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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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Volume 40, Issue 6 - Nov 2007
Volume 40, Issue 5 - Sep 2007
Volume 40, Issue 4 - Jul 2007
Volume 40, Issue 3 - May 2007
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Volume 40, Issue 1 - Jan 2007
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Critical Role of Glu175 on Stability and Folding of Bacterial Luciferase: Stopped-flow Fluorescence Study
Shirazy, Najmeh Hadizadeh ; Ranjbar, Bijan ; Hosseinkhani, Saman ; Khalifeh, Khosrow ; Madvar, Ali Riahi ; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 453~458
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.4.453
Bacterial luciferase is a heterodimeric enzyme, which catalyzes the light emission reaction, utilizing reduced FMN (FMNH2), a long chain aliphatic aldehyde and
, to produce green-blue light. This enzyme can be readily classed as slow or fast decay based on their rate of luminescence decay in a single turnover. Mutation of Glu175 in
subunit to Gly converted slow decay Xenorhabdus Luminescence luciferase to fast decay one. The following studies revealed that changing the luciferase flexibility and lake of Glu-flavin interactions are responsible for the unusual kinetic properties of mutant enzyme. Optical and thermodynamics studies have caused a decrease in free energy and anisotropy of mutant enzyme. Moreover, the role of Glu175 in transition state of folding pathway by use of stopped-flow fluorescence technique has been studied which suggesting that Glu175 is not involved in transition state of folding and appears as surface residue of the nucleus or as a member of one of a few alternative folding nuclei. These results suggest that mutation of Glu175 to Gly extended the structure of Xenorhabdus Luminescence luciferase, locally.
Cloning and Expression of Partial Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) IgD
Choi, Dae-Han ; Jang, Han-Na ; Ha, Dae-Mang ; Kim, Jae-Wha ; Oh, Chan-Ho ; Choi, Sang-Hoon ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 459~466
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.4.459
The cDNA sequence of the Japanese flounder (Paralychthys olivaceus) IgD has been previously reported (GenBank accession no. AB052658) and this was followed by the detection of IgD mRNA expression in some flounder organ tissues. However, it has not been determined whether the flounder IgD gene is virtually expressed into IgD protein. To characterize the flounder immunoglobulins utilized in elucidating the mechanism, evolution and diversity of the flounder immune system, antibodies specific to IgD and IgM were necessary. In the present study, partial flounder recombinant IgD (rIgD), IgM (rIgM) and the conserved regions of IgD and IgM (rCIg) were produced by cloning the cDNA sequence using isotype specific primers which were designed to produce unique fragments of IgD and IgM specific amino acid sequences. The production of recombinant Igs was ascertained by SDS-gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis using anti-T7
Taq antibody. The produced recombinant Igs were purified using affinity columns, and used as immunogens. Antibodies specific to the isotype of flounder Igs were generated by immunizing rabbits with rfIgs and the antibodies produced were identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. Specificities of the generated antibodies were evaluated by testing cross-reactivity between recombinant IgM and IgD. By ELISA, rabbit antibodies against the rfIgD fragment (anti-rfIgD) failed to recognize any kind of flounder serum Igs, whereas respective antibodies against rfCIg (anti-rfCIg) and rfIgM fragments (anti-rfIgM) reacted with serum Igs. Likewise, in immunoblot assays, though anti-rfIgD did not, both anti-rfCIg and anti-rfIgM bound with the ~85 kd flounder IgM heavy chain. By flow cytometry analysis, anti-rfCIg, anti-rfIgD and anti-rfIgM reacted with 6%, 3% and 6.5% of cells, respectively, suggesting that flounder IgD is not secreted in serum but expressed on flounder B-like cell surfaces as in mammals. Antibodies produced against recombinant flounder Igs could be used to develop sandwich assay systems for detecting flounder Igs and for further investigating the flounder immune system.
