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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 6 - Nov 2005
Volume 38, Issue 5 - Sep 2005
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Jul 2005
Volume 38, Issue 3 - May 2005
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Mar 2005
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Jan 2005
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Prostaglandin E Synthase, a Terminal Enzyme for Prostaglandin E
Kudo, Ichiro ; Murakami, Makoto ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 633~638
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.6.633
Biosynthesis of prostanoids is regulated by three sequential enzymatic steps, namely phospholipase
enzymes, cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, and various lineage-specific terminal prostanoid synthases. Prostaglandin E synthase (PGES), which isomerizes COX-derived
, occurs in multiple forms with distinct enzymatic properties, expressions, localizations and functions. Two of them are membrane-bound enzymes and have been designated as mPGES-1 and mPGES-2. mPGES-1 is a perinuclear protein that is markedly induced by proinflammatory stimuli, is down-regulated by anti inflammatory glucocorticoids, and is functionally coupled with COX-2 in marked preference to COX-1. Recent gene targeting studies of mPGES-1 have revealed that this enzyme represents a novel target for anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer drugs. mPGES-2 is synthesized as a Golgi membrane-associated protein, and the proteolytic removal of the N-terminal hydrophobic domain leads to the formation of a mature cytosolic enzyme. This enzyme is rather constitutively expressed in various cells and tissues and is functionally coupled with both COX-1 and COX-2. Cytosolic PGES (cPGES) is constitutively expressed in a wide variety of cells and is functionally linked to COX-1 to promote immediate
production. This review highlights the latest understanding of the expression, regulation and functions of these three PGES enzymes.
Molecular Mechanisms of Protein Kinase C-induced Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells
Gonzalez-Guerrico, Anatilde M. ; Meshki, John ; Xiao, Liqing ; Benavides, Fernando ; Conti, Claudio J. ; Kazanietz, Marcelo G. ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 639~645
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.6.639
Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes, a family of serine-threonine kinases, are important regulators of cell proliferation and malignant transformation. Phorbol esters, the prototype PKC activators, cause PKC translocation to the plasma membrane in prostate cancer cells, and trigger an apoptotic response. Studies in recent years have determined that each member of the PKC family exerts different effects on apoptotic or survival pathways.
, one of the novel PKCs, is a key player of the apoptotic response via the activation of the p38 MAPK pathway. Studies using RNAi revealed that depletion of
totally abolishes the apoptotic effect of the phorbol ester PMA. Activation of the classical
promotes the dephosphorylation and inactivation of the survival kinase Akt. Studies have assigned a pro-survival role to
, but the function of this PKC isozyme remains controversial. Recently, it has been determined that the PKC apoptotic effect in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells is mediated by the autocrine secretion of death factors.
stimulates the release of
from the plasma membrane, and blockade of
receptors abrogates the apoptotic response of PMA. Molecular analysis indicates the requirement of the extrinsic apoptotic cascade via the activation of death receptors and caspase-8. Dissecting the pathways downstream of PKC isozymes represents a major challenge to understanding the molecular basis of phorbol ester-induced apoptosis.
Studies on the Epitope of Neuronal Growth Inhibitory Factor (GIF) with Using of the Specific Antibody
Pang, Li-Yan ; Ru, Bing-Gen ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 646~649
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.6.646
Human neuronal growth inhibitory factor (GIF), a metalloprotein classified as metallothionein-3, is specifically expressed in mammal central nervous system (CNS). In these Studies the specific antibody to human GIF was prepared and used to search the epitope of human GIF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and sequence comparison. The result of ELISA showed the epitope of human GIF may locate on a octapeptide (EAAEAEAE) in the
-domain of human GIF, and the result of nerve cell culture indicated that the biological activity of GIF may be affected by the specific antibody.
