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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 6 - Nov 2005
Volume 38, Issue 5 - Sep 2005
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Jul 2005
Volume 38, Issue 3 - May 2005
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Mar 2005
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Jan 2005
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Interactions among Measles Virus Hemagglutinin, Fusion Protein and Cell Receptor Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule (SLAM) Indicating a New Fusion-trimer Model
Zhang, Peng ; Li, Lingyun ; Hu, Chunlin ; Xu, Qin ; Liu, Xin ; Qi, Yipeng ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 4, 2005, Pages 373~380
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.4.373
For measles viruses, fusion on the cell membrane is an important initial step in the entry into the infected cells. The recent research indicated that hemagglutinin firstly leads the conformational changes in the fusion protein then co-mediates the membrane fusion. In the work, we use the co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down techniques to identify the interactions among fusion protein, hemagglutinin and signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), which reveal that the three proteins can form a functional complex to mediate the SLAM-dependent fusion. Moreover, under the confocal microscope, fusion protein and hemagglutinin protein can show the cocapping mediated by the SLAM. So fusion protein not only is involved in the fusion but also might directly interact with the SLAM to be a new fusion-trimer model, which might account for the infection mechanism of measles virus.
Peptide Domain Involved in the Interaction between Membrane Protein and Nucleocapsid Protein of SARS-associated Coronavirus
Fang, Xiaonan ; Ye, Linbai ; Timani, Khalid Amine ; Li, Shanshan ; Zen, Yingchun ; Zhao, Meng ; Zheng, Hong ; Wu, Zhenghui ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 4, 2005, Pages 381~385
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.4.381
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an emerging infectious disease associated with a novel coronavirus (CoV) that was identified and molecularly characterized in 2003. Previous studies on various coronaviruses indicate that protein-protein interactions amongst various coronavirus proteins are critical for viral assembly and morphogenesis. It is necessary to elucidate the molecular mechanism of SARS-CoV replication and rationalize the anti-SARS therapeutic intervention. In this study, we employed an in vitro GST pull-down assay to investigate the interaction between the membrane (M) and the nucleocapsid (N) proteins. Our results show that the interaction between the M and N proteins does take place in vitro. Moreover, we provide an evidence that 12 amino acids domain (194-205) in the M protein is responsible for binding to N protein. Our work will help shed light on the molecular mechanism of the virus assembly and provide valuable information pertaining to rationalization of future anti-viral strategies.
Genomic Sequence Analysis and Organization of BmKαTx11 and BmKαTx15 from Buthus martensii Karsch: Molecular Evolution of α-toxin genes
Xu, Xiuling ; Cao, Zhijian ; Sheng, Jiqun ; Wu, Wenlan ; Luo, Feng ; Sha, Yonggang ; Mao, Xin ; Liu, Hui ; Jiang, Dahe ; Li, Wenxin ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 4, 2005, Pages 386~390
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.4.386
Based on the reported cDNA sequences of
, the genes encoding toxin
were amplified by PCR from the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch genomic DNA employing synthetic oligonucleotides. Sequences analysis of nucleotide showed that an intron about 500 bp length interrupts signal peptide coding regions of
. Using cDNA sequence of
as probe, southern hybridization of BmK genome total DNA was performed. The result indicates that
is multicopy genes or belongs to multiple gene family with high homology genes. The similarity of
-toxin gene sequences and southern hybridization revealed the evolution trace of
-toxin genes evolve from a common progenitor, and the genes diversity is associated with a process of locus duplication and gene divergence.