PKHD1 Gene Silencing May Cause Cell Abnormal Proliferation through Modulation of Intracellular Calcium in Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease
Yang, Ji-Yun ; Zhang, Sizhong ; Zhou, Qin ; Guo, Hong ; Zhang, Ke ; Zheng, Rong ; Xiao, Cuiying ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 467~474
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.4.467
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is one of the important genetic disorders in pediatric practice. Mutation of the polycystic kidney and hepatic disease gene 1 (PKHD1) was identified as the cause of ARPKD. The gene encodes a 67-exon transcript for a large protein of 4074 amino acids termed fibrocystin, but its function remains unknown. The neoplastic-like in cystic epithelial proliferation and the epidermal growth factor/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF/EGFR) axis overactivity are known as the most important characteristics of ARPKD. Since the misregulation of
signaling may lead to aberrant structure and function of the collecting ducts in kidney of rat with ARPKD, present study aimed to investigate the further mechanisms of abnormal proliferation of cystic cells by inhibition of PKHD1 expression. For this, a stable PKHD1-silenced HEK-293T cell line was established. Then cell proliferation rates, intracellular
concentration and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity were assessed after treatment with EGF, a calcium channel blocker and agonist, verapamil and Bay K8644. It was found that PKHD1-silenced HEK-293T cell lines were hyperproliferative to EGF stimulation. Also PKHD1-silencing lowered the intracellular
and caused EGF-induced ERK1/2 overactivation in the cells. An increase of intracellular
in PKHD1-silenced cells repressed the EGF-dependent ERK1/2 activation and the hyperproliferative response to EGF stimulation. Thus, inhibition of PKHD1 can cause EGF-induced excessive proliferation through decreasing intracellular
resulting in EGF-induced ERK1/2 activation. Our results suggest that the loss of fibrocystin may lead to abnormal proliferation in kidney epithelial cells and cyst formation in ARPKD by modulation of intracellular
Gene Expression Profiling of Rewarding Effect in Methamphetamine Treated Bax-deficient Mouse
Ryu, Na-Kyung ; Yang, Moon-Hee ; Jung, Min-Seok ; Jeon, Jeong-Ok ; Kim, Kee-Won ; Park, Jong-Hoon ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 475~485
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.4.475
Methamphetamine is an illicit drug that is often abused and can cause neuropsychiatric and neurotoxic damage. Repeated administration of psychostimulants such as methamphetamine induces a behavioral sensitization. According to a previous study, Bax was involved in neurotoxicity by methamphetamine, but the function of Bax in rewarding effect has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we have studied the function of Bax in a rewarding effect model. In the present study, we treated chronic methamphetamine exposure in a Bax-deficient mouse model and examined behavioral change using a conditioned place preference (CPP) test. The CPP score in Bax knockout mice was decreased compared to that of wild-type mice. Therefore, we screened for Bax-related genes that are involved in rewarding effect using microarray technology. In order to confirm microarray data, we applied the RT-PCR method to observe relative changes of Bcl2, a pro-apoptotic family gene. As a result, using our experiment microarray, we selected genes that were associated with Bax in microarray data, and eventually selected the Tgfbr2 gene. Expression of the Tgfbr2 gene was decreased by methamphetamine in Bax knockout mice, and the gene was overexpressed in Bax wild-type mice. Additionally, we confirmed that Creb, FosB, and c-Fos were related to rewarding effect and Bax using immunohistochemistry.
Effect of Dendritic Cells Treated with CpG ODN on Atopic Dermatitis of Nc/Nga mice
Park, Sang-Tae ; Kim, Kyoung-Eun ; Na, Kwang-Min ; Kim, Young-Hwa ; Kim, Tae-Yoon ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 486~493
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.4.486
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease and the pathogenesis of AD is associated with the release of various cytokines/chemokines due to activated
immune responses. Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotide in the context of particular base sequence (CpG motifs) are known to have the immunostimulatory activities in mice and to convert from Th2 to Th1 immune responses in AD. We aimed to investigate that CpG ODN, especially phosphodiester form, can stimulate the protective immunity in NC/Nga mice with AD. We isolated BMDCs from NC/Nga mice and then, cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days, and treated for 2 days by either phosphorothioate ODN or phosphodiester ODN. CpG ODN-treated DCs resulted in more production of IL-12. When CpG ODN-treated DCs were intravenously injected into the NC/Nga mice, the NC/Nga mice with CpG ODN-treated DCs showed significant improvement of AD symptoms and decrease of IgE level. Histopathologically, the NC/Nga mice skin with CpG ODN-treated DCs showed the decreased IL-4 and TARC expression comparing with non-injected mice. These results may suggest that phosphodiester CpG ODN-treated DCs might function as a potent adjuvant for AD in a mouse model.
