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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 39, Issue 6 - Nov 2006
Volume 39, Issue 5 - Sep 2006
Volume 39, Issue 4 - Jul 2006
Volume 39, Issue 3 - May 2006
Volume 39, Issue 2 - Mar 2006
Volume 39, Issue 1 - Jan 2006
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NSAID Activated Gene (NAG-1), a Modulator of Tumorigenesis
Eling, Thomas E. ; Baek, Seung-Joon ; Shim, Min-sub ; Lee, Chang-Ho ;
BMB Reports , volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 649~655
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.6.649
The NSAID activated gene (NAG-1), a member of the TGF-
superfamily, is involved in tumor progression and development. The over-expression of NAG-1 in cancer cells results in growth arrest and increase in apoptosis, suggesting that NAG-1 has anti-tumorigenic activity. This conclusion is further supported by results of experiments with transgenic mice that ubiquitously express human NAG-1. These transgenic mice are resistant to the development of intestinal tumors following treatment with azoxymethane or by introduction of a mutant APC gene. In contrast, other data suggest a pro-tumorigenic role for NAG-1, for example, high expression of NAG-1 is frequently observed in tumors. NAG-1 may be like other members of the TGF-
superfamily, acting as a tumor suppressor in the early stages, but acting pro-tumorigenic at the later stages of tumor progression. The expression of NAG-1 can be increased by treatment with drugs and chemicals documented to prevent tumor formation and development. Most notable is the increase in NAG-1 expression by the inhibitors of cyclooxygenases that prevent human colorectal cancer development. The regulation of NAG-1 is complex, but these agents act through either p53 or EGR-1 related pathways. In addition, an increase in NAG-1 is observed in inhibition of the AKT/GSK-
pathway, suggesting NAG-1 alters cell survival. Thus, NAG-1 expression is regulated by tumor suppressor pathways and appears to modulate tumor progression.
Silymarin Modulates Cisplatin-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatotoxicity in Rats
Mansour, Heba Hosny ; Hafez, Hafez Farouk ; Fahmy, Nadia Mohamed ;
BMB Reports , volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 656~661
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.6.656
Cisplatin (CDDP) is a widely used anticancer drug, but at high dose, it can produce undesirable side effects such as hepatotoxicity. Because silymrin has been used to treat liver disorders, the protective effect of silymarin on CDDP -induced hepatotoxicity was evaluated in rats. Hepatotoxicity was determined by changes in serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST], nitric oxide [NO] levels, albumin and calcium levels, and superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione peroxidase [GSHPx] activities, glutathione content, malondialdehyde [MDA] and nitric oxide [NO] levels in liver tissue of rats. Male albino rats were divided into four groups, 10 rats in each. In the control group, rats were injected i.p. with 0.2 ml of propylene glycol in saline 75/25 (v/v) for 5 consecutive days [Silymarin was dissolved in 0.2 ml of propylene glycol in saline 75/25 v/v]. The second group were injected with CDDP (7.5 mg /kg, I.P.), whereas animals in the third group were i.p. injected with silymarin at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days. The Fourth group received a daily i.p. injection of silymarin (100 mg/kg/day for 5 days) 1 hr before a single i.p. injection of CDDP (7.5 mg/kg). CDDP hepatotoxicity was manifested biochemically by an increase in serum ALT and AST, elevation of MDA and NO in liver tissues as well as a decrease in GSH and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including SOD, GSHPx in liver tissues. In addition, marked decrease in serum NO, albumin and calcium levels were observed. Serum ALT, AST, liver NO level, MDA was found to decreased in the combination group in comparison with the CDDP group. The activities of SOD, GSHPx, GSH and serum NO were lower in CDDP group than both the control and CDDP pretreated with silymarin groups. The results obtained suggested that silymarin significantly attenuated the hepatotoxicity as an indirect target of CDDP in an animal model of CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity.
