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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 40, Issue 6 - Nov 2007
Volume 40, Issue 5 - Sep 2007
Volume 40, Issue 4 - Jul 2007
Volume 40, Issue 3 - May 2007
Volume 40, Issue 2 - Mar 2007
Volume 40, Issue 1 - Jan 2007
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Cloning and Characterization of a PI-like MADS-Box Gene in Phalaenopsis Orchid
Guo, Bin ; Hexige, Saiyin ; Zhang, Tian ; Pittman, Jon K. ; Chen, Donghong ; Ming, Feng ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 845~852
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.845
The highly evolved flowers of orchids have colorful sepals and fused columns that offer an opportunity to discover new genes involved in floral development in monocotyledon species. In this investigation, we cloned and characterized the homologous PISTALLATA-like (PI-like) gene PhPI15 (
), from the Phalaenopsis hybrid cultivar. The protein sequence encoded by PhPI15 contains a typical PI-motif. Its sequence also formed a subclade with other monocot PI-type genes in phylogenetic analysis. Southern analysis showed that PhPI15 was present in the Phalaenopsis orchid genome as a single copy. Furthermore, it was expressed in all the whorls of the Phalaenopsis flower, while no expression was detected in vegetative organs. The flowers of transgenic tobacco plants ectopically expressing PhPI15 showed male-sterile phenotypes. Thus, as a Class-B MADS-box gene, PhPI15 specifies floral organ identity in orchids.
Identification of Proteins Responsible for the Development of Adriamycin Resistance in Human Gastric Cancer Cells Using Comparative Proteomics Analysis
Yang, Yi-Xuan ; Hu, Huai-Dong ; Zhang, Da-Zhi ; Ren, Hong ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 853~860
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.853
Resistance to anticancer drugs is a major obstacle in the effective treatment of tumors. To understand the mechanisms responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR), a proteomic approach was used to identify proteins that were expressed in different levels by the adriamycinresistant human gastric cancer cell line, SGC7901/ADR, and its parental cell line, SGC7901. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and image analysis was used to determine which protein spots were expressed in different levels by the two cell lines. These spots were then partially identified using ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry, and the differential expressional levels of the partially identified proteins were then determined by western blot analysis and real-time RT-PCR. Additionally, the association of Nucleophosmin (NPM1), a protein that was highly expressed by SGC7901/ADR, with MDR was analyzed using siRNA. As a result of this study, well-resolved, reproducible 2-DE patterns of SGC7901/ADR and SGC7901 were established, and 16 proteins that may playa role in the development of thermo resistance were identified. Additionally, suppression of NPMl expression was found to enhance adriamycin chemosensitivity in SGC7901/ADR. These results provide a fundamental basis for the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of MDR, which may assist in the treatment of gastric cancer.
Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of the Gene Encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase from Hazel (Corylus avellana L. Gasaway)
Wang, Yechun ; Guo, Binhui ; Zhang, Fei ; Yao, Hongyan ; Miao, Zhiqi ; Tang, Kexuan ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 861~869
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.861
The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR; EC188.8.131.52) catalyzes the first committed step of isoprenoids biosynthesis in MVA pathway. Here we report for the first time the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA encoding HMGR (designated as CgHMGR, GenBank accession number EF206343) from hazel (Corylus avellana L. Gasaway), a taxol-producing plant species. The full-length cDNA of CgHMGR was 2064 bp containing a 1704-bp ORF encoding 567 amino acids. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that the deduced CgHMGR had extensive homology with other plant HMGRs and contained two transmembrane domains and a catalytic domain. The predicted 3-D model of CgHMGR had a typical spatial structure of HMGRs. Southern blot analysis indicated that CgHMGR belonged to a small gene family. Expression analysis revealed that CgHMGR expressed high in roots, and low in leaves and stems, and the expression of CgHMGR could be up-regulated by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). The functional color assay in Escherichia coli showed that CgHMGR could accelerate the biosynthesis of
-carotene, indicating that CgHMGR encoded a functional protein. The cloning, characterization and functional analysis of CgHMGR gene will enable us to further understand the role of CgHMGR involved in taxol biosynthetic pathway in C. avellana at molecular level.
