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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 40, Issue 6 - Nov 2007
Volume 40, Issue 5 - Sep 2007
Volume 40, Issue 4 - Jul 2007
Volume 40, Issue 3 - May 2007
Volume 40, Issue 2 - Mar 2007
Volume 40, Issue 1 - Jan 2007
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Pathophysiological Roles of ASK1-MAP Kinase Signaling Pathways
Nagai, Hiroaki ; Noguchi, Takuya ; Takeda, Kohsuke ; Ichijo, Hidenori ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.1.001
Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase that activates JNK and p38 kinases. ASK1 is activated by various stresses, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and calcium influx which are thought to be responsible for the pathogenesis or exacerbations of various human diseases. Recent studies revealed the involvement of ASK1 in ROS- or ER stressrelated diseases, suggesting that ASK1 may be a potential therapeutic target of various human diseases. In this review, we focus on the current findings for the relationship between pathogenesis and ASK1-MAPK pathways.
Biochemical Study of Recombinant PcrA from Staphylococcus aureus for the Development of Screening Assays
Dubaele, Sandy ; Martin, Christophe ; Bohn, Jacqueline ; Chene, Patrick ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 7~14
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.1.007
Helicases are ubiquitous enzymes, which utilize the energy liberated during nucleotide triphosphate hydrolysis to separate double-stranded nucleic acids into single strands. These enzymes are very attractive targets for the development of new antibacterial compounds. The PcrA DNA helicase from Staphylococcus aureus is a good candidate for drug discovery. This enzyme is unique in the genome of S. aureus and essential for this bacterium. Furthermore, it has recently been published that it is possible to identify inhibitors of DNA helicases such as PcrA. In this report, we study the properties of recombinant PcrA from S. aureus purified from Escherichia coli to develop ATPase and helicase assays to screen for inhibitors.
Alternative Splicing of Breast Cancer Associated Gene BRCA1 from Breast Cancer Cell Line
Lixia, Miao ; Zhijian, Cao ; Chao, Shen ; Chaojiang, Gu ; Congyi, Zheng ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 15~21
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.1.015
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women, and mutations in the BRCA1 gene produce increased susceptibility to these malignancies in certain families. In this study, the forward 1-13 exons of breast cancer associated gene BRCA1 were cloned from breast cancer cell line ZR-75-30 by RT-PCR method. Sequence analysis showed that nine BRCA1 splice forms were isolated and characterized, compared with wild-type BRCA1 gene, five splice forms of which were novel. These splice isoforms were produced from the molecular mechanism of 5` and 3` alternative splicing. All these splice forms deleting exon 11b and the locations of alternative splicing were focused on two parts:one was exons 2 and 3, and the other was exons 9 and 10. These splice forms accorded with GT-AG rule. Most these BRCA1 splice variants still kept the original reading frame. Western blot analysis indicated that some BRCA1 splice variants were expressed in ZR-75-30 cell line at the protein level. In addition, we confirmed the presence of these new transcripts of BRCA1 gene in MDA-MB-435S, K562, Hela, HLA, HIC, H9, Jurkat and human fetus samples by RT-PCR analysis. These results suggested that breast cancer associated gene BRCA1 may have unexpectedly a large number of splice variants. We hypothesized that alternative splicing of BRCA1 possibly plays a major role in the tumorigenesis of breast and/or ovarian cancer. Thus, the identification of cancer-specific splice forms will provide a novel source for the discovery of diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers and tumor antigens suitable as targets for therapeutic intervention.
Molecular Cloning and Expression of Grass Carp MyoD in Yeast Pichia pastoris
Wang, Lixin ; Bai, Junjie ; Luo, Jianren ; Chen, Hong ; Ye, Xing ; Jian, Qing ; Lao, Haihua ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 22~28
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.1.022
MyoD, expressed in skeletal muscle lineages of vertebrate embryo, is one of muscle-specific basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, which plays a key role in the determination and differentiation of all skeletal muscle lineages. In this study, a cDNA of grass carp MyoD was cloned and characterized from total RNA of grass carp embryos by RT-PCR. The full-length cDNA of grass carp MyoD is 1597 bp. The cDNA sequence analysis reveals an open reading frame of 825 bp coding for a protein of 275 amino acids, which includes a bHLH domain composed of basic domain (1-84th amino acids) and HLH domain (98-142th amino acids), without signal peptide. Then the MyoD cDNA of grass carp was cloned to yeast expression vector pPICZ
A and transformed into P. pastoris GS115 strain, the recombinant MyoD protein with a molecular weight of about 31KD was obtained after inducing for 2d with 0.5% methanol in pH 8.0 BMGY medium, and the maximum yield was about 250 mg/L in shaking-flask fermentation. The results were expected to benefit for further studies on the crystal structure and physiological function of fish MyoD.
