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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 40, Issue 6 - Nov 2007
Volume 40, Issue 5 - Sep 2007
Volume 40, Issue 4 - Jul 2007
Volume 40, Issue 3 - May 2007
Volume 40, Issue 2 - Mar 2007
Volume 40, Issue 1 - Jan 2007
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Use of DNA Methylation for Cancer Detection and Molecular Classification
Zhu, Jingde ; Yao, Xuebiao ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 2, 2007, Pages 135~141
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.2.135
Conjugation of the methyl group at the fifth carbon of cytosines within the palindromic dinucleotide 5'-CpG-3' sequence (DNA methylation) is the best studied epigenetic mechanism, which acts together with other epigenetic entities: histone modification, chromatin remodeling and microRNAs to shape the chromatin structure of DNA according to its functional state. The cancer genome is frequently characterized by hypermethylation of specific genes concurrently with an overall decrease in the level of 5-methyl cytosine, the pathological implication of which to the cancerous state has been well established. While the latest genome-wide technologies have been applied to classify and interpret the epigenetic layer of gene regulation in the physiological and disease states, the epigenetic testing has also been seriously explored in clinical practice for early detection, refining tumor staging and predicting disease recurrence. This critique reviews the latest research findings on the use of DNA methylation in cancer diagnosis, prognosis and staging/classification.
Epigenetic Field for Cancerization
Ushijima, Toshikazu ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 2, 2007, Pages 142~150
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.2.142
Epigenetic alterations, represented by aberrant DNA methylation, are deeply involved in human cancers. In gastric cancers, tumor-suppressor genes are inactivated more frequently by promoter methylation than by mutations. We recently showed that H. pylori infection, a potent gastric carcinogenic factor, induces methylation of specific genes in the gastric mucosae. When the methylation levels were analyzed in the gastric mucosae of healthy volunteers, cases with a single gastric cancer, and cases with multiple gastric cancers, who have increasing levels of risks for gastric cancers, there was a significant increasing trend in the methylation levels among the individuals without current H. pylori infection. This finding unequivocally showed the presence of an epigenetic field for cancerization. The degree of the field defect was measured more conveniently using methylation levels of marker genes than using those of tumor-suppressor genes. The presence of an epigenetic field for cancerization has been indicated for liver, colon, Barrett's esophageal, lung, breast, and renal cancers. Since decreased transcription is involved in the specificity of methylated genes, it is likely that specific genes are methylated according to carcinogenic factors. These findings emphasize the usefulness of DNA methylation as a marker for past exposure to carcinogens and future risk of cancer development.
Epigenomics: Novel Aspect of Genomic Regulation
Cho, Hwan-Sung ; Park, Jong-Ho ; Kim, Young-Joon ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 2, 2007, Pages 151~155
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.2.151
An International Symposium on Epigenomics took place at Yonsei University, Korea in December, 2006. The meeting brought to light new aspects of genome regulation by DNA and protein modification.
The G23 and G25 Genes of Temperate Mycobacteriophage L1 Are Essential for The Transcription of Its Late Genes
Datta, Hirock Jyoti ; Mandal, Prajna ; Bhattacharya, Rajat ; Das, Niranjan ; Sau, Subrata ; Mandal, Nitai Chanda ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 2, 2007, Pages 156~162
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.2.156
Two lysis-defective but DNA synthesis non-defective temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of mycobacteriophage L1, L1G23ts23 and L1G25ts889 were found to be defective also in phage-specific RNA synthesis in the late period of their growth at 42
each to the extent of 50% of that at 32
The double mutant, L1G23ts23G25ts889 showed the ts defect in phage RNA synthesis that was nearly additive of those shown individually by the two single-mutant parents. Both G23 and G25 were shown to start functioning sometimes between 30 and 45 min after infection but the former gene might be dispensable after 45 min, while the latter was not. Northern analysis also shows that at 42
>, L1G23ts23 affects RNA synthesis more strongly than L1G25ts889 from L1 DNA segments that serve as the template for late gene transcription. Among the 21 virion and 12 non-virion late proteins synthesized by L1, L1G23ts23 is defective in the synthesis of at least 9 virion and all of non-virion proteins at 42
>. In contrast, L1G25ts889 is completely defective in synthesis of all the 33 late proteins. Possible roles of G23 and G25 in the positive regulation of transcription of different sets of late genes of L1 have been discussed.