Proteomic Analysis and Extensive Protein Identification from Dry, Germinating Arabidopsis Seeds and Young Seedlings
Fu, Qiang ; Wang, Bai-Chen ; Jin, Xiang ; Li, Hong-Bing ; Han, Pei ; Wei, Kai-Hua ; Zhang, Xue-Min ; Zhu, Yu-Xian ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 650~660
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.6.650
Proteins accumulated in dry, stratified Arabidopsis seeds or young seedlings, totaled 1100 to 1300 depending on the time of sampling, were analyzed by using immobilized pH gradient 2-DE gel electrophoresis. The molecular identities of 437 polypeptides, encoded by 355 independent genes, were determined by MALDI-TOF or TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. In the sum, 293 were present at all stages and 95 were accumulated during the time of radicle protrusion while another 18 appeared in later stages. Further analysis showed that 226 of the identified polypeptides could be located in different metabolic pathways. Proteins involved in carbohydrate, energy and amino acid metabolism constituted to about 1/4, and those involved in metabolism of vitamins and cofactors constituted for about 3% of the total signal intensity in gels prepared from 72 h seedlings. Enzymes related to genetic information processing increased very quickly during early imbibition and reached highest level around 30 h of germination.
Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Dysfunctions in Streptozotocin-induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats
Nabi, A.H.M. Nurun ; Islam, Laila N. ; Rahman, Mohanmmad Mahfuzur ; Biswas, Kazal Boron ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 661~667
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.6.661
Since conflicting results have been reported on non-specific immune response in type 1 diabetes, this study evaluates polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) functions in the infection free Long Evan diabetic rats (type 1) by using tests that include: polarization assay, phagocytosis of baker's yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye reduction. Polarization assay showed that neutrophils from diabetic rats were significantly activated at the basal level compared to those from the controls (p < 0.001). After PMN activation with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), control neutrophils were found to be more polarized than those of the diabetic neutrophils and the highest proportions of polarization were found to be 67% and 57% at
FMLP, respectively. In the resting state, neutrophils from the diabetic rats reduced significantly more NBT dye than that of the controls (p < 0.001). The percentages of phagocytosis of opsonized yeast cells by the neutrophils from control and diabetic rats were 87% and 61%, respectively and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Evaluation of the phagocytic efficiency of PMNs revealed that control neutrophils could phagocytose
whereas those from the diabetic rats phagocytosed
yeast cells, and the efficiency of phagocytosis varied significantly (p < 0.001). Further, both the percentages of phagocytosis and the efficiency of phagocytosis by the diabetic neutrophils were inversely related with the levels of their corresponding plasma glucose (p = 0.02; r = -0.498 and p < 0.05; r = -0.43, respectively), which indicated that increased plasma glucose reduced the phagocytic ability of neutrophils. Such relationship was not observed with the control neutrophils. These data clearly indicate that PMN functions are altered in the streptozotocin (STZ) - induced diabetic rats, and hyperglycemia may be the cause for the impairment of their functions leading to many infectious episodes.
Characterization and Expression Profile Analysis of a New cDNA Encoding Taxadiene Synthase from Taxus media
Kai, Guoyin ; Zhao, Lingxia ; Zhang, Lei ; Li, Zhugang ; Guo, Binhui ; Zhao, Dongli ; Sun, Xiaofen ; Miao, Zhiqi ; Tang, Kexuan ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 668~675
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.6.668
A full-length cDNA encoding taxadiene synthase (designated as TmTXS), which catalyzes the first committed step in the Taxol biosynthetic pathway, was isolated from young leaves of Taxus media by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of TmTXS had a 2586 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 862 amino acid residues. The deduced protein had isoelectric point (pI) of 5.32 and a calculated molecular weight of about 98 kDa, similar to previously cloned diterpene cyclases from other Taxus species such as T. brevifolia and T. chinenisis. Sequence comparison analysis showed that TmTXS had high similarity with other members of terpene synthase family of plant origin. Tissue expression pattern analysis revealed that TmTXS expressed strongly in leaves, weak in stems and no expression could be detected in fruits. This is the first report on the mRNA expression profile of genes encoding key enzymes involved in Taxol biosynthetic pathway in different tissues of Taxus plants. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that TmTXS had closest relationship with taxadiene synthase from T. baccata followed by those from T. chinenisis and T. brevifolia. Expression profiles revealed by RT-PCR under different chemical elicitor treatments such as methyl jasmonate (MJ), silver nitrate (SN) and ammonium ceric sulphate (ACS) were also compared for the first time, and the results revealed that expression of TmTXS was all induced by the tested three treatments and the induction effect by MJ was the strongest, implying that TmTXS was high elicitor responsive.