The Cytotoxic and Anti-proliferative Effects of 3-Hydrogenkwadaphnin in K562 and Jurkat Cells Is Reduced by Guanosine
Moosavi, Mohammad Amin ; Yazdanparast, Razieh ; Sanati, Mohammad Hasan ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 4, 2005, Pages 391~398
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.4.391
3-hydrogenwadaphnin (3-HK) is a new daphnane-type diterpene ester isolated from Dendrostellera lessertii with strong anti-tumoral activity in animal models and in cultures. Here, prolonged effects of this new agent on proliferation and viability of several different cancerous cell lines were evaluated. Using [
]thymidine incorporation, it was found that the drug inhibited cell proliferation and induced G1/S cell cycle arrest in leukemic cells 24 h after a single dose treatment. The cell viability of Jurkat cells was also decreased by almost 10%, 31% and 40% after a single dose treatment (7.5 nM) at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. The drug-treated cells were stained with acridine orange/ethidium bromide to document the chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. These observations were further confirmed by detection of DNA laddering pattern in the agarose gel electrophoresis of the extracted DNA from the treated cells. Treatment of K562 cells with the drug at 7.5, 15 and 30 nM caused apoptosis in 25%, 45% and 65% of the cells, respectively. Exogenous addition of
guanosine and/or deoxyguanosine to the cell culture of the drug-treated cells restored DNA synthesis, released cell arrest at G1/S checkpoint and decreased the apoptotic cell death caused by the drug. These observations were not made using adenosine. However, the drug effects on K562 cells were potentiated by hypoxanthine. Based on these observations, perturbation of GTP metabolism is considered as one of the main reasons for apoptotic cell death by 3-HK.
Development of Array-based Technology for Detection of HAV Using Gold-DNA Probes
Wan, Zhixiang ; Wang, Yefu ; Li, Shawn Shun-Cheng ; Duan, Lianlian ; Zhai, Jianxin ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 4, 2005, Pages 399~406
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.4.399
A sensitive method for detection of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) by utilizing gold-DNA probe on an array was developed. Amino- modified oligodeoxynucleotides at the 5' position were arrayed on an activated glass surface to function as capture probes. Sandwich hybridization occurred among capture probes, the HAV amplicon, and gold nanoparticle-supported oligonucleotide probes. After a silver enhancement step, signals were detected by a standard flatbed scanner or just by naked eyes. As little as 100 fM of HAV amplicon could be detected on the array. Therefore, the array technology is an alternative to be applied in detection of HAV due to its low-cost and high-sensitivity.
Investigation on the Surface Hydrophobicity and Aggregation Kinetics of Human Calprotectin in the Presence of Calcium
Yousefi, Reza ; Ardestani, Susan K. ; Saboury, Ali Akbar ; Kariminia, Amina ; Zeinali, Madjid ; Amani, Mojtaba ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 4, 2005, Pages 407~413
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.4.407
Calcium and zinc binding protein, calprotectin is a multifunctional protein with broad spectrum antimicrobial and antitumoural activity. It was purified from human neutrophil, using a two-step ion exchange chromatography. Since surface hydrophobicity of calprotectin may be important in membrane anchoring, membrane penetration, subunits oligomerization and some biological roles of protein, in this study attempted to explore the effect of calcium in physiological range on the calprotectin lipophilicity. Incubation of human calprotectin (
) with different calcium concentrations showed that 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonic acid (ANS) fluorescence intensity of the protein significantly elevates with calcium in a dose dependent manner, suggesting an increase in calprotectin surface hydrophobicity upon calcium binding. Our study also indicates that calcium at higher concentrations (6, 8 and 10 mM) induces aggregation of human calprotectin. Our finding demonstrates that the starting time and the rate constant of calprotectin aggregation depend on the calcium concentration.
Expression Vectors for Human-mouse Chimeric Antibodies
Xiong, Hua ; Ran, Yuliang ; Xing, Jinliang ; Yang, Xiangmin ; Li, Yu ; Chen, Zhinan ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 4, 2005, Pages 414~419
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.4.414
The production of recombinant antibodies has been generally recognized as time-consuming and labor-intensive. The aim of our study is to construct mammalian expression vectors containing the cDNA encoding the human constant regions and murine variable regions to massively and cost-effectively produce full-length chimeric antibodies. Unique restriction sites flanking the Ig variable region were designed to allow for the replacement of variable regions generated by PCR. Western blot analysis of the chimeric antibodies revealed that the expressed products were of the predicted size, structure and specificity. The usefulness of the vectors was confirmed by construction of human-mouse chimeric antibody-HCAb which secretes murine antibody against the human colorectal cancer. Selected in medium containing gradually increasing methotrexate (MTX), clones with increased expression of the product gene can be efficiently generated. The secretion of recombinant chimeric antibody-HCAb yielded
MTX. With this high-level expression from pools, the convenient and rapid production of over 100 milligram amounts per liter of recombinant antibodies may be achieved, which indicates the significant roles of pYR-GCEVH and pYR-GCEVL in the production of chimeric antibodies.