Structurally Conserved Aromaticity of Tyr
in Helix 7 Is Important for Toxicity of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba Toxin
Tiewsiri, Kasorn ; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 2, 2007, Pages 163~171
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.2.163
Functional elements of the conserved helix 7 in the poreforming domain of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry
- endotoxins have not yet been clearly identified. Here, we initially performed alanine substitutions of four highly conserved aromatic residues,
, in helix 7 of the Cry4Ba mosquito-larvicidal protein. All mutant toxins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli as 130-kDa protoxins at levels comparable to the wild-type. Bioassays against Stegomyia aegypti mosquito larvae revealed that only W243A, Y249A or F264A mutant toxins displayed a dramatic decrease in toxicity. Further mutagenic analysis showed that replacements with an aromatic residue particularly at
still retained the high-level toxin activity. In addition, a nearly complete loss in larvicidal activity was found for Y249L/F264L or F264A/ Y249A double mutants, confirming the involvement in toxicity of both aromatic residues which face towards the same direction. Furthermore, the Y249L/F264L mutant was found to be structurally stable upon toxin solubilisation and trypsin digestion, albeit a small change in the circular dichroism spectrum. Altogether, the present study provides for the first time an insight into the highly conserved aromaticity of
within helix 7 playing an important role in larvicidal activity of the Cry4Ba toxin.
PCR-mediated Recombination of the Amplification Products of the Hibiscus tiliaceus Cytosolic Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene
Wu, Linghui ; Tang, Tian ; Zhou, Renchao ; Shi, Suhua ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 2, 2007, Pages 172~179
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.2.172
PCR-mediated recombination describes the process of in vitro chimera formation from related template sequences present in a single PCR amplification. The high levels of genetic redundancy in eukaryotic genomes should make recombination artifacts occur readily. However, few evolutionary biologists adequately consider this phenomenon when studying gene lineages. The cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GapC), which encodes a NADP-dependent nonphosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the cytosol, is a classical lowcopy nuclear gene marker and is commonly used in molecular evolutionary studies. Here, we report on the occurrence of PCR-mediated recombination in the GapC gene family of Hibiscus tiliaceus. The study suggests that recombinant areas appear to be correlated with DNA template secondary structures. Our observations highlight that recombination artifacts should be considered when studying specific and allelic phylogenies. The authors suggest that nested PCR be used to suppress PCRmediated recombination.
Aldosterone Up-regulates Production of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 by Renal Mesangial Cells
Yuan, Jun ; Jia, Ruhan ; Bao, Yan ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 2, 2007, Pages 180~188
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.2.180
In vivo studies have demonstrated that aldosterone is an independent contributor to glomerulosclerosis. In the present study, we have investigated whether aldosterone itself mediated glomerulosclerosis, as angiotensin II (Ang II) did, by inducing cultured renal mesangial cells to produce plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and whether these effects were mediated by aldosterone-induced increase in transforming growth factor
) expression and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity. Quiescent rat mesangial cells were treated by aldosterone alone or by combination of aldosterone and spironolactone, Ang II, neutralizing antibody to TGF-
or antioxidant Nacetylcysteme (NAC). This study indicate that aldosterone can increase PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression by cultured mesangial cells alone, which is independent of aldosterone-induced increases in TGF-
expression and cellular ROS. The effects on PAI-1, TGF-
and ROS generation were markedly attenuated by spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, which demonstrate that mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) may play a role in mediating these effects of aldosterone.