A Comparison of Ghrelin, Glucose, Alpha-amylase and Protein Levels in Saliva from Diabetics
Aydin, Suleyman ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 29~35
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.1.029
During the past decade, many salivary parameters have been used to characterize disease states. Ghrelin (GAH) is recently-discovered peptide hormone secreted mainly from the stomach but also produced in a number of other tissues including salivary glands. The aim of this work was to examine the relationship between active (aGAH) and inactive (dGAH) ghrelin in the saliva and other salivary parameters in type II diabetic patients and healthy controls. Salivary parameters were assessed in a single measurement of unstimulated whole saliva from 20 obese and 20 non-obese type II diabetes patients, and in 22 healthy controls. Total protein and alpha-amylase were determined by colorimetric methods, and glucose by the glucose-oxidase method. Saliva aGAH and dGAH levels were measured using a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit. Salivary concentrations of aGAH and dGAH ghrelin were more markedly decreased in obese diabetic subjects than in the two other groups. Glucose and alpha-amylase levels were higher in diabetic subjects than in controls. Furthermore, there were correlations between GAH levels and BMI, and between GAH and blood pressure. However, there was no marked variability in saliva flow rates among the groups. These results indicate that measurement of salivary GAH and its relationship to other salivary parameters might help to provide insight into the role of ghrelin in diabetes.
IL-4 Suppresses UVB-induced Apoptosis in Skin
Hwang, Ha-Young ; Choi, Soo-Young ; Kim, Tae-Yoon ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 36~43
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.1.036
In this study, cutaneous role of IL-4 in UVB-induced apoptosis was investigated using transgenic mice with skin-specific expression of IL-4 (IL-4 Tg mice). The transgenic mice did not show any gross clinical abnormalities. However, epidermis was thickened and increased MHC class II positive cells were detected as well as enhanced expression of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 and TNF-
in skin. In addition, histological analysis revealed increased infiltration of lymphocytes, acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, and parakeratosis in skin of IL-4 Tg mice. The physiological effect of IL-4 overexpression in skin against environmental stimulus such as UVB was investigated by irradiating wild-type and IL-4 Tg mice with UVB followed by evaluation of apoptosis. The result demonstrated suppressed apoptosis in epidermis of IL-4 Tg mice compared with wild-type mice. To further assess anti-apoptotic function of IL-4 in keratinocytes, stable cell clones were made where IL-4 was constitutively overexpressed and examined for UVB-induced apoptosis. The results showed that apoptosis was remarkably decreased in IL-4 over-expressing cell clones compared with that in mock transfected cells. Collectively, data presented here shows that IL-4 has an inhibitory effect against UVB-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes, suggesting that IL-4 may be an important regulator in cutaneous immunity against UVB.
Two Kinesins from Arabidopsis, KatB and KatC, Have a Second Microtubule-binding Site in the Tail Domain
Jiang, Shiling ; Li, Ming ; Xu, Tao ; Ren, Dongtao ; Liu, Guoqin ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 44~52
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.1.044
Kinesins, as a kind of microtubule-based motor proteins, have a conserved microtubule-binding site in their motor domain. Here we report that two homologous kinesins in Arabidopsis thaliana, KatB and KatC, contain a second microtubule-binding site in their tail domains. The prokaryotic-expressed N-terminal tail domain of the KatC heavy chain can bind to microtubules in an ATP-insensitive manner. To identify the precise region responsible for the binding, a serious of truncated KatC cDNAs encoding KatC N-terminal regions in different lengths, KatC1-128, KatC1-86, KatC1-73 and KatC1-63, fused to Histidine-tags, were expressed in E. coli and affinity-purified. Microtubule cosedimentation assays show that the site at amino acid residues 74-86 in KatC is important for microtubule-binding. By similarity, we obtained three different lengths of KatB N-terminal regions, KatB1-384, KatB1-77, and KatB1-63, and analyzed their microtubule-binding ability. Cosedimentation assays indicate that the KatB tail domain can also bind to microtubules at the same site as and in a similar manner to KatC. Fluorescence microscopic observations show that the microtubule-binding site at the tail domain of KatB or KatC can induce microtubules bundling only when the stalk domain is present. Through pull-down assays, we show that KatB1-385 and KatC1-394 are able to interact specifically with themselves and with each other in vitro. These findings are significant for identifying a previously uncharacterized microtubule-binding site in the two kinesin proteins, KatB and KatC, and the functional relations between them.