Characterization of Uridine-Diphosphate Dependent Flavonoid Glucosyltransferase from Oryza sativa
Hong, Byoung-Seok ; Kim, Jeong-Ho ; Kim, Na-Yeon ; Kim, Bong-Gyu ; Chong, You-Hoon ; Ahn, Joong-Hoon ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 870~874
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.870
We cloned a uridine-diphosphate dependent glycosyl-transferase RUGT-10 from Oryza sativa. The recombinant enzyme was expressed by glutathione-S transferase gene fusion system in Escherichia coli. RUGT10 showed different regioselectivity depending on the structures of substrates (e.g. flavanone, flavonol, and flavone). Apparently, flavanone such as naringenin and eriodictyol gave one 7-O-glucoside while flavone and flavonol gave more than two products with preferential glucosylation position of hydroxyl group at C-3 position.
Cloning and Characterization of a Single Chain Antibody to Glucose Oxidase from a Murine Hybridoma
Sellrie, Frank ; Schenk, Jorg A. ; Behrsing, Olaf ; Drechsel, Oliver ; Micheel, Burkhard ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 875~880
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.875
Glucose oxidase (GOD) is an oxidoreductase catalyzing the reaction of glucose and oxygen to peroxide and gluconolacton (EC 184.108.40.206.). GOD is a widely used enzyme in biotechnology. Therefore the production of monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments to GOD are of interest in bioanalytics and even tumor therapy. We describe here the generation of a panel of monoclonal antibodies to native and heat inactivated GOD. One of the hybridomas, E13BC8, was used for cloning of a single chain antibody(scFv). This scFv was expressed in Escherichia coli XL1-blue with the help of the vector system pOPE101. The scFv was isolated from the periplasmic fraction and detected by western blotting. It reacts specifically with soluble active GOD but does not recognize denatured GOD adsorbed to the solid phase. The same binding properties were also found for the monoclonal antibody E13BC8.
Antimicrobial Activity of Mupirocin, Daptomycin, Linezolid, Quinupristin/Dalfopristin and Tigecycline against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) from Clinical Isolates in Korea (1998 and 2005)
Lee, Do-Kyung ; Kim, Yu-Na ; Park, Kun-Sup ; Yang, Jae-Wook ; Kim, Kyung-Jae ; Ha, Nam-Joo ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 881~887
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.881
It is a hot clinical issue whether newly approved antimicrobial agents such as daptomycin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin (synercid) and tigecycline are active enough to be used for infections caused by vancomycin resistant bacteria. We performed susceptibility tests for mupirocin, which is in widespread clinical use in Korea, and four new antimicrobials, daptomycin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin and tigecycline, against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from Korean patients in 1998 and 2005 to evaluate and compare the in vitro activity of these antimicrobials. Among these agents, quinupristin/dalfopristin, which is rarely used in hospitals in Korea, showed relatively high resistance to several vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolated in 2005. Likewise, daptomycin, linezolid and tigecycline have not yet been in clinical use in Korea. However, our results showed that most of the 2005 VRE isolates were already resistant to linezolid and daptomycin (highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value >
/ml). Compared with the other four antimicrobial agents tested in this study, tigecycline generally showed the greatest activity against VRE. However, four strains of 2005 isolates exhibited resistance against tigecycline (MIC >
/ml). Almost all VRE were resistant to mupirocin, whereas all E. faecium isolated in 1998 were inhibited at concentrations between
/ml. In conclusion, resistances to these new antimicrobial agents were exhibited in most of VRE strains even though these new antibiotics have been rarely used in Korean hospitals.