Molecular Identification of Four Different α-amylase Inhibitors from Baru (Dipteryx alata) Seeds with Activity Toward Insect Enzymes
Bonavides, Krishna B. ; Pelegrini, Patricia B. ; Laumann, Raul A. ; Grossi-De-Sa, Maria F. ; Bloch, Carlos Jr. ; Melo, Jorge A.T. ; Quirino, Betania F. ; Noronha, Eliane F. ; Franco, Octavio L. ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 494~500
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.4.494
The endophytic bruchid pest Callosobruchus maculatus causes severe damage to storage cowpea seeds, leading to economical losses. For this reason the use of
-amylase inhibitors to interfere with the pest digestion process has been an interesting alternative to control bruchids. With this aim,
-amylase inhibitors from baru seeds (Dipteryx alata) were isolated by affinity chromatographic procedures, causing enhanced inhibition of C. maculatus and Anthonomus grandis
-amylases. To attempt further purification, this fraction was applied onto a reversed-phase HPLC column, generating four peaks with remarkable inhibition toward C. maculatus
-amylases. SDS-PAGE and MALDI-ToF analysis identified major proteins of approximately 5.0, 11.0, 20.0 and 55 kDa that showed
-amylase inhibition. Results of in vivo bioassays using artificial seeds containing 1.0% (w/w) of baru crude extract revealed 40% cowpea weevil larvae mortality. These results provide evidence that several
-amylase inhibitors classes, with biotechnological potential, can be isolated from a single plant species.
Expressed Sequence Tag Analysis for Identification and Characterization of Sex-Related Genes in the Giant Tiger Shrimp Penaeus monodon
Preechaphol, Rachanimuk ; Leelatanawit, Rungnapa ; Sittikankeaw, Kanchana ; Klinbunga, Sirawut ; Khamnamtong, Bavornlak ; Puanglarp, Narongsak ; Menasveta, Piamsak ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 501~510
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.4.501
Sex-related genes expressed in vitellogenic ovaries of the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, were identified by an EST approach. A total of 1051 clones were unidirectionally sequenced from the 5 terminus. Nucleotide sequences of 743 EST (70.7%) significantly matched known genes previously deposited in the GenBank (E-value <
) whereas 308 ESTs (29.3%) were regarded as newly unidentified transcripts (E-value >
). A total of 559 transcripts (87 contigs and 472 singletons) were obtained. Thrombospondin (TSP) and peritrophin (79 and 87 clones accounting for 7.5 and 8.3% of clones sequenced, respectively) predominated among characterized transcripts. everal full length transcripts (e.g. cyclophilin, profillin and thioredoxin peroxidase) were also isolated. A gene homologue encoding chromobox protein (PMCBX, ORF of 567 nucleotides encoding a protein of 188 amino acids) which is recognized as a new member of the HP1 family was identified. Expression patterns of 14 of 25 sex-related gene homologues in ovaries and testes of P. monodon broodstock were examined by RT-PCR. Female sterile and ovarian lipoprotein receptor homologues were only expressed in ovaries whereas the remaining transcripts except disulfide isomerase related P5 precursor and adenine nucleotide translocator 2 were higher expressed in ovaries than testes of P. monodon broodstock. A homologue of ubiquitin specific proteinase 9, X chromosome (Usp9X) revealed a preferential expression level in ovaries than testes of broodstock-sized P. monodon (N = 13 and 11, P<0.05) but was only expressed in ovaries of 4-month-old shrimp (N = 5 for each sex).
A Phi Class Glutathione S-transferase from Oryza sativa (OsGSTF5): Molecular Cloning, Expression and Biochemical Characteristics
Cho, Hyun-Young ; Lee, Hae-Joo ; Kong, Kwang-Hoon ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 511~516
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.4.511
A glutathione S-transferase (GST) related to the phi (F) class of enzymes only found in plants has been cloned from the Oryza sativa. The GST cDNA was cloned by PCR using oligonucleotide primers based on the OsGSTF5 (GenBank Accession No.
) sequences. The cDNA was composed of a 669-bp open reading frame encoding for 223 amino acids. The deduced peptide of this gene shared on overall identity of 75% with other known phi class GST sequences. On the other hands, the OsGSTF5 sequence showed only 34% identity with the sequence of the OsGSTF3 cloned by our previous study (Cho et al., 2005). This gene was expressed in Escherichia coli with the pET vector system and the gene product was purified to homogeneity by GSH-Sepharose affinity column chromatography. The expressed OsGSTF5 formed a homo-dimer composed of 28 kDa subunit and its pI value was approximately 7.8. The expressed OsGSTF5 displayed glutathione conjugation activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane and glutathione peroxidase activity toward cumene hydroperoxide. The OsGSTF5 also had high activities towards the herbicides alachlor, atrazine and metolachlor. The OsGSTF5 was highly sensitive to inhibition by S-hexylGSH, benastatin A and hematin. We propose from these results that the expressed OsGSTF5 is a phi class GST and appears to play a role in the conjugation of herbicide and GPOX activity.