Functional Identification of an 8-Oxoguanine Specific Endonuclease from Thermotoga maritima
Im, Eun-Kyoung ; Hong, Chang-Hyung ; Back, Jung-Ho ; Han, Ye-Sun ; Chung, Ji-Hyung ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 676~682
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.6.676
To date, no 8-oxoguanine-specific endonuclease-coding gene has been identified in Thermotoga maritima of the order Thermotogales, although its entire genome has been deciphered. However, the hypothetical protein Tm1821 from T. maritima, has a helix-hairpin-helix motif that is considered to be important for DNA binding and catalytic activity. Here, Tm1821 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, protease digestion, and gel filtration. Tm1821 protein was found to efficiently cleave an oligonucleotide duplex containing 8-oxoguanine, but Tm1821 had little effect on other substrates containing modified bases. Moreover, Tm1821 strongly preferred DNA duplexes containing an 8-oxoguanine:C pair among oligonucleotide duplexes containing 8-oxoguanine paired with four different bases (A, C, G, or T). Furthermore, Tm1821 showed AP lyase activity and Schiff base formation with 8-oxoguanine in the presence of
, which suggests that it is a bifunctional DNA glycosylase. Tm1821 protein shares unique conserved amino acids and substrate specificity with an 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon. Thus, the DNA recognition and catalytic mechanisms of Tm1821 protein are likely to be similar to archaeal repair protein, although T. maritima is an eubacterium.
Expression of Hepatitis B Virus S Gene in Pichia pastoris and Application of the Product for Detection of Anti-HBs Antibody
Hu, Bo ; Liang, Minjian ; Hong, Guoqiang ; Li, Zhaoxia ; Zhu, Zhenyu ; Li, Lin ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 683~689
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.6.683
Antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAb) is the important serological marker of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Conventionally, the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) obtained from the plasma of HBV carriers is used as the diagnostic antigen for detection of HBsAb. This blood-origin antigen has some disadvantages involved in high cost, over-elaborate preparation, risk of infection, et al. In an attempt to explore the suitable recombinant HBsAg for the diagnostic purpose, the HBV S gene was expressed in Pichia pastoris and the product was applied for detection of HBsAb. Hepatitis B virus S gene was inserted into the yeast vector and the expressed product was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrolamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), immunoblot, electronic microscope and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The preparations of synthesized S protein were applied to detect HBsAb by sandwich ELISA. The S gene encoding the 226 amino acid of HBsAg carrying ahexa-histidine tag at C terminus was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris. The His-Tagged S protein in this strain was expressed at a level of about 14.5% of total cell protein. Immunoblot showed the recombinant HBsAg recognized by monoclonal HBsAb and there was no cross reaction between all proteins from the host and normal sera. HBsAb detection indicated that the sensitivity reached 10 mIu (micro international unit)/ml and the specificity was 100% with HBsAb standard of National Center for Clinical Laboratories. A total of 293 random sera were assayed using recombinant S protein and a commercial HBsAb ELISA kit (produced by blood-origin HBsAg), 35 HBsAb positive sera and 258 HBsAb negative sera were examined. The same results were obtained with two different reagents and there was no significant difference in the value of S/CO between the two reagents. The recombinant HBV S protein with good immunoreactivity and specificity was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris. The reagent for HBsAb detection prepared by Pichia pastoris-derived S protein showed high sensitivity and specificity for detection of HBsAb standard. And a good correlation was obtained between the reagent produced by recombinant S protein and commercial kit produced by blood-origin HBsAg in random samples.
DNA Light-strand Preferential Recognition of Human Mitochondria Transcription Termination Factor mTERF
Nam, Sang-Chul ; Kang, Chang-Won ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 690~694
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.6.690
Transcription termination of the human mitochondrial genome requires specific binding to termination factor mTERF. In this study, mTERF was produced in E. coli and purified by two-step chromatography. mTERF-binding DNA sequences were isolated from a pool of randomized sequences by the repeated selection of bound sequences by gel-mobility shift assay and polymerase chain reaction. Sequencing and comparison of the 23 isolated clones revealed a 16-bp consensus sequence of 5'-GTG
AGANCCNGG-3' in the light-strand (underlined residues were absolutely conserved), which nicely matched the genomic 13-bp terminator sequence 5'-
AGAGCCCGG-3'. Moreover, mTERF binding assays of heteroduplex and single-stranded DNAs showed mTERF recognized the light strand in preference to the heavy strand. The preferential binding of mTERF with the light-strand may explain its distinct orientation-dependent termination activity.