Lipase Inactive Mutant of PLC-γ1 Regulates NGF-induced Neurite Outgrowth Via Enzymatic Activity and Regulation of Cell Cycle Regulatory Proteins
Le Xuan Nguyen, Truong ; Ahn, Jee-Yin ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 888~894
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.888
Src homology (SH) domains of phospholipase C-
) impair NGF-mediated PC12 cells differentiation. However, whether the enzymatic activity is also implicated in this process remains elusive. Here, we report that the enzymatic activity of phospholipase C-
) is at least partially involved to the blockage of neuronal differentiation via an abrogation of MAPK activation, as well as sustained Akt activation. By contrast, Overexpression of WT-PLC-
exhibited sustained NGF-induced MAPK activation, and triggered transient Akt activation resulting in profound inhibition of neurite outgrowth. However, lipase-inactive mutant (LIM) PLC-
cells fail to suppress neurite outgrowth, although it contains intact SH domains, specifically enhancing the expression of cyclin D1 and p21 proteins, which regulate the function of retinoblastoma Rb protein. These observations show that the lipase inactive mutant of PLC-
does not alter NGF-induced neuronal differentiation via enzymatic inability and the modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins independent on SH3 domain.
PD184352 Releases the Regular Hypoxic Reversible DNA Replication Arrest in T24 Cells
Martin, Leenus ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 895~898
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.895
The oxygen dependent regulation of DNA replication is an essential property of proliferating mammalian cells. In human T24 bladder cancer cells, several hours of hypoxia leads to reversible DNA replication arrest and re-entry of oxygen induces a burst of replication initiation. This short communication provides strong evidence that PD184352 initiates DNA replication in living hypoxic cells without elevating the oxygen level. PD184352 releases the regular hypoxic replicon arrest, however, at a low intensity compared to the effect of reoxygenation. Moreover, PD184352 shows no effect on normoxically incubated as well as reoxygenated T24 cells.
RGS Protein Specificity Towards G
- and G
-Mediated ERK 1/2 and Akt Activation, in vitro
Anger, Thomas ; Klintworth, Nils ; Stumpf, Christian ; Daniel, Werner G. ; Mende, Ulrike ; Garlichs, Christoph D. ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 899~910
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.899
Extracellular Regulated Kinases (ERK) and Protein Kinase B (Akt) are intermediaries in relaying extracellular growth signals to intracellular targets. Each pathway can become activated upon stimulation of G protein-coupled receptors mediated by
proteins subjected to regulation by RGS proteins. The goal of the study was to delineate the specificity in which cardiac RGS proteins modulate
-induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation. To isolate
-mediated effects, we exclusively expressed muscarinic
receptors in COS-7 cells. Western blot analyses demonstrated increase of phosphorylation of ERK 1.7-/3.3-fold and Akt 2.4-/6-fold in
expressing cells through carbachol stimulation. In co-expressions,
-induced activation of Akt was exclusively blunted through RGS3s/RGS3, whereas activation of ERK was inhibited additionally through RGS2/RGS5.
induced Akt activation was inhibited by all RGS proteins tested. RGS2 had no effect on
-induced ERK activation. The high degree of specificity in RGS proteins-depending modulation of
-mediated ERK and Akt activation in the muscarinic network cannot merely be attributed exclusively to RGS protein selectivity towards
proteins. Counter-regulatory mechanisms and inter-signaling cross-talk may alter the sensitivity of GPCR-induced ERK and Akt activation to RGS protein regulation.