Mistletoe Lectin (Viscum album coloratum) Modulates Proliferation and Cytokine Expressions in Murine Splenocytes
Lyu, Su-Yun ; Park, Won-Bong ;
BMB Reports , volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 662~670
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.6.662
It is well documented that an extract of European mistletoe has a variety of biological effects, such as the stimulation of cytokine production from immune cells, and additional immunoadjuvant activities. While the European mistletoe has been studied intensively, we know less about Korean mistletoe as a therapeutic plant, especially as a possible immunomodulating drug. This study will investigated the effects of Korean mistletoe lectin (Viscum album L. var. coloratum agglutinin, VCA) on murine splenocytes to investigate whether VCA acts as an immunomodulator, which could lead to improved immune responses in these cells. The results showed that VCA inhibited cell proliferation at higher concentrations (at 1-8 ng/ml) and enhanced cell proliferation at lower concentrations (at 4-32 pg/ml). Further studies were carried out to determine if the pro-proliferative or anti-proliferative activity exhibited by VCA was correlated with cytokine secretion. Consequently, interferon (IFN)-
secretion was decreased in concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated murine splenocytes by VCA (4-64 ng/ml), but there was no change in IL-4 levels. This suggests that VCA has the ability to modulate murine splenocyte proliferation and can possibly act on the balance of Th1/Th2 cellular immune responses.
Purification and Characterization of Protein Phosphatase 2A from Petals of the Tulip Tulipa gesnerina
Azad, Md. Abul Kalam ; Sawa, Yoshihiro ; Ishikawa, Takahiro ; Shibata, Hitoshi ;
BMB Reports , volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 671~676
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.6.671
The holoenzyme of protein phosphatase (PP) from tulip petals was purified by using hydrophobic interaction, anion exchange and microcystin affinity chromatography to analyze activity towards p-nitrophenyl phosphate (p-NPP). The catalytic subunit of PP was released from its endogenous regulatory subunits by ethanol precipitation and further purified. Both preparations were characterized by immunological and biochemical approaches to be PP2A. On SDS-PAGE, the final purified holoenzyme preparation showed three protein bands estimated at 38, 65, and 75 kDa while the free catalytic subunit preparation showed only the 38 kDa protein. In both preparations, the 38 kDa protein was identified immunologically as the catalytic subunit of PP2A by using a monoclonal antibody against the PP2A catalytic subunit. The final 623- and 748-fold purified holoenzyme and the free catalytic preparations, respectively, exhibited high sensitivity to inhibition by 1 nM okadaic acid when activity was measured with p-NPP. The holoenzyme displayed higher stimulation in the presence of ammonium sulfate than the free catalytic subunit did by protamine, thereby suggesting different enzymatic behaviors.
Overexpressed Derlin-1 Inhibits ER Expansion in the Endothelial Cells Derived from Human Hepatic Cavernous Hemangioma
Hu, Dong ; Ran, Yu-Liang ; Zhong, Xing ; Hu, Hai ; Yu, Long ; Lou, Jin-Ning ; Sun, Li-Xing ; Yang, Zhi-Hua ;
BMB Reports , volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 677~685
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.6.677
Proteins that are unfolded or misfolded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) must be targeted for refolding or degradation to maintain the homeostasis of the ER. Derlin-1 was reportedly implicated in the retro-translocation of misfolded proteins from the ER to the cytosol for degradation. In this report, we showed that Derlin-1 was down-regulated in the endothelial cells derived from human hepatic cavernous hemangioma (CHEC) compared with other tested cells. Electron microscopy analysis showed that ER was aberrantly enlarged in CHEC cells, but not in other tested cells. When overexpressed, Derlin-1 induced the dilated ER to return normal size. This ER dynamic was associated with the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR). In CHEC cells where Derlin-1 was down-regulated, increased expression of the immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein (Bip) and UPR-specific splicing of X-box DNA-binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA were detected, as compared with that in other tested cells, indicating that UPR was activated. After Derlin-1 overexpression, the extent of UPR activation diminished, as evidenced by decreased expression of Bip, reduced amount of the spliced form of XBP1 (
), and elevated expression of the unspliced form of XBP1 (
). Taken together, these findings provide another example of a single protein being able to affect ER dynamic in mammalian cells, and an insight into the possible molecular mechanism(s).
Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Expression Analysis of an ILF2 Homologue from Tetraodon nigroviridis
Wang, Hui-Ju ; Shao, Jian-Zhong ; Xiang, Li-Xin ; Shen, Jia ;
BMB Reports , volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 686~695
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.6.686
Interleukin-2 enhancer binding factor 2 (ILF2) was reported to regulate transcription of interleukin-2 (IL-2), a central cytokine in the regulation of T-cell responses. This property of ILF2 was well characterized in human and mammals, but little is known in bony fish. In this paper, an ILF2 homologue was cloned and well characterized from Tetraodon nigrovirid is for the further investigation of the function of ILF2 in bony fish. The full-length Tetraodon ILF2 cDNA was 1380 bp in size and contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1164 bp that translates into a 387 amino-acid peptide with a molecular weight of 42.9 kDa, a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 57 bp, and a 3' UTR of 159 bp containing a poly A tail. The deduced peptide of Tetraodon ILF2 shared an overall identity of 58%~93% with other known ILF2 sequences, and contained two N-glycosylation sites, two N-myristoylation sites, one RGD cell attachment sequence, six protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, one amino-terminal RGG-rich single-stranded RNA-binding domain, and a DZF zinc-finger nucleic acid binding domain, most of which were highly conserved through species compared. Constitutive expression of Tetraodon ILF2 was observed in all tissues examined, including gill, gut, head kidney, spleen, liver, brain and heart. The highest expression was detected in heart, followed by liver, head kidney and brain. Stimulation with LPS did not significantly alter the expression of Tetraodon ILF2. Gene organization analysis showed that the Tetraodon ILF2 gene have fifteen exons, one more than other known ILF2 genes in human and mouse. Genes up- and down-stream from the Tetraodon ILF2 were Rpa12, Peroxin-11b, Smad4, Snapap and Txnip homologue, which were different from that in human and mouse.
Development of High-specificity Antibodies against Renal Urate Transporters Using Genetic Immunization
Xu, Guoshuang ; Chen, Xiangmei ; Wu, Di ; Shi, Suozhu ; Wang, Jianzhong ; Ding, Rui ; Hong, Quan ; Feng, Zhe ; Lin, Shupeng ; Lu, Yang ;
BMB Reports , volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 696~702
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.6.696
Recently three proteins, playing central roles in the bidirectional transport of urate in renal proximal tubules, were identified: two members of the organic anion transporter (OAT) family, OAT1 and OAT3, and a protein that designated renal urate-anion exchanger (URAT1). Antibodies against these transporters are very important for investigating their expressions and functions. With the cytokine gene as a molecular adjuvant, genetic immunization-based antibody production offers several advantages including high specificity and high recognition to the native protein compared with current methods. We fused high antigenicity fragments of the three transporters to the plasmids pBQAP-TT containing T-cell epitopes and flanking regions from tetanus toxin, respectively. Gene gun immunization with these recombinant plasmids and two other adjuvant plasmids, which express granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand, induced high level immunoglobulin G antibodies, respectively. The native corresponding proteins of URAT1, OAT1 and OAT3, in human kidney can be recognized by their specific antibodies, respectively, with Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Besides, URAT1 expression in Xenopus oocytes can also be recognized by its corresponding antibody with immuno-fluorescence. The successful production of the antibodies has provided an important tool for the study of UA transporters.
The Effect of Protein Expression of Streptococcus pneumoniae by Blood
Bae, Song-Mee ; Yeon, Sun-Mi ; Kim, Tong-Soo ; Lee, Kwang-Jun ;
BMB Reports , volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 703~708
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.6.703
During infection, the common respiratory tract pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae encounters several environmental conditions, such as upper respiratory tract, lung tissue, and blood stream, etc. In this study, we examined the effects of blood on S. pneumoniae protein expression using a combination of highly sensitive 2-dimensional electrophoresis (DE) and MALDI-TOF MS and/or LC/ESI-MS/MS. A comparison of expression profiles between the growth in THY medium and THY supplemented with blood allowed us to identify 7 spots, which increased or decreased two times or more compared with the control group: tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, lactate oxidase, glutamyl-aminopeptidase, L-lactate dehydrogenase, cysteine synthase, ribose-phosphate pyrophosphokinase, and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase. This global approach can provide a better understanding of S. pneumoniae adaptation to its human host and a clue for its pathogenicity.
