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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 6 - Nov 2004
Volume 37, Issue 5 - Sep 2004
Volume 37, Issue 4 - Jul 2004
Volume 37, Issue 3 - May 2004
Volume 37, Issue 2 - Mar 2004
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Jan 2004
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Production, Isolation, and Purification of L-Asparaginase from Pseudomonas Aeruginosa 50071 Using Solid-state Fermentation
El-Bessoumy, Ashraf A. ; Sarhan, Mohamed ; Mansour, Jehan ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 4, 2004, Pages 387~393
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.4.387
The L-asparaginase (E. C. 3. 5. 1. 1) enzyme was purified to homogeneity from Pseudomonas aeruginosa 50071 cells that were grown on solid-state fermentation. Different purification steps (including ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by separation on Sephadex G-100 gel filtration and CM-Sephadex C50) were applied to the crude culture filtrate to obtain a pure enzyme preparation. The enzyme was purified 106-fold and showed a final specific activity of 1900 IU/mg with a 43% yield. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the purified enzyme revealed it was one peptide chain with
of 160 kDa. A Lineweaver-Burk analysis showed a
value of 0.147 mM and
of 35.7 IU. The enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 9 when incubated at
for 30 min. The amino acid composition of the purified enzyme was also determined.
Understanding Enzyme Structure and Function in Terms of the Shifting Specificity Model
Britt, Billy Mark ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 4, 2004, Pages 394~401
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.4.394
The purpose of this paper is to suggest that the prominence of Haldane's explanation for enzyme catalysis significantly hinders investigations in understanding enzyme structure and function. This occurs despite the existence of much evidence that the Haldane model cannot embrace. Some of the evidence, in fact, disproves the model. A brief history of the explanation of enzyme catalysis is presented. The currently accepted view of enzyme catalysis -- the Haldane model -- is examined in terms of its strengths and weaknesses. An alternate model for general enzyme catalysis (the Shifting Specificity model) is reintroduced and an assessment of why it may be superior to the Haldane model is presented. Finally, it is proposed that a re-examination of many current aspects in enzyme structure and function (specifically, protein folding, x-ray and NMR structure analyses, enzyme stability curves, enzyme mimics, catalytic antibodies, and the loose packing of enzyme folded forms) in terms of the new model may offer crucial insights.
Human Liver Specific Transcriptional Factor TCP10L Binds to MAD4
Jiang, Dao-Jun ; Yu, Hong-Xiu ; Hexige, Sa-Yin ; Guo, Ze-Kun ; Wang, Xiang ; Ma, Li-Jie ; Chen, Zheng ; Zhao, Shou-Yuan ; Yu, Long ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 4, 2004, Pages 402~407
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.4.402
A human gene T-complex protein 10 like (TCP10L) was cloned in our lab. A previous study showed that it expressed specifically in the liver and testis. A transcription experiment revealed that TCP10L was a transcription factor with transcription inhibition activity. In this study, the human MAD4 was identified to interact with TCP10L by a yeast two-hybrid screen. This finding was confirmed by immunoprecipitation and subcellular localization experiments. As MAD4 is a member of the MAD family, which antagonizes the functions of MYC and promotes cell differentiation, the biological function of the interaction between TCP10L and MAD4 may be to maintain the differentiation state in liver cells. Also, we propose that the up-regulation of Myc is caused by the down-regulation of TCP10L in human hepatocarcinomas.
