.150037 in two patients, and g.162237), creating stop codons and presumably truncated proteins. The fifth one was new and resulted in alanine to valine substitution (g.73774). Two patients had the same the germline truncated mutation (g.150037C > T), one with a familial bilateral early onset retinoblastoma and one with a sporadic unilateral late onset retinoblastoma. The later type has not been previously described. This finding is discussed in the genotype/phenotype correlation context. Additionally, a single nucleotide change was found in six studied samples, where a C to T homozygous transversion was identified in intron 26 (IVS26 + 28). It is worthy the non concordance of the nucleotide with the published sequence. This analysis proved to be a useful method for the detection of mutations in the RB1 gene, and contributed to the adequate genetic counseling to patients and relatives.
Cloning and Sequencing Analysis of the Repressor Gene of Temperate Mycobacteriophage L1
Sau, Subrata ; Chattoraj, Partho ; Ganguly, Tridib ; Lee, Chia Yen ; Mandal, Nitai Chandra ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 2, 2004, Pages 254~259
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.2.254
The wild-type and temperature-sensitive (ts) repressor genes were cloned from the temperate mycobacteriophage L1 and its mutant L1cIts391, respectively. A sequencing analysis revealed that the
proline residue of the wild-type repressor was changed to leucine in the ts mutant repressor. The 100% identity that was discovered between the two DNA regions of phages L1 and L5, carrying the same sets of genes including their repressor genes, strengthened the speculation that L1 is a minor variant of phage L5 or vice versa. A comparative analysis of the repressor proteins of different mycobacteriophages suggests that the mycobacteriophage-specific repressor proteins constitute a new family of repressors, which were possibly evolved from a common ancestor. Alignment of the mycobacteriophage-specific repressor proteins showed at least 7 blocks (designated I-VII) that carried 3-8 identical amino acid residues. The amino acid residues of blocks V, VI, and some residues downstream to block VI are crucial for the function of the L1 (or L5) repressor. Blocks I and II possibly form the turn and helix 2 regions of the HTH motif of the repressor. Block IV in the L1 repressor is part of the most charged region encompassing amino acid residues 72-92, which flanks the putative N-terminal basic (residues 1-71) and C-terminal acidic (residues 93-183) domains of L1 repressor.
Chemical Modification of Transducin with Dansyl Chloride Hinders Its Binding to Light-activated Rhodopsin
Kosoy, Ana ; Moller, Carolina ; Perdomo, Deisy ; Bubis, Jose ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 2, 2004, Pages 260~267
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.2.260
Transducin (T), the heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding protein in rod outer segments, serves as an intermediary between the receptor protein, rhodopsin, and the effector protein, cGMP phosphodiesterase. Labeling of T with dansyl chloride (DnsCl) inhibited its light-dependent guanine nucleotide binding activity. Conversely, DnsCl had no effect on the functionality of rhodopsin. Approximately 2-3 mol of DnsCl were incorporated per mole of T. Since fluoroaluminate was capable of activating DnsCl-modified T, this lysine-specific labeling compound did not affect the guanine nucleotide-binding pocket of T. However, the labeling of T with DnsCl hindered its binding to photoexcited rhodopsin, as shown by sedimentation experiments. Additionally, rhodopsin completely protected against the DnsCl inactivation of T. These results demonstrated the existence of functional lysines on T that are located in the proximity of the interaction site with the photoreceptor protein.