Identification of a Novel Human Zinc Finger Gene, ZNF438, with Transcription Inhibition Activity
Zhong, Zhaomin ; Wan, Bo ; Qiu, Yun ; Ni, Jun ; Tang, Wenwen ; Chen, Xinya ; Yang, Yun ; Shen, Suqin ; Wang, Ying ; Bai, Meirong ; Lang, Qingyu ; Yu, Long ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 517~524
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.4.517
There were many different families of zinc finger proteins that contained multiple cysteine and/or histidine residues and used zinc to stabilize their folds. The classical C2H2 zinc finger proteins were the founding members of this superfamily and were among the most abundant proteins in eukaryotic genomes. C2H2 proteins typically contained several C2H2 fingers that made tandem contacts along the DNA. Here we reported a novel C2H2 type zinc finger gene, ZNF438, which encoded 828 amino acids that formed five zinc finger domains. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the ZNF438 was mapped to human chromosome 10p11.2 and shared 62% identity with rat and mouse homologues. RT-PCR analysis indicated that it was ubiquitously expressed in 18 human adult tissues. With immunofluorescence assay, it was shown that the exogenous Flag-tagged ZNF438 was located in nucleus of COS-7 cells. To further explore the function of ZNF438, we examined the transcriptional activity of ZNF438 protein by transfecting recombinant pM-ZNF438 into mammalian cells. The subsequent analysis based on the duel luciferase assay system showed that ZNF438 was a transcriptional repressor.
Clenbuterol Inhibits SREBP-1c Expression by Activating CREB1
Zhou, Lei ; Li, Yixing ; Nie, Tao ; Feng, Shengqiu ; Yuan, Jihong ; Chen, Huaping ; Yang, Zaiqing ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 525~531
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.4.525
-adrenergic agonist, clenbuterol decreases body fat, but the molecular mechanism underlying this process is unclear. In the present study, we treated 293T and L-02 cells with clenbuterol and found that clenbuterol downregulates SREBP-1c expression and upregulates CREB1 expression. Considering SREBP-1c has the function of regulating the transcription of several lipogenic enzymes, we considered that the downregulation of SREBP-1c is responsible for body fat reduction by clenbuterol. Many previous studies have found that clenbuterol markedly increases intracellular cAMP levels, therefore, we also investigated whether CREB1 is involved in this process. The data from our experiments indicate that CREB1 overexpression inhibits SREBP-1c transcription, and that this action is antagonized by CREB2, a competitive inhibitor of CREB1. Furthermore, since PPARs are able to repress SREBP-1c transcription, we investigated whether clenbuterol and CREB1 function via a pathway involving PPAR activation. However, our results showed that clenbuterol or CREB1 overexpression suppressed PPARs transcription in 293T and L-02 cells, which suggested that they impair SREBP-1c expression in other ways.
Identification of a Functionally Relevant Signal Peptide of Mouse Ficolin A
Kwon, Sang-Hoon ; Kim, Min-Soo ; Kim, Dong-Bum ; Lee, Keun-Wook ; Choi, Soo-Young ; Park, Jin-Seu ; Kim, Yeon-Hyang ; Lee, Young-Hee ; Kwon, Hyung-Joo ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 532~538
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.4.532
Mouse ficolin A is a plasma protein with lectin activity, and plays a role in host defense by binding carbohydrates, especially GlcNAc, on microorganisms. The ficolin A subunit consists of an N-terminal signal peptide, a collagen-like domain, and a C-terminal fibrinogen-like domain. In this study, we show that ficolin A can be synthesized and oligomerized in a cell and secreted into culture medium. We also identify a functionally relevant signal peptide of ficolin A by using MS/MS analysis to determine the N-terminal sequence of secreted ficolin A. When the signal peptide of mouse ficolin A was fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), EGFP was released into HEK 293 cell medium, suggesting that the signal peptide can efficiently direct ficolin A secretion. Moreover, our results suggest that the signal peptide of ficolin A has potential application for the production of useful secretory proteins.