HQNO-sensitive NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase of Bacillus cereus KCTC 3674
Kang, Ji-Won ; Kim, Young-Jae ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 53~57
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.1.053
The enzymatic properties of NADH:quinone oxidoreductase were examined in Triton X-100 extracts of Bacillus cereus membranes by using the artificial electron acceptors ubiquinone-1 and menadione. Membranes were prepared from B. cereus KCTC 3674 grown aerobically on a complex medium and oxidized with NADH exclusively, whereas deamino-NADH was determined to be poorly oxidized. The NADH oxidase activity was lost completely by solubilization of the membranes with Triton X-100. However, by using the artificial electron acceptors ubiquinone-1 and menadione, NADH oxidation could be observed. The activities of NADH:ubiquinone-1 and NADH:menadione oxidoreductase were enhanced approximately 8-fold and 4-fold, respectively, from the Triton X-100 extracted membranes. The maximum activity of FAD-dependent NADH:ubiquinone-1 oxidoreductase was obtained at about pH 6.0 in the presence of 0.1M NaCl, while the maximum activity of FAD-dependent NADH:menadione oxidoreductase was obtained at about pH 8.0 in the presence of 0.1M NaCl. The activities of the NADH:ubiquinone-1 and NADH:menadione oxidoreductase were very resistant to such respiratory chain inhibitors as rotenone, capsaicin, and
, whereas these activities were sensitive to 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (HQNO). Based on these results, we suggest that the aerobic respiratory chain-linked NADH oxidase system of B. cereus KCTC 3674 possesses an HQNO-sensitive NADH:quinone oxidoreductase that lacks an energy coupling site containing FAD as a cofactor.
High Level of Soluble Expression in Escherichia coli and Characterisation of the Cloned Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba Domain III Fragment
Chayaratanasin, Poramed ; Moonsom, Seangdeun ; Sakdee, Somsri ; Chaisri, Urai ; Katzenmeier, Gerd ; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 58~64
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.1.058
Similar to the other known structures of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry
-endotoxins, the crystal structure of the 65-kDa activated Cry4Ba toxin comprises three domains which are, from the N- to C-terminus, a bundle of
-helices, a three-
-sheet domain, and a
-sandwich. To investigate the properties of the C-terminal domain III in isolation from the rest of the toxin, the cloned Cry4Ba-domain III was over-expressed as a 21-kDa soluble protein in Escherichia coli, which cross-reacted with anti-Cry4Ba domain III monoclonal antibody. A highly-purified domain III was obtained in a monomeric form by ion-exchange and size-exclusion FPLC. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the isolated domain III fragment distinctly exists as a
-sheet structure, corresponding to the domain III structure embodied in the Cry4Ba crystal structure. In vitro binding analysis via immuno-histochemical assay revealed that the Cry4Ba-domain III protein was able to bind to the apical microvilli of the susceptible Stegomyia aegypti larval midguts, albeit at lower-binding activity when compared with the full-length active toxin. These results demonstrate for the first time that the C-terminal domain III of the Cry4Ba mosquito-larvicidal protein, which can be isolated as a native folded monomer, conceivably participates in toxin-receptor recognition.
Helicoverpa armigera Nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF80 Encodes a Late, Nonstructural Protein
Wang, Dun ; Zhang, Chuan-Xi ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 65~71
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.1.065
The Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) ORF80 (ha80) has 765 bp encoding a protein with approximately 254 amino acids and a predicted molecular weight of 30.8 kDa. Homologues of ha80 are found in most baculovirus sequences, including those from lepidopteran NPVs, lepidopteran granuloviruses (GVs), hymenopteran baculoviruses, and one dipteran baculovirus, yet their functions remain unclear. In this study we characterized ha80, and showed that it was transcribed late in infected host cells (HzAM1). The product of ha80 was a 31 kDa protein that was not a structural protein of budded virus (BV) or occlusion-derived virus (ODV) particles. Ha80 was first detected in the cytoplasm of infected HzAM1 cells at 12 h p.i., and was observed in the nucleus at later stages of infection, suggesting that it may be involved in transporting viral proteins into the host cell nucleus or play its roles in the nucleus.