Screening of Domain-specific Target Proteins of Polo-like Kinase 1: Construction and Application of Centrosome/Kinetochore-specific Targeting Peptide
Ji, Jae-Hoon ; Jang, Young-Joo ;
BMB Reports , volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 709~716
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.6.709
Mammalian polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) acts at various stages in early and late mitosis. Plk1 localizes at the centrosome and maintains this position through mitosis. Thereafter Plk1 moves to the kinetochore and midbody region, important sites during chromosome separation and cytokinesis. The catalytic domain of Plk1 is in the N-terminus region, whereas the non-catalytic region in the C-terminus of Plk1 has a conserved motif, named the Polobox. This motif is critical for Plk localization. EGFP proteins fused with the N-terminus and C-terminus of Plk1 localize in the nucleus and centrosomes, respectively. The core sequences of the polo-box (50 amino acids) also localize in Plk1 target organelles. To screen for domain-specific target proteins of Plk1, we constructed an N-terminal domain and a tandem repeat polo-box motif, and used them as templates in a yeast two-hybrid screen. The HeLa cell cDNA library indicated several proteins including the centrosome/kinetochore components or regulators, to be characterized as positive clones. Through in vitro protein binding analyses, we confirmed an interaction between these proteins and Plk1. The data reported from this study indicate that the N- and C- termini of Plk1 may function through recruitment and/or activation of domain-specific target proteins in dividing cells. Additionally, tandem repeats of the conserved core motif of the polo-box are sufficient for targeting and may be useful as a centrosome/kinetochore-specific targeting peptide.
High Level Expression of a Protein Precursor for Functional Studies
Gathmann, Sven ; Rupprecht, Eva ; Schneider, Dirk ;
BMB Reports , volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 717~721
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.6.717
In vitro analyses of type I signal peptidase activities require protein precursors as substrates. Usually, these pre-proteins are expressed in vitro and cleavage of the signal sequence is followed by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with autoradiography. Radioactive amino acids have to be incorporated in the expressed protein, since the amount of the in vitro expressed protein is usually very low and processing of the signal peptide cannot be followed by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis alone. Here we describe a rapid and simple method to express large amounts of a protein precursor in E. coli. We have analyzed the effect of ionophors as well as of azide on the accumulation of expressed protein precursors. Azide blocks the function of SecA and the ionophors dissipate the electrochemical gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli. Addition of azide ions resulted in the formation of inclusion bodies, highly enriched with pre-apo-plastocyanine. Plastocyanine is a soluble copper protein, which can be found in the periplasmic space of cyanobacteria as well as in the thylakoid lumen of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts, and the pre-protein contains a cleavable signal sequence at its N-terminus. After purification of cyanobacterial pre-apo-plastocyanine, its signal sequence can be cleaved off by the E. coli signal peptidase, and protein processing was followed on Coomassie stained SDS polyacrylamide gels. We are optimistic that the presented method can be further developed and applied.
3-Hydrogenkwadaphnin Induces Monocytic Differentiation and Enhances Retinoic Acid-mediated Granulocytic Differentiation in NB4 Cell Line
Moosavi, Mohammad Amin ; Yazdanparast, Razieh ; Lotfi, Abbas ;
BMB Reports , volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 722~729
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.6.722
Recently, we have reported that 3-hydrogenkwadaphnin (3-HK), a diterpene ester isolated from Dendrostellera lessertii (Thymealeaceae), is very effective against leukemia cell lines without any detectable effects on normal cells (Moosavi et al., 2005b). In this study, we report that 3-HK induces
cell-cycle arrest, differentiation and apoptosis in APL NB4 cell line. Indeed, the drug between 24 to 96 h induced 7-65% growth inhibition of NB4 cells. Cell viability was also decreased by 2-55% between 24 to 96 h treatments with the drug, respectively. These effects of the drug were also dose-dependent. According to flow cytomtry results, 3-HK (15 nM) induced a significant G1-arrest up to 24 h which was consequently followed with appearance of sub-
peak at 72 to 96 h. Hoechst 33258 staining and DNA fragmentation assays confirmed the occurrence of apoptosis among the treated cells. On the other hand, NBT reducing assay, Wright-Giemsa staining, phagocytic activity and expression of cell surface markers (CD11b and CD14) confirmed that the inhibition of proliferation is associated with differentiation especially toward macrophage-like morphology. Interestingly, 3-HK at 5 and 10 nM enhanced the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in NB4 cells. Based on these results, 3-HK might become an ideal candidate for treatment of APL patients pending full exploration of its biological functions.