Biosynthesis of Isoprenoids: Characterization of a Functionally Active Recombinant 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate Cytidyltransferase (IspD) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv
Shi, Wenjun ; Feng, Jianfang ; Zhang, Min ; Lai, Xuhui ; Xu, Shengfeng ; Zhang, Xuelian ; Wang, Honghai ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 911~920
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.911
Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, continues to be one of the leading infectious diseases to humans. It is urgent to discover novel drug targets for the development of antitubercular agents. The 2-C-methyl-Derythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis has been considered as an attractive target for the discovery of novel antibiotics for its essentiality in bacteria and absence in mammals. MEP cytidyltransferase (IspD), the third-step enzyme of the pathway, catalyzes MEP and CTP to form 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methylerythritol (CDP-ME) and PPi. In the work, ispD gene from M. tuberculosis H37Rv (MtIspD) was cloned and expressed. With N-terminal fusion of a histidine-tagged sequence, MtIspD could be purified to homogeneity by one-step nickel affinity chromatography. MtIspD exists as a homodimer with an apparent molecular mass of 52 kDa. Enzyme property analysis revealed that MtIspD has high specificity for pyrimidine bases and narrow divalent cation requirements, with maximal activity found in the presence of CTP and
. The turnover number of MtIspD is
. The Km for MEP and CTP are 43 and
, respectively. Furthermore, MtIspD shows thermal instable above
. Circular dichroism spectra revealed that the alteration of tertiary conformation is closely related with sharp loss of enzyme activity at higher temperature. This study is expected to help better understand the features of IspD and provide useful information for the development of novel antibiotics to treat M. tuberculosis.
Differential Regulation of the Promoter Activity of the Mouse UCP2 and UCP3 Genes by MyoD and Myogenin
Kim, Dong-Ho ; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut ; Thompson, Mary ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 921~927
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.921
UCP2 and UCP3 are members of the uncoupling protein family, which may play roles in energy homeostasis. In order to determine the regulation of the predominant expression of UCP3 in skeletal muscle, the effects of differentiation and myogenic regulatory factors on the promoter activities of the mouse UCP2 and UCP3 genes were studied. Reporter plasmids, containing approximately 3 kb of the 5'-upstream region of the mouse UCP2 and UCP3 genes, were transfected into C2C12 myoblasts, which were then induced to differentiate. Differentiation positively induced the reporter expression about 20-fold via the UCP3 promoter, but by only 2-fold via the UCP2 promoter. C2C12 myoblasts were cotransfected with expression vectors for myogenin and/or MyoD as well as reporter constructs. The simultaneous expression of myogenin and MyoD caused an additional 20-fold increase in the reporter expression via the UCP3 promoter, but only a weak effect via the UCP2 promoter. In L6 myoblasts, only MyoD activated the UCP3 promoter, but in 3T3-L1 cells neither factor activated the UCP3 promoter, indicating that additional cofactors are required, which are present only in C2C12 myoblasts. The expression of UCP2 and UCP3 is differentially regulated during muscle differentiation due to the different responsiveness of their promoter regions to myogenin and MyoD.
Protective Effect of Polysaccharide Fractions from Radix A. Sinensis against tert-Butylhydroperoxide Induced Oxidative Injury in Murine Peritoneal Macrophages
Yang, Xingbin ; Zhao, Yan ; Lv, You ; Yang, Ying ; Ruan, Yun ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 928~935
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.928
Three Angelica sinensis polysaccharide fractions (APFs), named APF1, APF2 and APF3, were isolated and purified from Radix A. sinensis and their antioxidant activities were evaluated in isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages by pretreatment with APFs before exposure to 0.2 mM tertbutylhydroperoxide (t-BHP). The results showed that pretreatment of the macrophages with APFs as low as
/ml could significantly enhance t-BHP-decreased cell survival, intracellular glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and also inhibited t-BHP-increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation (p < 0.05), and APF3 was the most active fraction, followed by APF2 and APF1 in decreasing order. Furthermore, we found for the first time that the bound-protein in APF3 was associated closely with the protective effects and the polysaccharide inhibited the excess NO release from t-BHP-activated macrophages to protect host cells.