Expression of Cyclodextrinase Gene from Paenibacillus sp. A11 in Escherichia coli and Characterization of the Purified Cyclodextrinase
Kaulpiboon, Jarunee ; Pongsawasdi, Piamsook ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 4, 2004, Pages 408~415
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.4.408
The expression of the Paenibacillus sp. A11 cyclodextrinase (CDase) gene using the pUC 18 vector in Escherichia coli JM 109 resulted in the formation of an insoluble CDase protein in the cell debris in addition to a soluble CDase protein in the cytoplasm. Unlike the expression in Paenibacillus sp. A11, CDase was primarily observed in cytoplasm. However, by adding 0.5 M sorbitol as an osmolyte, the formation of insoluble CDase was prevented while a three-fold increase in cytoplasmic CDase activity was achieved after a 24 h-induction. The recombinant CDase protein was purified to approximately 14-fold with a 31% recovery to a specific activity of 141 units/mg protein by 40-60% ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-Toyopearl 650 M, and Phenyl Sepharose CL-4B chromatography. It was homogeneous by non-denaturing and SDS-PAGE. The enzyme was a single polypeptide with a molecular weight of 80 kDa, as determined by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. It showed the highest activity at pH 7.0 and
. The catalytic efficiency (
) values for
, respectively. The enzyme hydrolyzed CDs and linear maltooligosaccharides to yield maltose and glucose with less amounts of maltotriose and maltotetraose. The rates of hydrolysis for polysaccharides, soluble starch, and pullulan were very low. The cloned CDase was strongly inactivated by N-bromosuccinimide and diethylpyrocarbonate, but activated by dithiothreitol. A comparison of the biochemical properties of the CDases from Paenibacillus sp. A11 and E. coli transformant (pJK 555) indicates that they were almost identical.
Antioxidant Activity of NADH and Its Analogue - An In Vitro Study
Olek, Robert Antoni ; Ziolkowski, Wieslaw ; Kaczor, Jan Jacek ; Greci, Lucedio ; Popinigis, Jerzy ; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 4, 2004, Pages 416~421
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.4.416
The antioxidant activities of NADH and of its analogue, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-dicarbethoxy-pyridine (
), were evaluated in vitro. NADH was found to be oxidized by the peroxyl radical derived from 2,2-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) decomposition, in a pH-dependent manner. Both NADH and
inhibited the peroxidation of egg yolk lecithin (EYL) liposomes, although
was more effective than NADH when 2,2'-azobis-4-methoxy-2,4-dimethyl-valeronitrile (methoxy-AMVN) was employed to induce EYL liposome peroxidation. The antioxidant activities of NADH and
were also evaluated by measuring their influences on 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF) fluorescence decay in the presence of peroxyl radicals. NADH and
were much more effective at inhibiting DPBF quenching in Triton X-100 micelles than in liposomes. These results indicate that NADH can inhibit lipid peroxidation despite being hydrophilic. Nevertheless, membrane penetration is an important factor and limits its antioxidant activity.
Degradation of Raw Starch Granules by α-Amylase Purified from Culture of Aspergillus awamori KT-11
Matsubara, Takayoshi ; Ammar, Youssef Ben ; Anindyawati, Trisanti ; Yamamoto, Satoru ; Ito, Kazuo ; Iizuka, Masaru ; Minamiura, Noshi ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 4, 2004, Pages 422~428
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.4.422
-amylase (Amyl III) was purified to an electrophoretically pure state from the extract of a koji culture of Aspergillus awamori KT-11 using wheat bran in the medium. The purified Amyl III digested not only soluble starch but also raw corn starch. The major products from the raw starch using Amyl III were maltotriose and maltose, although a small amount of glucose was produced. Amyl III acted on all raw starch granules that it has been tested on. However, it was considered that the action mode of the Amyl III on starch granules was different from that of glucoamylase judging from the observation of granules under a scanning electron microscope before and after enzyme reaction, and also from the reaction products. Glucoamylase (GA I) was also isolated and it was purified to an electrophoretically pure state from the extract. It was found that the electron micrographic features of the granules after treatment with the enzymes were quite different. A synergistic effect of Amyl III and GA I was observed for the digestion of raw starch granules.