Transduced PEP-1-Grb7 Fusion Protein Suppressed LPS-induced COX-2 Expression
An, Jae-Jin ; Kim, So-Young ; Lee, Sun-Hwa ; Kim, Dae-Won ; Ryu, Hea-Jin ; Yeo, Seung-Il ; Jang, Sang-Ho ; Kwon, Hyung-Joo ; Kim, Tae-Yoon ; Lee, Sang-Chul ; Poo, Ha-Ryoung ; Cho, Sung-Woo ; Lee, Kil-Soo ; Park, Jin-Seu ; Eum, Won-Sik ; Choi, Soo-Young ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 2, 2007, Pages 189~195
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.2.189
Although the incidence and severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) is steadily increasing at an alarming rate, its pathogenic mechanisms remain poorly understood yet. Recently, we found that the expression of Grb7 protein was markedly decreased in AD patients using proteomic analysis. In the present study, human Grb7 gene was fused with PEP-1 peptide in a bacterial expression vector to produce a genetic in-frame PEP-1-Grb7 fusion protein. The expressed and purified PEP-1-Grb7 fusion proteins transduced efficiently into skin cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner when added exogenously in culture media. Once inside the cells, the transduced PEP-1-Grb7 protein was stable for 48 h. In addition, transduced PEP-1-Grb7 fusion protein markedly increased cell viability in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells treated with LPS by inhibition of the COX-2 expression level. These results suggest that the PEP-1-Grb7 fusion protein can be used in protein therapy for inflammatory skin disorders, including AD.
Requirement for ERK Activity in Sodium Selenite-induced Apoptosis of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia-derived NB4 Cells
Han, Bingshe ; Wei, Wei ; Hua, Fangyuan ; Cao, Tingming ; Dong, Hua ; Yang, Tao ; Yang, Yang ; Pan, Huazhen ; Xu, Caimin ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 2, 2007, Pages 196~204
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.2.196
Our previous study has shown that sodium selenite can cause apoptosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia-derived NB4 cells in a caspase-dependent manner, but the detailed mechanism is unknown. Here we demonstrate a requirement for extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) in mediating sodium selenite -induced apoptosis in NB4 cell. Though no apparent elevation of ERK activity was observed during the apoptosis in NB4 cells caused by 20 μM sodium selenite treatment, PD98059 and U0126, specific chemical inhibitors of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway, were shown to strongly prevent the apoptosis process, while ERK activator TPA enhanced the process. It is also known that p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 and JNK inhibitor SP600125 had slight effects on apoptosis. Further study indicated that ERK exerted its proapoptotic effect only at the early stage of apoptosis and played an antiapoptotic role at the later stages. Taken together, our findings suggest that ERK plays an active role in mediating sodium seleniteinduced apoptosis in NB4 cells .
Thermodynamic Analysis of the Low- to Physiological-Temperature Nondenaturational Conformational Change of Bovine Carbonic Anhydrase
Hollowell, Heather N. ; Younvanich, Saronya S. ; McNevin, Stacey L. ; Britt, B. Mark ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 2, 2007, Pages 205~211
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.2.205
The stability curve - a plot of the Gibbs free energy of unfolding versus temperature - is calculated for bovine erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase in 150 mM sodium phosphate (pH = 7.0) from a combination of reversible differential scanning calorimetry measurements and isothermal guanidine hydrochloride titrations. The enzyme possesses two stable folded conformers with the conformational transition occurring at ~30
. The methodology yields a stability curve for the complete unfolding of the enzyme below this temperature but only the partial unfolding, to the molten globule state, above it. The transition state thermodynamics for the low- to physiological-temperature conformational change are calculated from slow-scan-rate differential scanning calorimetry measurements where it is found that the free energy barrier for the conversion is 90 kJ/mole and the transition state possesses a substantial unfolding quality. The data therefore suggest that the x-ray structure may differ considerably from the physiological structure and that the two conformers are not readily interconverted.