Adenovirus-mediated Expression of Both Antisense Ornithine Decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase Induces G
Arrest in HT-29 Cells
Gong, Lei ; Jiang, Chunying ; Zhang, Bing ; Hu, Haiyan ; Wang, Wei ; Liu, Xianxi ;
BMB Reports , volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 730~736
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.6.730
To evaluated the effect of recombinant adenovirus Ad-ODC-AdoMetDCas which can simultaneously express both antisense ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) on cell cycle distribution in colorectal cancer cell and investigated underlying regulatory responses, human colorectal cancer cells HT-29 were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium and infected with Ad-ODC-AdoMetDCas. Cell cycle progression was detected by flow cytometry analysis. The expression levels of cell cycle regulated proteins were measured by Western blot analysis. The mRNA level of cyclin D1 was measured by RT-PCR. And a luciferase reporter plasmid of cyclin D1 promoter was constructed to observe the effect of Ad-ODC-AdoMetDCas on cyclin D1 promoter activity. The results showed that recombinant adenovirus Ad-ODC-AdoMetDCas significantly induced
arrest, decreased levels of cyclin D1 protein and mRNA and suppressed the promoter activity. Ad-ODC-AdoMetDCas also inhibited nuclear translocation of
-catenin. In conclusion, downregulation of ODC and AdoMetDC mediated by Ad-ODC-AdoMetDCas transfection induces
arrest in HT-29 cells and the arrest was associated with suppression of cyclin D1 expression and inhibition of
-catenin nuclear translocation. As a new anticancer reagent, the recombinant adenovirus Ad-ODC-AdoMetDCas holds promising hope for the therapy of colorectal cancers.
Characterization of a Late Gene, ORF60 from Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus
Du, Meng-Fang ; Yin, Xin-Ming ; Guo, Zhong-Jian ; Zhu, Liang-Jun ;
BMB Reports , volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 737~742
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.6.737
Open reading frame 60 of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (Bm60) is located between 56,673 and 57,479 bp in the BmNPV genome which encodes 268 amino acid residues with predicted molecular weight of 31.0 kDa. Bm60 and its homologues have been identified in 11 completely sequenced lepidopteran NPVs. The transcript of Bm60 was detected by RT-PCR at 18-72 h post-infection (p.i.), while the corresponding protein could be detected at 24-72 h p.i. in BmNPV-infected BmN cells by Western blot analysis using a polyclonal antibody against Bm60. The expression of Bm60 was inhibited in the presence of Ara-c, an inhibitor of viral DNA synthesis. These results together indicated that Bm60 was a late gene. The size of Bm60 product was found to be a 31 kDa in BmNPV-infected BmN cells, consistent with predicted molecular weight. Immuno-fluoresence analysis showed that the Bm60 product was first detected in the cytoplasm at 24 h p.i and also located in nucleus during later infection. In conclusion, the available data suggest that Bm60 is a functional ORF of BmNPV and encodes a 31kDa protein expressed in the later stage of infection cycle.
Cooperation between Human DAF and CD59 in Protecting Cells from Human Complement-mediated Lysis
Xu, Li ; Wu, Wenlan ; Zhao, Zhouzhou ; Shao, Huanjie ; Liu, Wanhong ; Liu, Hui ; Li, Wenxin ;
BMB Reports , volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 743~748
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.6.743
The complement (C) regulatory proteins decay accelerating factor (DAF, CD55) and CD59 could protect host cells using different mechanisms from C-mediated damage at two distinct levels within the C pathway. Co-expression of DAF and CD59 would be an effective strategy to help overcome host C-induced xenograft hyperacute rejection. In this study, we made a construct of recombinant expression vector containing DAF and CD59 cDNA and the stable cell lines were obtained by G418 selection. Extraneous genes integration and co-expression were identified by PCR, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Human c-mediated cytolysis assays showed that NIH/3T3 cells transfected stably with pcDNA3-CD59, pcDNA3-DAF, and pcDNA3-CD59DAF-DP were protected from C-mediated damage and that synchronously expressed human CD59 and DAF provided the most excellent protection for host cells as compared with either human CD59 or DAF expressed alone. Therefore, the construct represents an effective and efficacy strategy to overcome C-mediated damage in cells and, ultimately, in animals.