Molecular Cloning and Determination of the Nucleotide Sequence of Raw Starch Digesting α-Amylase from Aspergillus awamori KT-11
Matsubara, Takayoshi ; Ammar, Youssef Ben ; Anindyawati, Trisanti ; Yamamoto, Satoru ; Ito, Kazuo ; Iizuka, Masaru ; Minamiura, Noshi ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 4, 2004, Pages 429~438
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.4.429
Complementary DNAs encoding
-amylases (Amyl I, Amyl III) and glucoamylase (GA I) were cloned from Aspergillus awamori KT-11 and their nucleotide sequences were determined. The sequence of Amyl III that was a raw starch digesting
-amylase was found to consist of a 1,902 bp open reading frame encoding 634 amino acids. The signal peptide of the enzyme was composed of 21 amino acids. On the other hand, the sequence of Amyl I, which cannot act on raw starch, consisted of a 1,500 bp ORF encoding 499 amino acids. The signal peptide of the enzyme was composed of 21 amino acids. The sequence of GA I consisted of a 1,920 bp ORF that encoded 639 amino acids. The signal peptide was composed of 24 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of Amyl III from the N-terminus to the amino acid number 499 showed 63.3% homology with Amyl I. However, the amino acid sequence from the amino acid number 501 to C-terminus, including the raw-starch-affinity site and the TS region rich in threonine and serine, showed 66.9% homology with GA I.
Comparison of Hybridization Behavior between Double and Single Strand of Targets and the Application of Asymmetric PCR Targets in cDNA Microarray
Wei, Qing ; Liu, Sanzhen ; Huang, Jianfeng ; Mao, Xueying ; Chu, Xiaohui ; Wang, Yu ; Qiu, Minyan ; Mao, Yumin ; Xie, Yi ; Li, Yao ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 4, 2004, Pages 439~444
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.4.439
Double stranded targets on the cDNA microarray contain representatives of both the coding and noncoding strands, which will introduce hybridization competition with probes. Here, the effect of double and single strands of targets on the signal intensity and the ratios of Cy5/Cy3 within the same slide were compared. The results show that single stranded targets can increase the hybridization efficiency without changing the Cy5/Cy3 ratio. Based on these results, a new strategy was established by generating cDNA targets with asymmetric PCR, instead of conventional PCR, to increase the sensitivity of the cDNA microarray. Furthermore, the feasibility of this approach was validated. The results indicate that the cDNA microarray system based on asymmetric PCR is more sensitive, with no decrease in the reliability and reproducibility as compared with that based on conventional symmetric PCR.
Abrin Induces HeLa Cell Apoptosis by Cytochrome c Release and Caspase Activation
Qu, Xiaoling ; Qing, Liuting ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 4, 2004, Pages 445~453
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.4.445
We identified apoptosis as being a significant mechanism of toxicity following the exposure of HeLa cell cultures to abrin holotoxin, which is in addition to its inhibition of protein biosynthesis by N-glycosidase activity. The treatment of HeLa cell cultures with abrin resulted in apoptotic cell death, as characterized by morphological and biochemical changes, i.e., cell shrinkage, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, the occurrence of hypodiploid DNA, chromatin condensation, nuclear breakdown, DNA single strand breaks by TUNEL assay, and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. This apoptotic cell death was accompanied by caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation, as indicated by the cleavage of caspase substrates, which was preceded by mitochondrial cytochrome c release. The broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone (zVAD-fmk), prevented abrin-triggered caspase activation and partially abolished apoptotic cell death, but did not affect mitochondrial cytochrome c release. These results suggest that the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and the sequential caspase-9 and caspase-3 activations are important events in the signal transduction pathway of abrin-induced apoptotic cell death in the HeLa cell line.