Cloning and Molecular Characterization of groESL Heat-Shock Operon in Methylotrophic Bacterium Methylovorus Sp. Strain SS1 DSM 11726
Eom, Chi-Yong ; Kim, Eung-Bin ; Ro, Young-Tae ; Kim, Si-Wouk ; Kim, Young-Min ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 695~702
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.6.695
The groESL bicistronic operon of a restricted facultative methylotrophic bacterium Methylovorus sp. strain SS1 DSM 11726 was cloned and characterized. It was found to consist of two ORFs encoding proteins with molecular masses of 11,395 and 57,396 daltons, which showed a high degree of homology to other bacterial GroES and GroEL proteins. The genes were clustered in the transcription order groES-groEL. Northern blot analyses suggested that the groESL operon is transcribed as a bicistronic 2.2-kb mRNA, the steady-state level of which was markedly increased by temperature elevation. Primer extension analysis demonstrated one potential transcription start site preceding the groESL operon, which is located 100bp upstream of the groES start codon. The transcription start site was preceded by a putative promoter region highly homologous to the consensus sequences of Escherichia coli
-type heat shock promoter, which functioned under both normal and heat shock conditions in E. coli. Heat shock mRNA was maximally produced by Methylovorus sp. strain SS1 approximately 10min after increasing the temperature from 30 to
. The groESL operon was also induced by hydrogen peroxide or salt shock.
Human Brain Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate Phosphatase: Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies
Kim, Dae-Won ; Eum, Won-Sik ; Choi, Hee-Soon ; Kim, So-Young ; An, Jae-Jin ; Lee, Sun-Hwa ; Sohn, Eun-Joung ; Hwang, Seok-Il ; Kwon, Oh-Shin ; Kang, Tae-Cheon ; Won, Moo-Ho ; Cho, Sung-Woo ; Lee, Kil-Soo ; Park, Jin-Seu ; Choi, Soo-Young ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 703~708
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.6.703
We cloned and expressed human pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) phosphatase, the coenzymatically active form of vitamin
, in Escherichia coli using pET15b vector. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were generated against purified human brain PLP phosphatase in mice, and four antibodies recognizing different epitopes were obtained, one of which inhibited PLP phosphatase. The binding affinities of these four mAbs to PLP phosphatase, as determined using biosensor technology, showed that they had similar binding affinities. Using the anti-PLP phosphatase antibodies as probes, we investigated their cross-reactivities in various mammalian and human tissues and cell lines. The immunoreactive bands obtained on Western blots had molecular masses of ca. 33 kDa. Similarly fractionated extracts of several mammalian cell lines all produced a single band of molecular mass 33 kDa. We believe that these PLP phosphatase mAbs could be used as valuable immunodiagnostic reagents for the detection, identification, and characterization of various neurological diseases related to vitamin
Endoplasmic Reticulum Mediated Necrosis-like Apoptosis of HeLa Cells Induced by Ca
Hu, Qingliu ; Chang, Junlei ; Tao, Litao ; Yan, Guoliang ; Xie, Mingchao ; Wang, Zhao ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 709~716
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.6.709
Apoptosis and necrosis are distinguished by modality primarily. Here we show an apoptosis occurred instantly, induced by
W-7 ((N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride), inhibitor of calmodulin), which demonstrated necrotic modality. As early as 30 min after W-7 addition, apoptotic (sub-diploid) peak could be detected by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS), “DNA ladders” began to emerge also at this time point, activity of caspase-3 elevated obviously within this period. Absence of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) reduction and cytochrome c, AIF (apoptosis inducing factor) release, verified that this rapid apoptosis did not proceed through mitochondria pathway. Activation of caspase-12 and changes of other endoplasmic reticulum (ER) located proteins ascertained that ER pathway mediated this necrosis-like apoptosis. Our findings suggest that it is not credible to judge apoptosis by modality. Elucidation of ER pathway is helpful to comprehend the pathology of diseases associated with ER stress, and may offer a new approach to the therapy of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.