Cloning and Characterization of the HSP70 Gene, and Its Expression in Response to Diapauses and Thermal Stress in the Onion Maggot, Delia antiqua
Chen, Bin ; Kayukawa, Takumi ; Monteiro, Antonia ; Ishikawa, Yukio ;
BMB Reports , volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 749~758
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.6.749
The cytosolic members of the HSP70 family of proteins play key roles in the molecular chaperone machinery of the cell. In the study we cloned and sequenced the full-length cDNA of Delia antiqua HSP70 gene, which is 2461 bp long and encodes 643 a.a. with a calculated molecular mass of 70,787 Da. We investigated gene copies of cytosolic HSP70 members of 4 insect species with complete genome available, and found that they are quite variable with species. In order to characterize this protein we carried out an alignment and a phylogenetic analysis with 41 complete protein sequences from insects. The analysis divided the cytosolic members of the family into two classes, HSP70 and HSC70, distinguishable on the basis of 15 residues. HSP70 class members were slightly shorter in length and smaller in molecular mass relative to the HSC70 class members, and the conservative and functional regions in these sequences were documented. Mainly, we investigated the expression of Delia antiqua HSP70 gene, in response to diapauses and thermal stresses. Both summer and winter diapauses elevated HSP70 transcript levels. Cold-stress led to increased HSP70 expression levels in summer- and winter-diapausing pupae, but heat-stress elevated the levels only in the winter-diapausing pupae. In all cases, the expression levels, after being elevated, gradually decreased with time. HSP70 expression was low in non-diapausing pupae but was up-regulated following cold- and heat-stresses. Heat-stress gradually increased the mRNA level with time whereas cold-stress gradually decreased levels after an initial increase.
Nitric Oxide Synthase Expressions in ADR-induced Cardiomyopathy in Rats
Liu, Baogang ; Li, Hongli ; Qu, Hongyan ; Sun, Baogui ;
BMB Reports , volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 759~765
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.6.759
In this study, we investigate Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expressions in adriamycin (ADR)-induced cadiomyopathy in rats. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two main groups: control and ADR groups. Myocardial histopathological observation was performed; Expressions of 3 isoforms of NOS genes were examined by RT-PCR analysis; Expressions of 3 isoforms of NOS protein was assessed by Western blot analysis. Myocardium exhibited intensive morphological changes after 8 weeks of ADR treatment. The expression levels of inducible NOS (iNOS) gene and protein were significantly increased in ADR-treated rats after 8 weeks of treatment and then slightly increased at weeks 9 and 10. No significantly difference of neuronal NOS (nNOS) or endothelial NOS (eNOS) gene and protein were observed in the myocardium obtained from the control rats and ADR-injected rats at any time point. iNOS gene expression is selectively induced by ADR in heart. The upregulation of iNOS gene and protein may be somehow correlated with morphological changes seen in heart of rat treated with ADR.
Fragile-X Mental Retardation: Molecular Diagnosis in Argentine Patients
Florencia, Giliberto ; Irene, Szijan ; Veronica, Ferreiro ;
BMB Reports , volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 766~773
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.6.766
Fragile-X-syndrome (FXS) is the most common type of inherited cognitive impairment. The underlying molecular alteration consists of a CGG-repeat amplification within the FMR-1 gene. The phenotype is only apparent once a threshold in the number of repeats has been exceeded (full mutation). The aim of this study was to characterize the FMR-1 CGG-repeat status in Argentine patients exhibiting mental retardation. A total of 330 blood samples from patients were analyzed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Initially, DNA from 78 affected individuals were studied by PCR. Since this method is unable to detect high molecular weight alleles, however, we undertook a second approach using the Southern blotting technique to analyze the CGG repeat number and methylation status. Southern blot analysis showed an altered pattern in 14 out of 240 (6%) unrelated patients, with half of them presenting a mosaic pattern. Eight out of 17 families (47%) showed a (suggest deleting highlight). The characteristic FXS pattern was identified in 8/17 families (47%), and in 4 of these families 25% of the individuals presented with a mosaic model. The expansion from pre-mutation to full mutation was shown to occur both at the pre and post zygotic levels. The detection of FXS mutations has allowed us to offer more informed genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis and reliable patient follow-up.