Identification and Characterization of Genes Differentially Expressed in the Resistance Reaction in Wheat Infected with Tilletia tritici, the Common Bunt Pathogen
Lu, Zhen-Xiang ; Gaudet, Denis A. ; Frick, Michele ; Puchalski, Byron ; Genswein, Bernie ; Laroche, Andre ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 4, 2005, Pages 420~431
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.4.420
The differentially virulent race T1 of common bunt (Tilletia tritici) was used to inoculate the wheat lines Neepawa (compatible) and its sib BW553 (incompatible) that are nearly isogenic for the Bt-10 resistance gene. Inoculated crown tissues were used to construct a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library. Of the 1920 clones arrayed from the SSH cDNA library, approximately 10% were differentially regulated. A total of 168 differentially up-regulated and 25 down-regulated genes were identified and sequenced; 71% sequences had significant homology to genes of known function, of which 59% appeared to have roles in cellular metabolism and development, 24% in abiotic/biotic stress responses, 3% involved in transcription and signal transduction responses. Two putative resistance genes and a transcription factor were identified among the up regulated sequences. The expression of several candidate genes including a lipase, two non-specific lipid transfer proteins (ns-LTPs), and several wheat pathogenesis-related (PR)-proteins, was evaluated following 4 to 32 days post-inoculation in compatible and incompatible interactions. Results confirmed the higher overall expression of these genes in resistant BW553 compared to susceptible Neepawa, and the differential up-regulation of wheat lipase, chitinase and PR-1 proteins in the expression of the incompatible interaction.
Calcium Signaling-mediated and Differential Induction of Calmodulin Gene Expression by Stress in Oryza sativa L.
Phean-o-pas, Srivilai ; Punteeranurak, Pornpimon ; Buaboocha, Teerapong ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 4, 2005, Pages 432~439
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.4.432
/calmodulin transduction pathways have been implicated in mediating stress response and tolerance in plants. Here, three genes encoding calmodulin (Cam) members of the EF-hand family of
-binding proteins were identified from Oryza sativa L. databases. Complementary DNA for each of the calmodulin genes, OsCam1, OsCam2, and OsCam3 were sequenced. OsCam1 and OsCam2 encode a conventional 148-amino acid calmodulin protein that contains four characteristic
-binding motifs. OsCam3 encode a similar protein with a 38-amino-acid extension containing a putative prenylation site (CVIL) at the carboxyl terminus. RT-PCR showed that each of the genes is expressed in leaves and roots of 2-week old rice seedlings. By RNA gel blot analysis, OsCam1 mRNA levels strongly increased in response to NaCl, mannitol and wounding treatments. In contrast, OsCam2 mRNA levels were relatively unchanged under all conditions investigated. NaCl treatment and wounding also increased the OsCam3 mRNA level, but in a more transient manner. Our results indicate that although the expression of genes encoding different calmodulin isoforms is ubiquitous, they are differentially regulated by various stress signals. In addition, we have demonstrated that the calcium-channel blocker lanthanum chloride inhibited the induction of OsCam1 gene expression by both NaCl and mannitol treatments. These results suggest that osmotic stress induced expression of OsCam1 gene requires the
elevation that is known to occur in response to these stimuli.