Expression of Cholera Toxin B Subunit and Assembly as Functional Oligomers in Silkworm
Gong, Zhao-Hui ; Jin, Hui-Qing ; Jin, Yong-Feng ; Zhang, Yao-Zhou ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 717~724
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.6.717
The nontoxic B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) can significantly increase the ability of proteins to induce immunological tolerance after oral administration, when it was conjugated to various proteins. Recombinant CTB offers great potential for treatment of autoimmune disease. Here we firstly investigated the feasibility of silkworm baculovirus expression vector system for the cost-effective production of CTB under the control of a strong polyhedrin promoter. Higher expression was achieved via introducing the partial non-coding and coding sequences (ATAAAT and ATGCCGAAT) of polyhedrin to the 5' end of the native CTB gene, with the maximal accumulation being approximately 54.4 mg/L of hemolymph. The silkworm bioreactor produced this protein vaccine as the glycoslated pentameric form, which retained the GM1-ganglioside binding affinity and the native antigenicity of CTB. Further studies revealed that mixing with silkworm-derived CTB increases the tolerogenic potential of insulin. In the nonconjugated form, an insulin : CTB ratio of 100 : 1 was optimal for the prominent reduction in pancreatic islet inflammation. The data presented here demonstrate that the silkworm bioreactor is an ideal production and delivery system for an oral protein vaccine designed to develop immunological tolerance against autoimmune diabetes and CTB functions as an effective mucosal adjuvant for oral tolerance induction.
Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins in Imatinib Mesylate-resistant Chronic Myelogenous Cells
Park, Jung-Eun ; Kim, Sang-Mi ; Oh, Jong-K. ; Kim, Jin-Y. ; Yoon, Sung-Soo ; Lee, Dong-Soon ; Kim, Young-Soo ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 725~738
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.6.725
Resistance to imatinib mesylate (also known as Gleevec, Glivec, and STI571) often becomes a barrier to the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). In order to identify markers of the action of imatinib mesylate, we used a mass spectrometry approach to compare protein expression profiles in human leukemia cells (K562) and in imatinib mesylate-resistant human leukemia cells (K562-R) in the presence and absence of imatinib mesylate. We identified 118 differentially regulated proteins in these two leukemia cell-lines, with and without a
imatinib mesylate challenge. Nine proteins of unknown function were discovered. This is the first comprehensive report regarding differential protein expression in imatinib mesylate-treated CML cells.
Molecular Cloning and Bioinformatic Analysis of SPATA4 Gene
Liu, Shang-Feng ; Ai, Chao ; Ge, Zhong-Qi ; Liu, Hai-Luo ; Liu, Bo-Wen ; He, Shan ; Wang, Zhao ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 739~747
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.6.739
Full-length cDNA sequences of four novel SPATA4 genes in chimpanzee, cow, chicken and ascidian were identified by bioinformatic analysis using mouse or human SPATA4 cDNA fragment as electronic probe. All these genes have 6 exons and have similar protein molecular weight and do not localize in sex chromosome. The mouse SPATA4 sequence is identified as significantly changed in cryptorchidism, which shares no significant homology with any known protein in swissprot databases except for the homologous genes in various vertebrates. Our searching results showed that all SPATA4 proteins have a putative conserved domain DUF1042. The percentages of putative SPATA4 protein sequence identity ranging from 30% to 99%. The high similarity was also found in 1 kb promoter regions of human, mouse and rat SPATA4 gene. The similarities of the sequences upstream of SPATA4 promoter also have a high proportion. The results of searching SymAtlas (http://symatlas.gnf.org/SymAtlas/) showed that human SPATA4 has a high expression in testis, especially in testis interstitial, leydig cell, seminiferous tubule and germ cell. Mouse SPATA4 was observed exclusively in adult mouse testis and almost no signal was detected in other tissues. The pI values of the protein are negative, ranging from 9.44 to 10.15. The subcellular location of the protein is usually in the nucleus. And the signal peptide possibilities for SPATA4 are always zero. Using the SNPs data in NCBI, we found 33 SNPs in human SPATA4 gene genomic DNA region, with the distribution of 29 SNPs in the introns. CpG island searching gives the data about CpG island, which shows that the regions of the CpG island have a high similarity with each other, though the length of the CpG island is different from each other.This research is a fundamental work in the fields of the bioinformational analysis, and also put forward a new way for the bioinformatic analysis of other genes.