Doxorubicin Binds to Un-phosphorylated Form of hNopp140 and Reduces Protein Kinase CK2-Dependent Phosphorylation of hNopp140
Kim, Yun-Kyoung ; Lee, Won-Kyu ; Jin, Young-nam ; Lee, Kong-Joo ; Jeon, Hye-sung ; Yu, Yeon-Gyu ;
BMB Reports , volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 774~781
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.6.774
Human nucleolar phosphoprotein p140 (hNopp140) is a nucleolar phosphoprotein that can bind to doxorubicin, an anti-cancer agent. We have examined the interaction between hNopp140 and doxorubicin as well as the folding property of hNopp140. Also, the effects of ATP and phosphorylation on the affinity of hNopp140 to doxorubicin are investigated by affinity dependent co-precipitation and surface plasmon resonance methods. Doxorubicin preferentially binds to un-phosphorylated form of hNopp140 with a
M. Furthermore, doxorubicin reduces the protein kinase CK2-dependent phosphorylation of hNopp140, indicating that doxorubicin may perturb the cellular function of hNopp140 by reducing the protein kinase CK2-dependent phosphorylation of hNopp140. Low contents of the secondary structures of hNopp140 and the fast rate of proteolysis imply that hNopp140 has a high percentage of flexible regions or extended loop structures.
Characterization of Choristoneura fumiferana Genes of the Sixth Subunit of the Origin Recognition Complex: CfORC6
Wang, Xaiochun ; Carstens, Eric B. ; Feng, Qili ;
BMB Reports , volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 782~787
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.6.782
A new protein was cloned and identified as the sixth subunit of Choristoneura fumiferana origin recognition complex (CfORC6). The newly identified 43 kDa protein CfORC6 is much bigger than DmORC6 (25.7 kDa) and HsORC6 (28.1 kDa), though it's 23.85% identical to DmORC6 and 23.81% identical to HsORC6. Although the molecular weight of CfORC6 is close to ScORc6 (50 kDa), CfORC6 is only 14.03% identical to ScORC6. By alignment, it was found that the N-terminal of CfORC6 has about 30% identities with other ORC6s, but about 100aa of C-terminal of CfORC6 has no identity with other ORC6s. Like ScORC6, CfORC6 has many potential phosphorylation sites, (S/T)PXK. Like DmORC6, CfORC6 has leucine-rich region in the relevant site. Northern Blot showed that CfORC6 mRNA is about 2,000nt. Southern Blot confirmed that there is one copy of CfORC6 gene in spruce budworm genome. Western blot showed that infection of Cf124T cells with CfMNPV didn't affect the expression levels of CfORC6, at least up to 26 hr post infection.
Identification of Immunostimulatory Oligodeoxynucleotide from Escherichia coli Genomic DNA
Choi, Yong-Jun ; Lee, Keun-Wook ; Kwon, Hyung-Joo ; Kim, Doo-Sik ;
BMB Reports , volume 39, issue 6, 2006, Pages 788~793
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.6.788
Bacterial DNA containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs can stimulate antigen-presenting cells to express co-stimulatory molecules and to produce various cytokines in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we fragmented macromolecular E.coli genomic DNA with DNase I, and analyzed the ability of the resulting DNA fragments to induce the NF-
activation and humoral immune response. Furthermore, using computational analysis and luciferase assay for synthetic ODNs based on the sequence of the immunostimulatory DNA fragments (DF-ODNs), an active component of DF-ODNs sequences was investigated. Experimental results demonstrated that DF-ODN is optimal for the NF-
-responsive promoter activation in the mouse macrophage cell line and the humoral immune response in vivo. In agreement with the activity of the DF-ODNs processed by DNase I, a synthetic ODN based on the DF-ODN sequences is potent at inducing IL-12 mRNA expression in primary dendritic cells. These results suggest that the discovery and characterization of a highly active natural CpG-ODN may be achieved by the analyses of bacterial DNA fragments generated by a nuclease activity.