Proteomic Analysis of the Aging-related Proteins in Human Normal Colon Epithelial Tissue
Li, Ming ; Xiao, Zhi-Qiang ; Chen, Zhu-Chu ; Li, Jian-Ling ; Li, Cui ; Zhang, Peng-Fei ; Li, Mao-Yu ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 72~81
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.1.072
In order to screen the aging related proteins in human normal colon epithelia, the comparative proteomics analysis was applied to get the two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) profiles with high resolution and reproducibility from normal colon epithelial tissues of young and aged people. Differential proteins between the colon epithelia of two age groups were found with PDQuest software. The thirty five differential protein-spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) and database searching. Among them there are sixteen proteins which are significantly up-regulated in the colonic mucosal epithelia of young people group, which include ATP synthase beta chain, electron transfer flavoprotein alpha-subunit, catalase, glutathione peroxidase 1, annexin A2 and heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, etc.; There are nineteen proteins which are significantly up-regulated in the colonic mucosal epithelia of aged people group, which include far upstream element-binding protein 1, nucleoside diphosphate kinase B, protein disulfide-isomerase precursor and VDAC-2, etc.. The identified differential proteins appear to be involved in metabolism, energy generation, chaperone, antioxidation, signal transduction, protein folding and apoptosis. The data will help to understand the molecular mechanisms of human colon epithelial aging.
Enhanced Expression of High-affinity Iron Transporters via H-ferritin Production in Yeast
Kim, Kyung-Suk ; Chang, Yu-Jung ; Chung, Yun-Jo ; Park, Chung-Ung ; Seo, Hyang-Yim ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 82~87
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.1.082
Our heterologous expression system of the human ferritin H-chain gene (hfH) allowed us to characterize the cellular effects of ferritin in yeasts. The recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YGH2) evidenced impaired growth as compared to the control, which was correlated with ferritin expression and with the formation of core minerals. Growth was recovered via the administration of iron supplements. The modification of cellular iron metabolism, which involved the increased expression of high-affinity iron transport genes (FET3 and FTR1), was detected via Northern blot analysis. The findings may provide some evidence of cytosolic iron deficiency, as the genes were expressed transcriptionally under iron-deficient conditions. According to our results examining reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation via the fluorescence method, the ROS levels in YGH2 were decreased compared to the control. It suggests that the expression of active H-ferritins reduced the content of free iron in yeast. Therefore, present results may provide new insights into the regulatory network and pathways inherent to iron depletion conditions.
NF-κB-dependent Regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Gene Expression by Lipopolysaccharide in a Macrophage Cell Line RAW 264.7
Rhee, Jae-Won ; Lee, Keun-Wook ; Kim, Dong-Bum ; Lee, Young-Hee ; Jeon, Ok-Hee ; Kwon, Hyung-Joo ; Kim, Doo-Sik ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 88~94
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.1.088
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a pivotal role in the turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) and in the migration of normal and tumor cells in response to normal physiologic and numerous pathologic conditions. Here, we show that the transcription of the MMP-9 gene is induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in cells of a macrophage lineage (RAW 264.7 cells). We provide evidence that the NF-
B binding site of the MMP-9 gene contributes to its expression in the LPS-signaling pathway, since mutation of NF-
B binding site of MMP-9 promoter leads to a dramatic reduction in MMP-9 promoter activation. In addition, the degradation of l
;, and the presences of myeloid differentiation protein (MyD88) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated kinase 6 (TRAF6) were found to be required for LPS-activated MMP-9 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that functional interaction between NF-
B and the MMP-9 promoter element is necessary for LPS-activated MMP-9 induction in RAW 264.7 cells. In conclusion, our observations demonstrate that NF-
B contributes to LPS-induced MMP-9 gene expression in a mouse macrophage cell line.