Mitochondrial Damage and Metabolic Compensatory Mechanisms Induced by Hyperoxia in the U-937 Cell Line
Scatena, Roberto ; Messana, Irene ; Martorana, Giuseppe Ettore ; Gozzo, Maria Luisa ; Lippa, Silvio ; Maccaglia, Alessandro ; Bottoni, Patrizia ; Vincenzoni, Federica ; Nocca, Giuseppina ; Castagnola, Massimo ; Giardina, Bruno ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 4, 2004, Pages 454~459
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.4.454
Experimental hyperoxia represents a suitable in vitro model to study some pathogenic mechanisms related to oxidative stress. Moreover, it allows the investigation of the molecular pathophysiology underlying oxygen therapy and toxicity. In this study, a modified experimental set up was adopted to accomplish a model of moderate hyperoxia (50%
, 96 h culture) to induce oxidative stress in the human leukemia cell line, U-937. Spectrophotometric measurements of mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities, NMR spectroscopy of culture media, determination of antioxidant enzyme activities, and cell proliferation and differentiation assays were performed. The data showed that moderate hyperoxia in this myeloid cell line causes: i) intriguing alterations in the mitochondrial activities at the levels of succinate dehydrogenase and succinate-cytochrome c reductase; ii) induction of metabolic compensatory adaptations, with significant shift to glycolysis; iii) induction of different antioxidant enzyme activities; iv) significant cell growth inhibition and v) no significant apoptosis. This work will permit better characterization the mitochondrial damage induced by hyperoxia. In particular, the data showed a large increase in the succinate cytochrome c reductase activity, which could be a fundamental pathogenic mechanism at the basis of oxygen toxicity.
Structural Design and Characterization of a Channel-forming Peptide
Krittanai, Chartchai ; Panyim, Sakol ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 4, 2004, Pages 460~465
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.4.460
A 16-residue polypeptide model with the sequence acetyl-YALSLAATLLKEAASL-OH was derived by rational de novo peptide design. The designed sequence consists of amino acid residues with high propensity to adopt an alpha helical conformation, and sequential order was arranged to produce an amphipathic surface. The designed sequence was chemically synthesized using a solid-phase method and the polypeptide was purified by reverse-phase liquid chromatography. Molecular mass analysis by electro-spray ionization mass spectroscopy confirmed the correct designed sequence. Structural characterization by circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrated that the peptide adopts the expected alpha helical conformation in 50% acetonitrile solution. Liposome binding assay using Small Unilamellar Vesicle (SUV) showed a marked release of entrapped glucose by interaction between the lipid membrane and the tested peptide. The channel-forming activity of the peptide was revealed by a planar lipid bilayer experiment. An analysis of the conducting current at various applied potentials suggested that the peptide forms a cationic ion channel with an intrinsic conductance of 188 pS. These results demonstrate that a simple rational de novo design can be successfully employed to create short peptides with desired structures and functions.
Purification and Characterization of an Acid Deoxyribonuclease from the Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis
Ye, Maoqing ; Hu, Zheng ; Fan, Ying ; He, Ling ; Xia, Fubao ; Zou, Guolin ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 4, 2004, Pages 466~473
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.4.466
A new acid deoxyribonuclease (DNase) was purified from the cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis, and designated CSDNase. CSDNase was purified by
precipitation, Sephacryl S-100 HR gel filtration, weak anion-exchange HPLC, and gel filtration HPLC. The protein was single-chained, with an apparent molecular mass of ca. 34 kDa, as revealed by SDS-PAGE, and an isoelectric point of 7.05, as estimated by isoelectric focusing. CSDNase acted on both double-stranded (ds) and single- stranded (ss) DNA, but preferentially on dsDNA. The optimum pH of CSDNase was pH 5.5 and its optimum temperature 55. The activity of CSDNase was not dependent on divalent cations, but its enzymic activity was inhibited by high concentration of the cation:
above 150 mM,
above 200 mM,
above 150 mM,
above 200 mM, NaCl above 300 mM, and KCl above 300 mM. CSDNase was found to hydrolyze DNA, and to generate 3-phosphate and 5-OH termini. These results indicate that the nucleolytic properties of CSDNase are essentially the same as those of other well-characterized acid DNases, and that CSDNase is a member of the acid DNase family. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an acid DNase in a fungus.