Bi-functional Activities of Chimeric Lysozymes Constructed by Domain Swapping between Bacteriophage T7 and K11 Lysozymes
Alcantara, Ethel H. ; Kim, Dong-Hee ; Do, Su-Il ; Lee, Sang-Soo ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 539~546
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.4.539
The lysozymes encoded by bacteriophage T7 and K11 are both bifunctional enzymes sharing an extensive sequence homology (75%). The constructions of chimeric lysozymes were carried out by swapping the N-terminal and C-terminal domains between phage T7 and K11 lysozymes. This technique generated two chimeras, T7K11-lysozyme (N-terminal T7 domain and C-terminal K11 domain) and K11T7-lysozyme (N-terminal K11 domain and C-terminal T7 domain), which are both enzymatically active. The amidase activity of T7K11-lysozyme is comparable with the parental enzymes while K11T7-lysozyme exhibits an activity that is approximately 45% greater than the wild-type lysozymes. Moreover, these chimeric constructs have optimum pH of 7.2-7.4 similar to the parental lysozymes but exhibit greater thermal stabilities. On the other hand, the chimeras inhibit transcription comparable with the parental lysozymes depending on the source of their N-terminals. Taken together, our results indicated that domain swapping technique localizes the N-terminal region as the domain responsible for the transcription inhibition specificity of the wild type T7 and K11 lysozymes. Furthermore, we were able to develop a simple and rapid purification scheme in purifying both the wild-type and chimeric lysozymes.
Some Motifs Were Important for Myostatin Transcriptional Regulation in Sheep (Ovis aries)
Du, Rong ; An, Xiao-Rong ; Chen, Yong-Fu ; Qin, Jian ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 547~553
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.4.547
Many motifs along the 1.2 kb myostatin promoter (MSTNpro) in sheep have been found by the MatInspecter program in our recent study. To further verify the role of the motifs and better understand the transcriptional regulation mechanism of the myostatin gene in sheep, the reporter gene EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) was selected and the wild-type (W) vector MSTNPro
-EGFP or motif-mutational (M) vector MSTNPro
-EGFP were constructed. The transcriptional regulation activities were analyzed by detecting the fluorescence strength of EGFP in C2C12 myoblasts transfected with the vectors. The results showed that E-box (E) 3, E4, E5 and E7, particularly E3, E5 and E7, had important effects on the activity of the 1.2 kb sheep myostatin promoter. In addition, we also detected several other important motifs such as MTBF (muscle-specific Mt binding factor), MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2), GRE (glucocorticoid response elements) and PRE (progesterone response elements) along the sheep myostatin promoter by the mutational analysis.
Overexpressed Drosophila DNA Methyltransferase 2 Isoform C Interacts with Hsp70 in Vivo
Roder, Karim ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 554~561
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.4.554
Shen and colleagues (Lin et al., 2004) have recently shown that overexpression of the Drosophila DNA methyltransferase 2 isoform C, dDnmt2c, extended life span of fruit flies, probably due to increased expression of small heat shock proteins such as Hsp22 or Hsp26. Here, I demonstrate with immunoprecipitations that overexpressed dDnmt2c interacts with endogenous Hsp70 protein in vivo in S2 cells. However, its C-terminal half, dDnmt2c(178-345) forms approximately 10-fold more Hsp70-containing protein complexe than wild-type dDnmt2c. Overexpressed dDnmt2c(178-345) but not the full length dDnmt2c is able to increase endogenous mRNA levels of the small heat shock proteins, Hsp26 and Hsp22. I provide evidence that dDnmt2c(178-345) increases Hsp26 promoter activity via two heat shock elements, HSE6 and HSE7. Simultaneously overexpressed Hsp40 or a dominant negative form of heat shock factor abrogates the dDnmt2c(178-345)-dependent increase in Hsp26 transcription. The data support a model in which the activation of heat shock factor normally found as an inactive monomer bound to chaperones is linked to the overexpressed C-terminus of dDnmt2c. Despite the differences observed in flies and S2 cells, these findings provide a possible explanation for the extended lifespan in dDnmt2c-overexpressing flies with increased levels of small heat shock proteins.