BcSNPdb: Bovine Coding Region Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Located Proximal to Quantitative Trait Loci
Moon, Sun-Jin ; Shin, Hyoung-Doo ; Cheong, Hyun-Sub ; Cho, Hye-Young ; NamGoong, Sohg ; Kim, Eun-Mi ; Han, Chang-Su ; Sung, Sam-Sun ; Kim, Hee-Bal ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 95~99
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.1.095
Bovine coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms located proximal to quantitative trait loci were identified to facilitate bovine QTL fine mapping research. A total of 692,763 bovine SNPs was extracted from 39,432 UniGene clusters, and 53,446 candidate SNPs were found to be a depth >3. In order to validate the in silico SNPs experimentally, 186 animals representing 14 breeds and 100 mixed breeds were analyzed. Genotyping of 40 randomly selected candidate SNPs revealed that 43% of these SNPs ranged in frequency from 0.009 to 0.498. To identify non-synonymous SNPs and to correct for possible frameshift errors in the ESTs at the predicted SNP positions, we designed a program that determines coding regions by protein-sequence referencing, and identified 17,735 nsSNPs. The SNPs and bovine quantitative traits loci informations were integrated into a bovine SNP data: BcSNPdb (http://snugenome.snu.ac.kr/BtcSNP/). Currently there are 43 different kinds of quantitative traits available. Thus, these SNPs would serve as valuable resources for exploiting genomic variation that influence economically and agriculturally important traits in cows.
Biochemical Characterization of the Dual Positional Specific Maize Lipoxygenase and the Dependence of Lagging and Initial Burst Phenomenon on pH, Substrate, and Detergent during Pre-steady State Kinetics
Cho, Kyoung-Won ; Jang, Sung-Kuk ; Huon, Thavrak ; Park, Sang-Wook ; Han, Ok-Soo ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 100~106
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.1.100
The wound-inducible lipoxygenase obtained from maize is one of the nontraditional lipoxygenases that possess dual positional specificity. In this paper, we provide our results on the determination and comparison of the kinetic constants of the maize lipoxygenase, with or without detergents in the steady state, and characterization of the dependence of the kinetic lag phase or initial burst, on pH, substrate, and detergent in the pre-steady state of the lipoxygenase reaction. The oxidation of linoleic acid showed a typical lag phase in the pre-steady state of the lipoxygenase reaction at pH 7.5 in the presence of 0.25% Tween-20 detergent. The reciprocal correlation between the induction period and the enzyme level indicated that this lag phenomenon was attributable to the slow oxidative activation of Fe (II) to Fe (III) at the active site of the enzyme as observed in other lipoxygenase reactions. Contrary to the lagging phenomenon observed at pH 7.5 in the presence of Tween-20, a unique initial burst was observed at pH 6.2 in the absence of detergents. To our knowledge, the initial burst in the oxidation of linoleic acid at pH 6.2 is the first observation in the lipoxygenase reaction. Kinetic constants (Km and kcat values) were largely dependent on the presence of detergent. An inverse correlation of the initial burst period with enzyme levels and interpretations on kinetic constants suggested that the observed initial burst in the oxidation of linoleic acid could be due to the availability of free fatty acids as substrates for binding with the lipoxygenase enzyme.
ATP-independent Thermoprotective Activity of Nicotiana tabacum Heat Shock Protein 70 in Escherichia coli
Cho, Eun-Kyung ; Bae, Song-Ja ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 107~112
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.1.107
To study the functioning of HSP70 in Escherichia coli, we selected NtHSP70-2 (AY372070) from among three genomic clones isolated in Nicotiana tabacum. Recombinant NtHSP70-2, containing a hexahistidine tag at the amino-terminus, was constructed, expressed in E. coli, and purified by
affinity chromatography and Q Sepharose Fast Flow anion exchange chromatography. The expressed fusion protein,
-2 (hexahistidine-tagged Nicotiana tabacum heat shock protein 70-2), maintained the stability of E. coli proteins up to 90
. Measuring the light scattering of luciferase (luc) revealed that NtHSP70-2 prevents the aggregation of luc without ATP during high-temperature stress. In a functional bioassay (1 h at 50
) for recombinant
-2, E. coli cells overexpressing
-2 survived about seven times longer than those lacking
-2. After 2 h at 50
, only the E. coli overexpressing
-2 survived under such conditions. Our NtHSP70-2 bioassays, as well as in vitro studies, strongly suggest that HSP70 confers thermo-tolerance to E. coli.
Purification of a Pore-forming Peptide Toxin, Tolaasin, Produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii 6264
Cho, Kwang-Hyun ; Kim, Sung-Tae ; Kim, Young-Kee ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 113~118
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.1.113
Tolaasin, a pore-forming peptide toxin, is produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii and causes brown blotch disease of the cultivated mushrooms. P. tolaasii 6264 was isolated from the oyster mushroom damaged by the disease in Korean. In order to isolate tolaasin molecules, the supernatant of bacterial culture was harvested at the stationary phase of growth. Tolaasin was prepared by ammonium sulfate precipitation and three steps of chromatograpies, including a gel permeation and two ion exchange chromatographies. Specific hemolytic activity of tolaasin was increased from 1.7 to 162.0 HU
protein, a 98-fold increase, and the purification yield was 16.3%. Tolaasin preparation obtained at each purification step was analyzed by HPLC and SDS-PAGE. Two major peptides were detected from all chromatographic preparations. Their molecular masses were analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and they were identified as tolaasin I and tolaasin II. These results demonstrate that the method used in this study is simple, time-saving, and successful for the preparation of tolaasin.