Detection of Antistaphylococcal and Toxic Compounds by Biological Assay Systems Developed with a Reporter Staphylococcus aureus Strain Harboring a Heat Inducible Promoter - lacZ Transcriptional Fusion
Chanda, Palas Kumar ; Ganguly, Tridib ; Das, Malabika ; Lee, Chia Yen ; Luong, Thanh T. ; Sau, Subrata ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 936~943
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.936
Previously it was reported that promoter of groES-groEL operon of Staphylococcus aureus is induced by various cellwall active antibiotics. In order to exploit the above promoter for identifying novel antistaphylococcal drugs, we have cloned the promoter containing region (
) of groES-groEL operon of S. aureus Newman and found that the above promoter is induced by sublethal concentrations of many antibiotics including cell-wall active antibiotics. A reporter S. aureus RN4220 strain (designated SAU006) was constructed by inserting the
-lacZ transcriptional fusion into its chromosome. Agarose-based assay developed with SAU006 shows that
in single-copy is also induced distinctly by different classes of antibiotics. Data indicate that ciprofloxacin, rifampicin, ampicillin, and cephalothin are strong inducers, whereas, tetracycline, streptomycin and vancomycin induce the above promoter weakly. Sublethal concentrations of ciprofloxacin and ampicilin even have induced
efficiently in microtiter plate grown SAU006. Additional studies show for the first time that above promoter is also induced weakly by arsenate salt and hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, we suggest that our simple and sensitive assay systems with SAU006 could be utilized for screening and detecting not only novel antistaphylococcal compounds but also different toxic chemicals.
Induction of Megakaryocytic Differentiation in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Cell K562 by 3-Hydrogenkwadaphnin
Meshkini, Azadeh ; Yazdanparast, Razieh ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 944~951
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.944
3-Hydrogenkwadaphnin (3-HK) is a daphnane-type diterpene ester isolated from Dendrostellera lessertii (Thymelaeaceae) with high differentiation and apoptotic potency in leukemic cells without any measurable adverse effects on normal cells (Moosavi et al., 2005b). In this study, we report that 3-HK (12 nM) has the ability to cease proliferation, induce differentiation and apoptosis in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) K562 cell line. The treated cells lost erythroid properties and differentiated along the megakaryocytic lineage based on the morphological features apparent after Wright-Giemsa staining, DNA content analysis and the expression of cell surface marker glycoprotein IIb as analyzed by flow cytometry. Moreover, using Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V double staining indicated the occurrence of apoptosis among the treated cells. On the other hand, restoration of the depleted GTP pool size by exogenous addition of guanosine (
) reduced the effect of the drug regarding the extent of differentiation while no further enhancement of 3-HK effect was obtained by addition of exogenous hypoxanthine (
). These interesting results necessitate further investigation regarding the mechanism of action of this unique anti-leukemic agent.
Characterization of a Stress-Responsive Ankyrin Repeat-Containing Zinc Finger Protein of Capsicum annuum (CaKR1)
Seong, Eun-Soo ; Choi, Do-Il ; Cho, Hye-Sun ; Lim, Chun-Keum ; Cho, Hye-Jeong ; Wang, Myeong-Hyeon ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 952~958
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.952
We isolated many genes induced from pepper cDNA microarray data following their infection with the soybean pustule pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines 8ra. A full-length cDNA clone of the Capsicum annuum ankyrin-repeat domain
zinc finger protein (CaKR1) was identified in a chili pepper using the expressed sequence tag (EST) database. The deduced amino acid sequence of CaKR1 showed a significant sequence similarity (46%) to the ankyrin-repeat protein in very diverse family of proteins of Arabidopsis. The gene was induced in response to various biotic and abiotic stresses in the pepper leaves, as well as by an incompatible pathogen, such as salicylic acid (SA) and ethephon. CaKR1 expression was highest in the root and flower, and its expression was induced by treatment with agents such as NaCl and methyl viologen, as well as by cold stresses. These results showed that CaKR1 fusion with soluble, modified green fluorescent protein (smGFP) was localized to the cytosol in Arabidopsis protoplasts, suggesting that CaKR1 might be involved in responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses in pepper plants.