Molecular Characterization of tgd057, a Novel Gene from Toxoplasma gondii
Wan, Kiew-Lian ; Chang, Ti-Ling ; Ajioka, James W. ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 4, 2004, Pages 474~479
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.4.474
The expressed sequence tag (EST) effort in Toxoplasma gondii has generated a substantial amount of gene information. To exploit this valuable resource, we chose to study tgd057, a novel gene identified by a large number of ESTs that otherwise show no significant match to known sequences in the database. Northern analysis showed that tgd057 is transcribed in this tachyzoite. The complete cDNA sequence of tgd057 is 1169 bp in length. Sequence analysis revealed that tgd057 possibly adopts two polyadenylation sites, utilizes the fourth in-frame ATG for translation initiation, and codes for a secretory protein. The longest open reading frame for the tgd057 gene was cloned and expressed as a recombinant protein (rd57) in Escherichia coli. Western analysis revealed that serum against rd57 recognized a molecule of ~21 kDa in the tachyzoite protein extract. This suggests that the tgd057 gene is expressed in vivo in the parasite.
Cobalt Chloride-induced Apoptosis and Extracellular Signal-regulated Protein Kinase 1/2 Activation in Rat C6 Glioma Cells
Yang, Seung-Ju ; Pyen, Jhin-Soo ; Lee, In-Soo ; Lee, Hye-Young ; Kim, Young-Kwon ; Kim, Tae-Ue ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 4, 2004, Pages 480~486
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.4.480
Brain ischemia brings about hypoxic insults. Hypoxia is one of the major pathological factors inducing neuronal injury and central nervous system infection. We studied the involvement of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in hypoxia-induced apoptosis using cobalt chloride in C6 glioma cells. In vitro cytotoxicity of cobalt chloride was tested by MTT assay. Its
. The DNA fragment became evident after incubation of the cells with
cobalt chloride for 24 h. We also evidenced nuclear cleavage with morphological changes of the cells undergoing apoptosis with electron microscopy. Next, we examined the signal pathway of cobalt chloride-induced apoptosis in C6 cells. The activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) started to increase at 1 h and was activated further at 6 h after treatment of 400 M cobalt chloride. In addition, pretreatment of PD98059 inhibited cobalt chloride-induced apoptotic cell morphology in Electron Microscopy. These results suggest that cobalt chloride is able to induce the apoptotic activity in C6 glioma cells, and its apoptotic mechanism may be associated with signal transduction via MAP kinase (ERK 1/2).
Synonymous Codon Usage Analysis of the Mycobacteriophage Bxz1 and Its Plating Bacteria M. smegmatis: Identification of Highly and Lowly Expressed Genes of Bxz1 and the Possible Function of Its tRNA Species
Sahu, Keya ; Gupta, Sanjib Kumar ; Ghosh, Tapash Chandra ; Sau, Subrata ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 4, 2004, Pages 487~492
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.4.487
The extent of codon usage in the protein coding genes of the mycobacteriophage, Bxz1, and its plating bacteria, M. smegmatis, were determined, and it was observed that the codons ending with either G and / or C were predominant in both the organisms. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that in both organisms, the genes were separated along the first major explanatory axis according to their expression levels and their genomic GC content at the synonymous third positions of the codons. The second major explanatory axis differentiates the genes according to their genome type. A comparison of the relative synonymous codon usage between 20 highly- and 20 lowly expressed genes from Bxz1 identified 21 codons, which are statistically over represented in the former group of genes. Further analysis found that the Bxz1- specific tRNA species could recognize 13 out of the 21 over represented synonymous codons, which incorporated 13 amino acid residues preferentially into the highly expressed proteins of Bxz1. In contrast, seven amino acid residues were preferentially incorporated into the lowly expressed proteins by 10 other tRNA species of Bxz1. This analysis predicts for the first time that the Bxz1-specific tRNA species modulates the optimal expression of its proteins during development.