Patterns of Plasma Fatty Acids in Rat Models with Adenovirus Infection
Paik, Man-Jeong ; Park, Ki-Ho ; Park, Joong-Jean ; Kim, Kyoung-Rae ; Ahn, Young-Hwan ; Shin, Gyu-Tae ; Lee, Gwang ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 119~124
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.1.119
Adenoviral vectors are among the most promising vectors available for human gene therapy. However, the use of recombinant adenoviral vectors, including replicationcompetent adenovirus (RCA), raises a variety of safety concerns in relation to the development of new therapies based on gene therapy. To examine how organic compounds change in rat plasma following the injection of adenovirus,
-galactosidase expressing recombinant adenovirus (designated rAdLacZ) or RCA, we investigated the content of fatty acids (FAs), which are important biochemical indicators in pathological conditions. Pattern recognition analysis on the level of FAs in rat plasma is described for the visual discrimination of adenovirus infection groups from normal controls. Plasma FAs from four control rats (normal group), and from four rats with rAdLacZ infection and six rats with RCA infection (the two abnormal groups), were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring modes as their tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives. In total, 20 FAs were positively detected and quantified. The results of the Student`s t-test on the normal mean of two abnormal groups, the levels of three FAs (p<0.05) from rAdLacZ group and eleven FAs (p<0.05) from RCA group were significantly different. When star symbol plotting was applied to the group mean values of 20 FAs after normalization to the corresponding normal mean values, the resulting eicosagonal star patterns of the two infected groups were distorted into similar shapes, but were distinguishable from each other. Thus, these approaches will be useful for screening and monitoring of diagnostic markers for the effects of infection following the use of adenoviral vectors in gene therapy.
Protective Effects of Histidine Dipeptides on the Modification of Neurofilament-L by the Cytochrome c/Hydrogen Peroxide System
Kim, Nam-Hoon ; Kang, Jung-Hoon ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 125~129
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.1.125
Neurofilament-L (NF-L) is a major element of the neuronal cytoskeleton and is essential for neuronal survival. Moreover, abnormalities in NF-L result in neurodegenerative disorders. Carnosine and the related endogeneous histidine dipeptides prevent protein modifications such as oxidation and glycation. In the present study, we investigated whether histidine dipeptides, carnosine, homocarnosine, or anserine protect NF-L against oxidative modification during reaction between cytochrome c and
. Carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine all prevented cytochrome c/
-mediated NF-L aggregation. In addition, these compounds also effectively inhibited the formation of dityrosine, and this inhibition was found to be associated with the reduced formations of oxidatively modified proteins. Our results suggest that carnosine and histidine dipeptides have antioxidant effects on brain proteins under pathophysiological conditions leading to degenerative damage, such as, those caused by neurodegenerative disorders.
Protein Kinase C-delta Stimulates Haptoglobin Secretion
Oh, Mi-Kyung ; Park, Seon-Joo ; Kim, Nam-Hoon ; Kim, In-Sook ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 1, 2007, Pages 130~134
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.1.130
Haptoglobin (Hp) is a glycoprotein that is produced by hepatic cells and secreted into the circulation. While studying the physiologic functions of Hp, we found that Hp synthesized in THP-1 monocytic cells was largely retained within cells, although Hp is considered a secretory protein. To investigate the molecular mechanism on Hp secretion in THP-1 cells, in the present study, we examined the effect of protein kinase C (PKC) on Hp secretion. When several inhibitors of PKC isoforms were tested, only Rottlerin, a specific inhibitor of PKC-
, completely blocked Hp secretion from cells to culture medium. To confirm the role of PKC-
in Hp secretion, Hp-overexpressing COS7 cells were transiently transfected with a wild-type or a dominantnegative mutant of the PKC-
gene. Mutant PKC-
significantly inhibited Hp secretion, whereas the wild-type gene slightly increased Hp secretion. These results demonstrate that the PKC-
signal is involved in Hp secretion.