Expression of AGR-2 in Chicken Oviduct during Laying Period
Kim, Nam-Soo ; Shen, Yan-Nan ; Kim, Tae-Yoon ; Byun, Sung-June ; Jeon, Ik-Soo ; Kim, Sang-Hoon ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 2, 2007, Pages 212~217
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.2.212
The chicken oviduct is a dynamic organ that produces secretory proteins such as ovalbumin during the laying period. In this study, we identified oviduct-specific proteins in hens during the egg-laying period by proteomic analysis. Proteins extracted from the magnum of hens of different ages (5, 35, and 65 weeks) were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to compare the intensity of proteins among samples. Approximately 300 spots were detected on each gel. Based on the comparison of image gels, we found that the intensity of eight spots in 35-week magnums was increased at least by 2-fold compared with the others. Five of the eight spots were identified as calumenin, acidic ribosomal phosphoproteins (ARP), prohibitin, heart fatty acid-binding protein, and anterior gradient-2 (AGR-2). In particular, ARP and AGR-2 were highly expressed in 35- week magnums compared with 5- and 65-week magnums. In addition, the level of these proteins was consistent with their RNA levels. Expression of AGR-2 mRNA was detected in the mature magnum, whereas no signal was observed in premature tissue. Among various tissues, expression of AGR-2 mRNA was highest in the magnum, high in the isthmus, and five fold lower in muscle. It was undetectable in the liver and in other tissues (heart and kidney). However, the mRNA levels of other proteins were ubiquitous among tissues. In transcriptional activity of AGR-2, a 3.0 kb fragment of promoter region containing potential estrogen receptor binding sites had enhanced its activity strongly. In conclusion, these results suggest that AGR-2 has functional regulatory roles in the chicken oviduct during the egglaying period.
AtMAP65-1 Binds to Tubulin Dimers to Promote Tubulin Assembly
Li, Hua ; Yuan, Ming ; Mao, Tonglin ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 2, 2007, Pages 218~225
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.2.218
In Arabidopsis thaliana, the microtubule-associated protein AtMAP65-1 shows various functions on microtubule dynamics and organizations. However, it is still an open question about whether AtMAP65-1 binds to tubulin dimers and how it regulates microtubule dynamics. In present study, the tubulin-binding activity of AtMAP65-1 was investigated. Pull-down and co-sedimentation exp eriments demonstrated that AtMAP65-1 bound to tubulin dimers,at a molar ratio of 1 : 1. Cross-linking experiments showed that AtMAP65-1 bound to tubulin dimers by interacting with
-tubulin of the tubulin heterodimer. Interfering the bundling effect of AtMAP65-1 by addition of salt and monitoring the tubulin assembly, the experiment results indicated that AtMAP65-1 promoted tubulin assembly by interacting with tubulin dimers. In addition, five truncated versions of AtMAP65-1, namely AtMAP65-1
N339 (amino acids 340-587); AtMAP65-1
N494 (amino acids 495-587); AtMAP65-1 340-494 (amino acids 340-494); AtMAP65-1
C495 (amino acids 1-494) and AtMAP65-1
C340 (amino acids 1-339), were tested for their binding activities and roles in tubulin polymerization in vitro. Four (AtMAP65-1
N494, AtMAP65-1 340-494 and
C495) from the five truncated proteins were able to co-sediment with microtubules, and three (AtMAP65-1
N494 and AtMAP65-1 340-494) of them could bind to tubulin dimers in vitro. Among the three truncated proteins, AtMAP65-1
N339 showed the greatest activity to promote tubulin polymerization, AtMAP65-1
N494 exhibited almost the same activity as the full length protein in promoting tubulin assembly, and AtMAP65-1 340-494 had minor activity to promote tubulin assembly. On the contrast, AtMAP65-1
C495, which bound to microtubules but not to tubulin dimers, did not affect tubulin assembly. Our study suggested that AtMAP65-1 might promote tubulin assembly by binding to tubulin dimers in vivo.