Genetic Diversity and Molecular Markers in Introduced and Thai Native Apple Snails (Pomacea and Pila)
Thaewnon-Ngiw, Bungorn ; Klinbunga, Sirawut ; Phanwichien, Kantimanee ; Sangduen, Nitsri ; Lauhachinda, Nitaya ; Menasveta, Piamsak ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 4, 2004, Pages 493~502
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.4.493
The genetic diversity and species-diagnostic markers in the introduced apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata and in the native Thai apple snails; Pila ampullacea, P. angelica, P. pesmei, and P. polita, were investigated by restriction analysis of COI and are reported for the first time. Twenty-one composite haplotypes showing non-overlapping distributions among species were found. Genetic heterogeneity analysis indicated significant differences between species (P < 0.0001) and within P. pesmei (P < 0.0001) and P. angelica (P < 0.0004). No such heterogeneity was observed in Pomacea canaliculata (P > 0.0036 as modified by the Bonferroni procedure), P. ampullacea (P = 0.0824-1.000) and P. polita (P = 1.0000). A neighbor-joining tree based on genetic distance between pairs of composite haplotypes differentiated all species and indicated that P. angelica and P. pesmei are closely related phylogenetically. In addition, the 16S rDNA of these species was cloned and sequenced. A species-specific PCR for P. canaliculata was successfully developed with a sensitivity of detection of approximately 50 pg of the target DNA template. The amplification of genomic DNA (50 pg and 25 ng) isolated from the fertilized eggs, and juveniles (1, 7, and 15 d after hatching) of Pomacea canaliculata was also successful, and suggested that Pomacea canaliculata and Pila species can be discriminated from the early stages of development.
One-pot Enzymatic Synthesis of UDP-D-glucose from UMP and Glucose-1-phosphate Using an ATP Regeneration System
Lee, Hei-Chan ; Lee, Seung-Don ; Sohng, Jae-Kyung ; Liou, Kwang-Kyoung ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 4, 2004, Pages 503~506
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.4.503
Glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase from E. coli K12 was used to convert uridine-5'-triphosphate and glucose-1-phosphate to UDP-D-glucose. The conversion was efficient and completed within 5 minutes under the employed conditions. In addition, thymidine-5'-monophosphate kinase and acetate kinase were proven to be non-specific, converting udridine-5'-monophosphate to uridine-5'-triphosphate with 55% conversion after 6 h, which was much slower than the production of TTP under the same conditions (complete conversion within one hour). Since these two reactions could proceed under the same conditions, a one-pot synthesis of UDP-D-glucose with ATP regeneration was designed from easily available starting materials, and conversion up to 40% by HPLC peak integration was achieved given a reaction time of 4 h.
Gamma Irradiation Up-regulates Expression of B Cell Differentiation Molecule CD23 by NF-κB Activation
Rho, Hyun-Sook ; Park, Soon-Suk ; Lee, Choong-Eun ;
BMB Reports , volume 37, issue 4, 2004, Pages 507~514
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2004.37.4.507
Gamma irradiation (
-IR) is reported to have diverse effects on immune cell apoptosis, survival and differentiation. In the present study, the immunomodulatory effect of a low dose
-IR (5~10 Gy) was investigated, focusing on the role of NF-
in the induction of the B cell differentiation molecule, CD23/FceRII. In the human B cell line Ramos,
-IR not only induced CD23 expression, but also augmented the IL-4-induced surface CD23 levels. While
-IR did not cause STAT6 activation in these cells, it did induce both DNA binding and the transcriptional activity of NF-
degradation-dependent manner. It was subsequently found that different NF-
regulating signals modulated the
-IR-or IL-4-induced CD23 expression. Inhibitors of NF-
activation, such as PDTC and MG132, suppressed the
-IR-mediated CD23 expression. In contrast, Ras, which potentiates
activity in these cells, further augmented the
-IR- or IL-4-induced CD23 levels, The induction of NF-
activation and the subsequent up-regulation of CD23 expression by
-IR were also observed in monocytic cells. These results suggest that
-IR, at specific dosages, can modulate immune cell differentiation through the activation of NF-
, and this potentially affects the immune inflammatory response that is mediated by cytokines.