Isolation and Characterization of Two Korean Mistletoe Lectins
Kang, Tae-Bong ; Song, Seong-Kyu ; Yoon, Taek-Joon ; Yoo, Yung-Choon ; Lee, Kwan-Hee ; Her, Erk ; Kim, Jong-Bae ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 959~965
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.959
Two isolectins (KML-IIU and the KML-IIL) were individually isolated from the previously reported Korean mistletoe lectin, KML-C, by using an immunoaffinity column. Molecular weights of the KML-IIU and the KML-IIL were 64 kDa and 60 kDa respectively. Both of the lectins were composed of heterogeneous A and B subunits linked with a disulfide bond, and showed the same carbohydrate-binding specificities for Gal and GalNAc. However, they are different not only in biophysical properties (glycosylation and amino acid compositions) but also bioactivities (cell killing and cytokine induction). The KML-IIL showed 17-145 times stronger in cytotoxicities to various human and mouse cancer cell lines than the KML-IIU. The KML-IIL also induced TNF-
secretion from mouse peritoneal macrophages 4.5 times better than the KML-IIU. The results demonstrated isolectins in Korean mistletoe were varied in bioactivities and the KML-IIL may be developed as an anti-cancer agent.
The Important Anti-Apoptotic Role and Its Regulation Mechanism of PTTG1 in UV-Induced Apoptosis
Lai, Yongqing ; Xin, Dianqi ; Bai, Junhai ; Mao, Zebin ; Na, Yanqun ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 966~972
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.966
Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG1) is widely detected in many tumors. Increasing evidence reveals that PTTG1 is associated with cell proliferation, cellular transformation and apoptosis. However, the functions of PTTG1, especially its role in DNA damage-induced apoptosis, remain largely unclear. In this report, we used UV irradiation to induce apoptosis in HeLa cells to examine the role of PTTG1 in UV-induced apoptosis by RNAi-mediated knockdown and overexpression of PTTG1. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PTTG1 expression increased and overexpression of PTTG1 decreased the UV-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, UV irradiation decreased PTTG1 mRNA and protein expression. These effects were found to be mediated by JNK pathway. Therefore, PTTG1 had an important anti-apoptotic role in UV-induced apoptosis and this role was mediated by JNK pathway. These results may provide important information for understanding the exact role and the regulation mechanism of PTTG1 in UV-induced apoptosis.
SEPT12 Interacts with SEPT6 and This Interaction Alters the Filament Structure of SEPT6 in Hela Cells
Ding, Xiangming ; Yu, Wenbo ; Liu, Ming ; Shen, Suqin ; Chen, Fang ; Wan, Bo ; Yu, Long ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 973~978
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.973
Septins are a family of conserved cytoskeletal GTPase forming heteropolymeric filamentous structure in interphase cells, however, the mechanism of assembly are largely unknown. Here we described the characterization of SEPT12, sharing closest homology to SEPT3 and SEPT9. It was revealed that subcelluar localization of SEPT12 varied at interphase and mitotic phase. While SEPT12 formed filamentous structures at interphase, it was localized to the central spindle and to midbody during anaphase and cytokinesis, respectively. In addition, we found that SEPT12 can interact with SEPT6 in vitro and in vivo, and this interaction was independent of the coiled coil domain of SEPT6. Further, co-expression of SEPT12 altered the filamentous structure of SEPT6 in Hela cells. Therefore, our result showed that the interaction between different septins may affect the septin filament structure.