Differential Effects of Anti-IL-1R Accessory Protein Antibodies on IL-1α or IL-1β-induced Production of PGE
and IL-6 from 3T3-L1 Cells
Yoon, Do-Young ; Dinarello, Charles A. ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 562~570
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.4.562
Soluble or cell-bound IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) does not bind IL-1 but rather forms a complex with IL-1 and IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) resulting in signal transduction. Synthetic peptides to various regions in the Ig-like domains of IL-1RAcP were used to produce antibodies and these antibodies were affinity-purified using the respective antigens. An anti-peptide-4 antibody which targets domain III inhibited 70% of IL-
-induced productions of IL-6 and PGE2 from 3T3-L1 cells. Anti-peptide-2 or 3 also inhibited IL-1-induced IL-6 production by 30%. However, antipeptide-1 which is directed against domain I had no effect. The antibody was more effective against IL-
compared to IL-
. IL-1-induced IL-6 production was augmented by coincubation with PGE2. The COX inhibitor ibuprofen blocked IL-1-induced IL-6 and PGE2 production. These results confirm that IL-1RAcP is essential for IL-1 signaling and that increased production of IL-6 by IL-1 needs the co-induction of PGE2. However, the effect of PGE2 is independent of expressions of IL-1RI and IL-1RAcP. Our data suggest that domain III of IL-1RAcP may be involved in the formation or stabilization of the IL-1RI/IL-1 complex by binding to epitopes on domain III of the IL-1RI created following IL-1 binding to the IL-1RI.
Identification and Functional Analysis of LsMNPV Anti-apoptosis Genes
Kim, Yu-Sin ; Xiao, Hua-Zhong ; Du, En-Qi ; Cai, Guo-Shuai ; Lu, Song-Ya ; Qi, Yi-Peng ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 571~576
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.4.571
Three anti-apoptosis genes, Ls-iap2, iap3 and p49 were found in Leucania separata multiple nuclear polyhedrovirus. Amino acid sequence homology of Ls-IAP2 and Ls-IAP3 with Op-IAP2 and Op-IAP3 from Orgyia pseddotsugata MNPV were 20% and 42%, while that of Ls-P49 is 28% with Sl-P49 from Spodoptera littorolis MNPV. Ls-IAP2 contains one baculoviral IAP repeat (BIR) domain followed by a RING domain, while Ls-IAP3 contains two BIRs and a RING. Ls-P49 contains a reactive site loop, predicted cleavage site (KKLD
G) that is different from Sl-P49 (TVID
G). Expressed Ls-iap3 or Ls-p49 under presence of actinomycin D in SF9 cells, DNA ladder assayrevealed that Ls- IAP3 or Ls-P49 could block the apoptosis of SF9 cells induced by actinomycin D. Replication of p35 deficient-mutant Autographa californica MNPV in SF9 cells was also rescued when Ls-iap3 or Ls-p49 was expressed transiently. No anti-apoptotic activity was observed for Ls-IAP2. The results showed that both of Ls-IAP3 and Ls-P49 were functional apoptotic suppressors in SF9 cells.
Utility of Selected Non-coding Chloroplast DNA Sequences for Lineage Assessment of Musa Interspecific Hybrids
Swangpol, Sasivimon ; Volkaert, Hugo ; Sotto, Rachel C. ; Seelanan, Tosak ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 577~587
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.4.577
Single-copy chloroplast loci are used widely to infer phylogenetic relationship at different taxonomic levels among various groups of plants. To test the utility of chloroplast loci and to provide additional data applicable to hybrid evolution in Musa, we sequenced two introns, rpl16 and ndhA, and two intergenic spacers, psaA-ycf3 and petA-psbJ-psbL-psbF and combined these data. Using these four regions, Musa acuminata Cola(A)- and M. balbisiana Colla (B)-containing genomes were clearly distinguished. Some triploid interspecific hybrids contain A-type chloroplasts (the AAB/ABB) while others contain B-type chloroplasts (the BBA/BBB). The chloroplasts of all cultivars in 'Namwa' (BBA) group came from the same wild maternal origin, but the specific parents are still unrevealed. Though, average sequence divergences in each region were little (less than 2%), we propose that petA-psbJ intergenic spacer could be developed for diversity assessment within each genome. This segment contains three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two indels which could distinguish diversity within A genome whereas this same region also contains one SNP and an indel which could categorize B genome. However, an inverted repeat region which could form hairpin structure was detected in this spacer and thus was omitted from the analyses due to their incongruence to other regions. Until thoroughly identified in other members of Musaceae and Zingiberales clade, utility of this inverted repeat as phylogenetic marker in these taxa are cautioned.