Molecular Cloning, Phylogenetic Analysis, Expressional Profiling and In Vitro Studies of TINY2 from Arabidopsis thaliana
Wei, Gang ; Pan, Yi ; Lei, Juan ; Zhu, Yu-Xian ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 4, 2005, Pages 440~446
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.4.440
A cDNA that was rapidly induced upon abscisic acid, cold, drought, mechanical wounding and to a lesser extent, by high salinity treatment, was isolated from Arabidopsis seedlings. It was classified as DREB subfamily member based on multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic characterization. Since it encoded a protein with a typical ERF/AP2 DNA-binding domain and was closely related to the TINY gene, we named it TINY2. Gel retardation assay revealed that TINY2 was able to form a specific complex with the previously characterized DRE element while showed only residual affinity to the GCC box. When fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain, either full-length or its C-terminus functioned effectively as a trans-activator in the yeast one-hybrid assay while its N-terminus was completely inactive. Our data indicate that TINY2 could be a new member of the AP2/EREBP transcription factor family involved in activation of down-stream genes in response to environmental stress.
Identification of p54
and the 14-3-3 Protein HS1 as TNF-α-Inducible Genes Related to Cell Cycle Control and Apoptosis in Human Arterial Endothelial Cells
Stier, Sebastian ; Totzke, Gudrun ; Grunewald, Elisabeth ; Neuhaus, Thomas ; Fronhoffs, Stefan ; Schoneborn, Silke ; Vetter, Hans ; Ko, Yon ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 4, 2005, Pages 447~456
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.4.447
plays a pivotal role in inflammation processes which are mainly regulated by endothelial cells. While TNF-
induces apoptosis of several cell types like tumor cells, endothelial cells are resistant to TNFa mediated cell death. The cytotoxic effects of TNF-
on most cells are only evident if RNA or protein synthesis is inhibited, suggesting that de novo RNA or protein synthesis protect cells from TNF-
cytotoxicity, presumably by NF-
mediated induction of protective genes. However, the cytoprotective genes involved in NF-
dependent endothelial cell survival have not been sufficiently identified. In the present study, the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was employed to identify rarely transcribed TNF-
inducible genes in human arterial endothelial cells related to cell survival and cell cycle. The TNF-
-induced expression of the RNA binding protein
and the 14-3-3 protein HS1 as shown here for the first time may contribute to the TNF-
mediated cell protection of endothelial cells. These genes have been shown to play pivotal roles in cell survival and cell cycle control in different experimental settings. The concerted expression of these genes together with other genes related to cell protection and cell cycle like DnaJ,
and the ubiquitin activating enzyme E1 demonstrates the identification of new genes in the context of TNF-
induced gene expression patterns mediating the prosurvival effect of TNF-
in endothelial cells.
Choristoneura fumiferana Granulovirus pk-1: A Baculoviral Protein Kinase
Giannopoulos, Paresa N. ; Nassoury, Nasha ; Lamontagne, Lucie ; Guertin, Claude ; Rashidan, Kianoush Khajeh ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 4, 2005, Pages 457~467
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.4.457
Open reading frame (ORF) 3 on the Choristoneura fumiferana granulovirus (ChfuGV), located in the 11 kb fragment of the BamHI genomic bank encodes a predicted 32-kDa putative kinase protein. Bioinformatics analysis on the predicted amino acid sequence of ChfuGV PK-1 revealed the existence of 11 catalytic subdomains. Sequence analysis within the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of ChfuGV pk-1 indicates the presence of both putative early and late promoter motifs, indicating that pk-1 may be expressed throughout the infection cycle. Promoter sequence analysis reveals that pk-1 is deprived of a TATA box and appears instead to be regulated by other cis-acting transcriptional regulatory elements. Temporal transcription analysis by RT-PCR confirms the appearance of transcripts detected from 2 h p.i. until 72 h p.i. Northern blot hybridization characterizes pk-1 transcription as a 1.2 kb transcript. Homology comparisons reveal that ChfuGV PK-1 protein is most closely related to Phthorimaea operculalla granulovirus (PoGV) with 80% amino acid identity.