Induction of Growth Hormone Release by Glycyrrhizae Radix on Rat
Lee, Ho-Young ; Jung, Dae-Young ; Ha, Hye-Kyung ; Kang, Sam-Sik ; Kim, Ju-Sun ; Kim, Chung-Sook ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 979~985
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.979
Induction of growth hormone (GH) by Glycyrrhizae Radix (GR), one of the most popular herbal medicine, and its major ingredients were studied in rat pituitary cells in vitro and in vivo assay. The MeOH extract and the n-hexane (HX) fraction of GR induced rat GH (rGH) release up to 1.89 times (
) and 4.59 times (
), compared to the basal level (p < 0.05). Among many ingredients isolated and purified from GR both glycyrrhetinic acid and glycyrrhizin induced significantly rGH release compared to the control (p < 0.05). After an intravenous injection of rat growth hormone releasing hormone (rGHRH) (
/kg) as positive control, in SD rats,
of plasma rGH level was 10 min,
(n = 3), and enhanced plasma rGH level returned to the baseline in 90 min. Both
(area under the curve) of plasma rGH level after HX fraction and that after rGHRH administration were increased significantly from the basal level, respectively (p < 0.01). In conclusions, HX fraction is the most active fraction of MeOH extract of GR in rGH induction.
Differentially Expressed Genes under Cold Acclimation in Physcomitrella patens
Sun, Ming-Ming ; Li, Lin-Hui ; Xie, Hua ; Ma, Rong-Cai ; He, Yi-Kun ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 986~1001
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.986
Cold acclimation improves freezing tolerance in plants. In higher plants, many advances have been made toward identifying the signaling and regulatory pathways that direct the low-temperature stress response; however, similar insights have not yet been gained for simple nonvascular plants, such as bryophytes. To elucidate the pathways that regulate cold acclimation in bryophytes, we used two PCR-based differential screening techniques, cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), to isolate 510 ESTs that are differentially expressed during cold acclimation in Physcomitrella patens. We used realtime RT-PCR to further analyze expression of 29 of these transcripts during cold acclimation. Our results show that cold acclimation in the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens is not only largely similar to higher plants but also displays distinct differences, suggests significant alteration during the evolution of land plants.
Overexpression and Purification of PreS Region of Hepatitis B Virus Antigenic Surface Protein adr Subtype in Escherichia coli
Abbas, Naaz ; Ahmad, Aftab ; Shakoori, Abdul Rauf ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 1002~1008
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.1002
PreS domain of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen is a good candidate for an effective vaccine as it activates both B and T cells besides binding to hepatocytes. This report deals with overexpression and purification of adr subtype of surface antigen that is more prevalent in Pakistan. PreS region, comprising 119 aa preS1 region plus a 55 aa preS2 region plus 11 aa from the N-terminal S region, was inserted in pET21a+ vector, cloned in E. coli
cells and expressed in E. coli BL21 codon+ cells. The conditions for over expression were optimized using different concentrations of IPTG (0.01-5 mM), and incubating the cells at different temperatures (23-
) for different durations (0-6 h). The cells were grown under the given optimized conditions (0.5 mM IPTG concentration at
for 4 h), lysed by sonication and the protein was purified by ion exchange chromatography. On the average, 24.5 mg of recombinant protein was purified per liter of culture. The purified protein was later lyophilized and stored at
Cell Cycle Regulation and Induction of Apoptosis by β-carotene in U937 and HL-60 Leukemia Cells
Upadhyaya, K.R. ; Radha, K.S. ; Madhyastha, H.K. ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 1009~1015
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.1009
In this communication, we report the efficacy of
-carotene towards differentiation and apoptosis of leukemia cells. Dose (
) and time dependence (12 h) tests of
-carotene showed a higher magnitude of decrease (significance p < 0.05) in cell numbers and cell viability in HL-60 cells than U937 cells but not normal cell like Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC). Microscopical observation of