Determination and Characterization of Thermostable Esterolytic Activity from a Novel Thermophilic Bacterium Anoxybacillus gonensis A4
Faiz, Ozlem ; Colak, Ahmet ; Saglam, Nagihan ; Canakci, Sabriye ; Belduz, Ali Osman ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 588~594
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.4.588
A novel hot spring thermophile, Anoxybacillus gonensis A4 (A. gonensis A4) was investigated in terms of capability of tributyrin degradation and characterization of its thermostable esterase activity by the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate (PNPB). It was observed that A. gonensis A4 has an esterase with a molecular weight of 62 kDa. The extracellular crude preparation was characterized in terms of substrate specificity, pH and temperature optima and stability, kinetic parameters and inhibition/activation behaviour towards some chemicals and metal ions. Tributyrin agar assay showed that A. gonensis A4 secreted an esterase and
values of its activity were found to be 800 U/L and 176.5
, respectively in the presence of PNPB substrate. The optimum temperature and pH, for A. gonensis A4 esterase was
and 5.5, respectively. Although the enzyme activity was not significantly changed by incubating crude extract solution at
for 1 h, the enzyme activity was fully lost at
for same incubation period. The pH-stability profile showed that original crude esterase activity increased nearly 2-fold at pH 6.0. The effect of some chemicals on crude esterase activity indicated that A. gonensis A4 produce an esterase having serine residue in active site and -SH groups were essential for its activity.
Cloning of Phospholipase D from Grape Berry and Its Expression under Heat Acclimation
Wan, Si-Bao ; Wang, Wei ; Wen, Peng-Fei ; Chen, Jian-Ye ; Kong, Wei-Fu ; Pan, Qiu-Hong ; Zhan, Ji-Cheng ; Tian, Li ; Liu, Hong-Tao ; Huang, Wei-Dong ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 595~603
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.4.595
To investigate whether phospholipase D (PLD, EC 220.127.116.11) plays a role in adaptive response of post-harvest fruit to environment, a PLD gene was firstly cloned from grape berry (Vitis Vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay) using RT-PCR and 3'- and 5'-RACE. The deduced amino acid sequence (809 residues) showed 84.7% identity with that of PLD from Ricinus communis. The secondary structures of this protein showed the characteristic C2 domain and two active sites of a phospholipid-metabolizing enzyme. The PLD activity and its expression in response to heat acclimation were then assayed. The results indicated PLD was significantly activated at enzyme activity, as well as accumulation of PLD mRNA and synthesis of new PLD protein during the early of heat acclimation, primary suggesting that the grape berry PLD may be involved in the heat response in post-harvest grape berry. This work offers an important basis for further investigating the mechanism of post-harvest fruit adaptation to environmental stresses.
Rat Liver 10-formyltetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase, Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase 1 and Betaine Homocysteine S-methytransferase were Co-purified on Kunitz-type Soybean Trypsin Inhibitor-coupled Sepharose CL-4B
Kim, Hyun-Sic ; Kim, Ji-Man ; Roh, Kyung-Baeg ; Lee, Hyeon-Hwa ; Kim, Su-Jin ; Shin, Young-Hee ; Lee, Bok-Luel ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 4, 2007, Pages 604~609
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.4.604
An Asp/His catalytic site of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (FDH) was suggested to have a similar catalytic topology with the Asp/His catalytic site of serine proteases. Many studies supported the hypothesis that serine protease inhibitors can bind and modulate the activity of serine proteases by binding to the catalytic site of serine proteases. To explore the possibility that soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) can recognize catalytic sites of FDH and can make a stable complex, we carried out an SBTI-affinity column by using rat liver homogenate. Surprisingly, the Rat FDH molecule with two typical liver proteins, carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) and betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) were co-purified to homogeneity on SBTI-coupled Sepharose and Sephacryl S-200 followed by Superdex 200 FPLC columns. These three liver-specific proteins make a protein complex with 300 kDa molecular mass on the gel-filtration column chromatography in vitro. Immuno-precipitation experiments by using anti-FDH and anti-SBTI antibodies also supported the fact that FDH binds to SBTI in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate that the catalytic site of rat FDH has a similar structure with those of serine proteases. Also, the SBTI-affinity column will be useful for the purification of rat liver proteins such as FDH, CPS1 and BHMT.