Nitrate Uptake in the Halotolerant Cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica is energy-dependent driven by ΔpH
Incharoensakdi, Aran ; Laloknam, Surasak ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 4, 2005, Pages 468~473
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.4.468
The energetics of nitrate uptake by intact cells of the halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica were investigated. Nitrate uptake was inhibited by various protonophores suggesting the coupling of nitrate uptake to the proton motive force. An artificially-generated pH gradient across the membrane (
) caused an increase of nitrate uptake. In contrast, the suppression of
resulted in a decrease of nitrate uptake. The increase of external pH also resulted in an enhancement of nitrate uptake. The generation of the electrical potential across the membrane (
) resulted in no elevation of the rate of nitrate uptake. On the other hand, the valinomycin-mediated dissipation of
caused no depression of the rate of nitrate uptake. Thus, it is unlikely that
participated in the energization of the uptake of nitrate. However,
-gradient across the membrane was suggested to play a role in nitrate uptake since monensin which collapses
-gradient strongly inhibited nitrate uptake. Exogenously added glucose and lactate stimulated nitrate uptake in the starved cells. N, N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, an inhibitor of ATPase, could also inhibit nitrate uptake suggesting that ATP hydrolysis was required for nitrate uptake. All these results indicate that nitrate uptake in A. halophytica is ATP-dependent, driven by
Curcumin Derivatives Inhibit the Formation of Jun-Fos-DNA Complex Independently of their Conserved Cysteine Residues
Park, Chi-Hoon ; Lee, Ju-Hyung ; Yang, Chul-Hak ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 4, 2005, Pages 474~480
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.4.474
Curcumin, a major active component of turmeric, has been identified as an inhibitor of the transcriptional activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1). Recently, it was also found that curcumin and synthetic curcumin derivatives can inhibit the binding of Jun-Fos, which are the members of the AP-1 family, to DNA. However, the mechanism of this inhibition by curcumin and its derivatives was not disclosed. Since the binding of Jun-Fos dimer to DNA can be modulated by redox control involving conserved cysteine residues, we studied whether curcumin and its derivatives inhibit Jun-Fos DNA binding activity via these residues. However, the inhibitory mechanism of curcumin and its derivatives, unlike that of other Jun-Fos inhibitors, was found to be independent of these conserved cysteine residues. In addition, we investigated whether curcumin derivatives can inhibit AP-1 transcriptional activity in vivo using a luciferase assay. We found that, among the curcumin derivatives examined, only inhibitors shown to inhibit the binding of Jun-Fos to DNA by Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) inhibited AP-1 transcriptional activity in vivo. Moreover, RT-PCR revealed that curcumin derivatives, like curcumin, downregulated c-jun mRNA in JB6 cells. These results suggest that the suppression of the formation of DNA-Jun-Fos complex is the main cause of reduced AP-1 transcriptional activity by curcuminoids, and that EMSA is a suitable tool for identifying inhibitors of transcriptional activation.
The Effects of Salt Stress on Photosynthetic Electron Transport and Thylakoid Membrane Proteins in the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis
Sudhir, Putty-Reddy ; Pogoryelov, Denys ; Kovacs, Laszlo ; Garab, Gyozo ; Murthy, Sistla D.S. ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 4, 2005, Pages 481~485
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.4.481
The response of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis to high salt stress was investigated by incubating the cells in light of moderate intensity in the presence of 0.8 M NaCl. NaCl caused a decrease in photosystem II (PSII) mediated oxygen evolution activity and increase in photosystem I (PSI) activity and the amount of P700. Similarly maximal efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and variable fluorescence (Fv/Fo) were also declined in salt-stressed cells. Western blot analysis reveal that the inhibition in PSII activity is due to a 40% loss of a thylakoid membrane protein, known as D1, which is located in PSII reaction center. NaCl treatment of cells also resulted in the alterations of other thylakoid membrane proteins: most prominently, a dramatic diminishment of the 47-kDa chlorophyll protein (CP) and 94-kDa protein, and accumulation of a 17-kDa protein band were observed in SDS-PAGE. The changes in 47-kDa and 94-kDa proteins lead to the decreased energy transfer from light harvesting antenna to PSII, which was accompanied by alterations in the chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectra of whole cells and isolated thylakoids. Therefore we conclude that salt stress has various effects on photosynthetic electron transport activities due to the marked alterations in the composition of thylakoid membrane proteins.
Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism of the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Gene in Coronary Artery Disease in Southern Turkey
Acarturk, Esmeray ; Attila, Gulen ; Bozkurt, Abdi ; Akpinar, Onur ; Matyar, Selcuk ; Seydaoglu, Gulsah ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 4, 2005, Pages 486~490
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.4.486
Genetic factors are important in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion(I)/deletion(D) polymorphism is one of the genetic factor found to be related with CAD. We investigated the association between I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene and the presence of CAD. Threehundred and seven patients (187 males and 120 females, aged between 35-80, mean
years) who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography were included in the study. ACE I/D polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Of the 307, 176 had CAD. The most frequently observed genotype in all subjects was ID (47.9 %). However, in patients with CAD the frequency of II genotype was lower whereas DD genotype was higher compared to the controls (p < 0.05). The number of D allele carrying subjects were also higher (p < 0.05) in CAD patients. The logistic regression analysis indicated that the ACE D allele is an independent risk factor (odds ratio = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.01-2.18, p < 0.05). In conclusion, the I/D polymorphism of ACE gene (carrying D allele) is an independent risk factor for CAD in the studied Turkish population.
Species Identification of Five Penaeid Shrimps Using PCR-RFLP and SSCP Analyses of 16S Ribosomal DNA
Khamnamtong, Bavornlak ; Klinbunga, Sirawut ; Menasveta, Piamsak ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 4, 2005, Pages 491~499
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.4.491
DNA-based molecular markers for differentiation of five penaeid shrimps (Penaeus monodon, P. semisulcatus, Feneropenaeus merguiensis, Litopenaeus vannamei and Marsupenaeus japonicus) were developed based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) of 16S ribosomal (r) DNA. Differentiation of P. monodon, P. semisulcatus and L. vannamei can be unambiguously carried out by PCR-RFLP of 16S
whereas P. semisulcatus and M. japonicus shared a BABB mitotype. These shrimps were successfully discriminated by SSCP analysis of 16S
. Nevertheless, the amplification success for L. vannamei and F. merguiensis was not consistent when tested against larger sample sizes. As a result, 16S
of an individual representing the most common mitotype of each species was cloned and sequenced. The new primer pair was designed and tested against the large sample sizes (312 bp product, N = 185). The amplification success was consistent across all species. PCR-RFLP of 16S
was as effective as that of 16S
. Differentiation of all shrimp species were successfully carried out by SSCP analysis.
The Existence of a Putative Regulatory Element in 3'-Untranslated Region of Proto-oncogene HOX11's mRNA
Li, Yue ; Jiang, Zhao-Zhao ; Chen, Hai-Xu ; Leung, Wai-Keung ; Sung, Joseph J.Y. ; Ma, Wei-Jun ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 4, 2005, Pages 500~506
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.4.500
HOX11 encodes a homeodomain-containing transcription factor which directs the development of the spleen during embryogenesis. While HOX11 expression is normally silenced through an unknown mechanism in all tissues by adulthood, the deregulation of HOX11 expression is associated with leukemia, such as T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The elucidation of regulatory elements contributing to the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of HOX11 gene expression is of great importance. Previous reports of HOX11 regulatory elements mainly focused on the 5'-flanking region of HOX11 on the chromosome related to transcriptional control. To expand the search of putative cis-elements involved in HOX11 regulation at the post-transcriptional level, we analyzed HOX11 mRNA 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) and found an AU-rich region. To characterize this AU-rich region, in vitro analysis of HOX11 mRNA 3'UTR was performed with human RNA-binding protein HuR, which interacts with AU-rich element (ARE) existing in the 3'UTR of many growth factors' and cytokines' mRNAs. Our results showed that the HOX11 mRNA 3'UTR can specifically bind with human HuR protein in vitro. This specific binding could be competed effectively by typical ARE containing RNA. After the deletion of the AU-rich region present in the HOX11 mRNA 3'UTR, the interaction of HOX11 mRNA 3'UTR with HuR protein was abolished. These findings suggest that HOX11 mRNA 3'UTR contains cis-acting element which shares similarity in the action pattern with RE-HuR interactions and may involve in the post-transcriptional regulation of the HOX11 gene.