Activation of Defense Responses in Chinese Cabbage by a Nonhost Pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato
Park, Yong-Soon ; Jeon, Myeong-Hoon ; Lee, Sung-Hee ; Moon, Jee-Sook ; Cha, Jae-Soon ; Kim, Hak-Yong ; Cho, Tae-Ju ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 748~754
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.6.748
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) causes a bacterial speck disease in tomato and Arabidopsis. In Chinese cabbage, in which host-pathogen interactions are not well understood, Pst does not cause disease but rather elicits a hypersensitive response. Pst induces localized cell death and
accumulation, a typical hypersensitive response, in infiltrated cabbage leaves. Pre-inoculation with Pst was found to induce resistance to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, a pathogen that causes soft rot disease in Chinese cabbage. An examination of the expression profiles of 12 previously identified Pst-inducible genes revealed that the majority of these genes were activated by salicylic acid or BTH; however, expressions of the genes encoding PR4 and a class IV chitinase were induced by ethephon, an ethylene-releasing compound, but not by salicylic acid, BTH, or methyl jasmonate. This implies that Pst activates both salicylate-dependent and salicylate-independent defense responses in Chinese cabbage.
Epstein-Barr Virus-infected Akata Cells Are Sensitive to Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor TSA-provoked Apoptosis
Kook, Sung-Ho ; Son, Young-Ok ; Han, Seong-Kyu ; Lee, Hyung-Soon ; Kim, Beom-Tae ; Jang, Yong-Suk ; Choi, Ki-Choon ; Lee, Keun-Soo ; Kim, So-Soon ; Lim, Ji-Young ; Jeon, Young-Mi ; Kim, Jong-Ghee ; Lee, Jeong-Chae ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 755~762
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.6.755
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects more than 90% of the world's population and has a potential oncogenic nature. A histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), has shown potential ability in cancer chemoprevention and treatment, but its effect on EBV-infected Akata cells has not been examined. This study investigated the effect of TSA on the proliferation and apoptosis of the cells. TSA inhibited cell growth and induced cytotoxicity in the EBV infected Akata cells. TSA treatment sensitively induced apoptosis in the cell, which was demonstrated by the increased number of positively stained cells in the TUNEL assay, the migration of many cells to the sub-
phase in flow cytometric analysis, and the ladder formation of genomic DNA. Western blot analysis showed that caspase-dependent pathways are involved in the TSA-induced apoptosis of EBV-infected Akata cells. Overall, this study shows that EBV-infected B lymphomas are quite sensitive to TSA-provoked apoptosis.
A Method for Direct Application of Human Plasmin on a Dithiothreitol-containing Agarose Stacking Gel System
Choi, Nack-Shick ; Chung, Dong-Min ; Yoon, Kab-Seog ; Maeng, Pil-Jae ; Kim, Seung-Ho ;
BMB Reports , volume 38, issue 6, 2005, Pages 763~765
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2005.38.6.763
A new simplified procedure for identifying human plasmin was developed using a DTT copolymerized agarose stacking gel (ASG) system. Agarose (1%) was used for the stacking gel because DTT inhibits the polymerization of acrylamide. Human plasmin showed the lowest activity at pH 9.0. There was a similar catalytically active pattern observed under acidic conditions (pH 3.0) to that observed under alkaline conditions (pH 10.0 or 11.0). Using the ASG system, the primary structure of the heavy chain could be established at pH 3.0. This protein was found to consist of three fragments, 45 kDa, 23 kDa, and 13 kDa. These results showed that the heavy chain has a similar structure to the autolysed plasmin (Wu et al., 1987b) but there is a different start amino acid sequence of the N-termini.