Identification of Novel Universal Housekeeping Genes by Statistical Analysis of Microarray Data
Lee, Se-Ram ; Jo, Min-Joung ; Lee, Jung-Eun ; Koh, Sang-Seok ; Kim, So-Youn ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 2, 2007, Pages 226~231
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.2.226
Housekeeping genes are widely used as internal controls in a variety of study types, including real time RT-PCR, microarrays, Northern analysis and RNase protection assays. However, even commonly used housekeeping genes may vary in stability depending on the cell type or disease being studied. Thus, it is necessary to identify additional housekeeping-type genes that show sample-independent stability. Here, we used statistical analysis to examine a large human microarray database, seeking genes that were stably expressed in various tissues, disease states and cell lines. We further selected genes that were expressed at different levels, because reference and target genes should be present in similar copy numbers to achieve reliable quantitative results. Real time RT-PCR amplification of three newly identified reference genes, CGI-119, CTBP1 and GOLGAl, alongside three well-known housekeeping genes, B2M, GAPD, and TUBB, confirmed that the newly identified genes were more stably expressed in individual samples with similar ranges. These results collectively suggest that statistical analysis of microarray data can be used to identify new candidate housekeeping genes showing consistent expression across tissues and diseases. Our analysis identified three novel candidate housekeeping genes (CGI-119, GOLGA1, and CTBP1) that could prove useful for normalization across a variety of RNA-based techniques.
Function and Oligomerization Study of the Leucine Zipper-like Domain in P13 from Leucania separata Multiple Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus
Du, Enqi ; Yao, Lunguang ; Xu, Hua ; Lu, Songya ; Qi, Yipeng ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 2, 2007, Pages 232~238
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.2.232
The p13 gene is uniquely present in Group II nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) and some granuloviruses, but not in Group I NPVs. p13 gene was first described by our laboratory in Leucania separatamultiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (Ls-p13) in 1995. However, the functions of Ls-P13 and of its homologues are unknown. When Ls-p13 was inserted into Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus, a Group I NPV, polyhedra yield was inhibited. However, this inhibition was prevented when the leucine zipper-like domain of Ls-p13 was mutated. To determine the cause of this marked difference between Ls-P13 and leucine zipper mutated Ls-P13 (Ls-P13mL), oligomerization and secondary structure analyses were performed. High performance liquid chromatography and yeast two-hybrid assays indicated that neither Ls-P13 nor Ls-P13mL could form oligomers. Informatics and circular dichroism spectropolarimetry results further indicated marked secondary structural differences between Ls-P13 and Ls-P13mL. The LZLD of Ls-P13 has two extended heptad repeat units which form a hydrophobic surface, but it is short of a third hydrophobic heptad repeat unit for oligomerization. However, the mutated LZLD of Ls-P13mL lacks the above hydrophobic surface, and its secondary structure is markedly different. This difference in its secondary structure may explain why Ls-P13mL is unable to inhibit polyhedra yield.
Ligand Binding Properties of the N-Terminal Domain of Riboflavin Synthase from Escherichia coli
Lee, Chan-Yong ; Illarionov, Boris ; Woo, Young-Eun ; Kemter, Kristina ; Kim, Ryu-Ryun ; Eberhardt, Sabine ; Cushman, Mark ; Eisenreich, Wolfgang ; Fischer, Markus ; Bacher, Adelbert ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 2, 2007, Pages 239~246
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.2.239
Riboflavin synthase from Escherichia coli is a homotrimer of 23.4 kDa subunits and catalyzes the formation of one molecule each of riboflavin and 5-amino-6-ribitylamino- 2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione by the transfer of a 4-carbon moiety between two molecules of the substrate, 6,7- dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine. Each subunit comprises two closely similar folding domains. Recombinant expression of the N-terminal domain is known to provide a
-symmetric homodimer. In this study, the binding properties of wild type as well as two mutated proteins of N-terminal domain of riboflavin synthase with various ligands were tested. The replacement of the amino acid residue A43, located in the second shell of riboflavin synthase active center, in the recombinant N-terminal domain dimer reduces the affinity for 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine. The mutation of the amino acid residue C48 forming part of activity cavity of the enzyme causes significant
NMR chemical shift modulation of trifluoromethyl derivatives of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine in complex with the protein, while substitution of A43 results in smaller chemical shift changes.
Molecular Cloning of Two Genes Encoding Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase (C4H) from Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus)
Chen, An-He ; Chai, You-Rong ; Li, Jia-Na ; Chen, Li ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 2, 2007, Pages 247~260
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.2.247
Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) is a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid pathway, which synthesizes numerous secondary metabolites to participate in development and adaption. Two C4H isoforms, the 2192-bp BnC4H-1 and 2108-bp BnC4H-2, were cloned from oilseed rape (Brassica napus). They both have two introns and a 1518-bp open reading frame encoding a 505-amino-acid polypeptide. BnC4H-1 is 57.73 kDa with an isoelectric point of 9.11, while 57.75 kDa and 9.13 for BnC4H-2. They share only 80.6% identities on nucleotide level but 96.6% identities and 98.4% positives on protein level. Showing highest homologies to Arabidopsis thaliana C4H, they possess a conserved p450 domain and all P450-featured motifs, and are identical to typical C4Hs at substrate-recognition sites and active site residues. They are most probably associated with endoplasmic reticulum by one or both of the N- and C-terminal transmembrane helices. Phosphorylation may be a necessary post-translational modification. Their secondary structures are dominated by alpha helices and random coils. Most helices locate in the central region, while extended strands mainly distribute before and after this region. Southern blot indicated about 9 or more C4H paralogs in B. napus. In hypocotyl, cotyledon, stem, flower, bud, young- and middle-stage seed, they are co-dominantly expressed. In root and old seed, BnC4H-2 is dominant over BnC4H-1, with a reverse trend in leaf and pericarp. Paralogous C4H numbers in Brassicaceae genomes and possible roles of conserved motifs in 5' UTR and the 2nd intron are discussed.
NMR Spectroscopic Assessment of the Structure and Dynamic Properties of an Amphibian Antimicrobial Peptide (Gaegurin 4) Bound to SDS Micelles
Park, Sang-Ho ; Son, Woo-Sung ; Kim, Yong-Jin ; Kwon, Ae-Ran ; Lee, Bong-Jin ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 2, 2007, Pages 261~269
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.2.261
The structure and dynamics of a 37-residue antimicrobial peptide gaegurin 4 (GGN4) isolated from the skin of the native Korean frog, Rana rugosa, was determined in SDS micelles by NMR spectroscopy. The solution structure of the peptide in SDS micelles was determined from 352 NOE-derived distance constraints and 22 backbone torsion angle constraints. Dynamic properties for the amide backbone were characterized by
heteronuclear NOE experiments. The structural study revealed two amphipathic helices spanning residues 2-10 and 16-32 and that the helices were connected by a flexible loop. An intraresidue disulfide bridge was formed between residues Cys31 and Cys37 near the C-terminus. The loop region (11-15) connecting the two helices are were slightly more flexible than these helices themselves. From the fact that since there is no contact NOEs between two helices, it is implied that the GGN4 peptide shows an independent motion of both helices which has an angle of about
from each other.
Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Novel Mouse Zinc Finger Protein Gene Znf313 Abundantly Expressed in Testis
Li, Na ; Sun, Huaqin ; Wu, Qiaqing ; Tao, Dachang ; Zhang, Sizhong ; Ma, Yongxin ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 2, 2007, Pages 270~276
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.2.270
We have cloned a novel mouse zinc finger protein gene Znf313 by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) according to the homologue of human ZNF313 gene. The cDNA is 2,163 base pairs (bp) in length and encodes a 229 amino acids (aa) protein with a
ring finger domain and three
domains. 89% and 93% nucleotide (nt) and aa sequence identity is observed with its human homologue. Revealed by Northern blot and RT-PCR, full mRNA consists of 2.16 kb and widely expresses in tissues as a single transcript, most abundantly in heart, liver, kidney and testis. The expression of Znf313 in testis is detected in all development stages. Western blot analysis also reveals that Znf313 is expressed in the tissues. Immunohistochemical staining and subcellular localization demonstrate that Znf313 is expressed both in the cytoplasm and nucleus whereas predominantly localized in the nucleus. Present data suggests that Znf313 gene might play a fundamental role in gene transcription and regulation in organism and relates to spermatogenesis.
The Gene Expression Profiling in Murine Cortical Cells Undergoing Programmed Cell Death (PCD) Induced by Serum Deprivation
Yang, Moon-Hee ; Yoo, Kyung-Hyun ; Yook, Yeon-Joo ; Park, Eun-Young ; Jeon, Jeong-Ok ; Choi, Seo-Hee ; Park, So-Young ; Woo, Yu-Mi ; Lee, Min-Joo ; Park, Jong-Hoon ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 2, 2007, Pages 277~285
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.2.277
PCD (programmed cell death) is important mechanism for development, homeostasis and disease. To analyze the gene expression pattern in brain cells undergoing PCD in response to serum deprivation, we analyzed the cDNA microarray consisting of 2,300 genes and 7 housekeeping genes of cortical cells derived from mouse embryonic brain. Cortical cells were induced apoptosis by serum deprivation for 8 hours. We identified 69 up-regulated genes and 21 down-regulated genes in apoptotic cells. Based on the cDNA microarray data four genes were selected and analyzed by RT-PCR and northern blotting. To characterize the role of UNC-51-like kinase (ULK2) gene in PCD, we investigated cell death effect by ULK2. And we examined expression of several genes that related with PCD. Especially GAPDH was increased by ULK2. Theses findings indicated that ULK2 is involved in apoptosis through p53 pathway.
Suppression Subtractive Hybridization Identifies Novel Transcripts in Regenerating Hydra littoralis
Stout, Thomas ; McFarland, Trevor ; Appukuttan, Binoy ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 2, 2007, Pages 286~289
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.2.286
Despite considerable interest in the biologic processes of regeneration and stem cell activation, little is known about the genes involved in these transformative events. In a Hydra littoralis model of regeneration, we employed a rapid shotgun suppression subtractive hybridization strategy to identify genes that are uniquely expressed in regenerating tissue. With an adaptor-PCR based technique, 16 candidate transcripts were identified, 15 were confirmed unique to mRNA isolated from hydra undergoing regeneration. Of these, 6 were undescribed in GenBank and allied expressed sequence tag (EST) databases (GenBank + EMBL + DDBJ + PDB and the Hydra EST database). BLAST analysis of these sequences identified remarkably similar sequences in anonymous ESTs found in a wide variety of animal species.
Saxatilin, a Snake Venom Disintegrin, Suppresses TNF-α-induced Ovarian Cancer Cell Invasion
Kim, Dong-Seok ; Jang, Yoon-Jung ; Jeon, Ok-Hee ; Kim, Doo-Sik ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 2, 2007, Pages 290~294
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.2.290
Saxatilin is a disintegrin known to inhibit tumor progression in vivo and in vitro. The role of saxatilin in cancer cell invasion was examined by a modified Boyden chamber assay in MDAH 2774 human ovarian cancer cell line. Saxatilin (50 nM) significantly inhibited cancer cell invasion induced by tumor necrosis factor-
). Saxatilin also reduced MMP-9 mRNA levels in cancer cells in a dosedependent manner. In addition, TNF-
-induced MMP-9 activity was reduced by the treatment of saxatilin. These results indicate that transcriptional regulation of MMP-9 is an important mechanism for the tumor suppressive effects of saxatilin in MDAH 2774 human ovarian cancer cells.