-carotene treated cells showed a distinct pattern of morphological abnormalities with inclusion of apoptotic bodies in both leukemia cell lines. When cells were treated with
-carotene, total genomic DNA showed a fragmentation pattern and this pattern was clear in HL-60 than U937 cells. Both the cell lines, on treatment with
-carotene, showed a clear shift in
phase of the cell cycle. In addition the study also revealed anti-oxidant properties of
-carotene since there was reduction in relative fluorescent when treated than the control at lower concentration. Collectively this study shows the dual phenomenon of apoptosis and differentiation of leukemia cells on treatment with
Induction of Growth Hormone Release by Dioscin from Dioscorea batatas DECNE
Lee, Ho-Young ; Jung, Dae-Young ; Ha, Hye-Kyung ; Son, Kun-Ho ; Jeon, Su-Jin ; Kim, Chung-Sook ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 1016~1020
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.1016
In this study, dioscin was isolated from Dioscoreae Rhizoma (DR), which is the rhizome of Dioscorea batatas DECNE. that inhabits broad areas of Korea and Japan. To determine whether dioscin induced growth hormone (GH) release, we evaluated its induction effects on GH release both in vitro and in vivo. The 70% methanol extract of DR, and its n-hexane and n-BuOH fractions, induced rat GH (rGH) release in rat pituitary cells 10-fold, 8-fold, and 5-fold higher than the control (
), respectively (p < 0.05 each). The dioscin-induced rGH release of the cells was concentration-dependent and its
. Within 90 minutes after intravenous administration of
/kg (p < 0.05 at
), dioscin caused the greatest increase in rGH concentration (
) in the rat plasma (
) (n = 4), which was twice as high as the control group (
) (n = 27).
Construction and Expression of Mutant cDNAs Responsible for Genetic Polymorphism in Aldehyde Oxidase in Donryu Strain Rats
Adachi, Mayuko ; Itoh, Kunio ; Masubuchi, Akiko ; Watanabe, Nobuaki ; Tanaka, Yorihisa ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 1021~1027
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.1021
We demonstrated the genetic polymorphism of aldehyde oxidase (AO) in Donryu strain rats: the ultrarapid metabolizer (UM) with nucleotide mutation of (377G, 2604C) coding for amino acid substitution of (110Gly, 852Val), extensive metabolizer (EM) with (377G/A, 2604C/T) coding for (110Gly/Ser, 852Val/Ala), and poor metabolizer (PM) with (377A, 2604T) coding for (110Ser, 852Ala), respectively. The results suggested that 377G > A and/or 2604C > T should be responsible for the genetic polymorphism. In this study, we constructed an E. coli expression system of four types of AO cDNA including Mut-1 with (377G, 2604T) and Mut-2 with (377A, 2604C) as well as naturally existing nucleotide sequences of UM and PM in order to clarify which one is responsible for the polymorphism. Mut-1 and Mut-2 showed almost the same high and low activity as that of the UM and PM groups, respectively. Thus, the expression study of mutant AO cDNA directly revealed that the nucleotide substitution of 377G > A, but not that of 2604C > T, will play a critical role in the genetic polymorphism of AO in Donryu strain rats. The reason amino acid substitution will cause genetic polymorphism in AO activity was discussed.
Evidence of Tandem Repeat and Extra Thiol-groups Resulted in the Polymeric Formation of Bovine Haptoglobin: A Unique Structure of Hp 2-2 Phenotype
Lai, Yi An ; Lai, I Hsiang ; Tseng, Chi Feng ; Lee, James ; Mao, Simon J.T. ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 1028~1038
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.1028
Human plasma Hp is classified as 1-1, 2-1, and 2-2. They are inherited from two alleles Hp 1 and Hp 2, but there is only Hp 1 in almost all the animal species. Hp 2-2 molecule is extremely large and heterogeneous associated with the development of inflammatory-related diseases. In this study, we expressed entire bovine Hp in E. coli as a
linear form. Interestingly, the antibodies prepared against this form could recognize the subunit of native Hp. In stead of a complicated column method, the antibody was able to isolate bovine Hp via immunoaffinity and gelfiltration columns. The isolated Hp is polymeric containing two major molecular forms (660 and 730 kDa). Their size and hemoglobin binding complex are significantly larger than that of human Hp 2-2. The amino-acid sequence deducted from the nucleotide sequence is similar to human Hp 2 containing a tandem repeat over the
chain. Thus, the Hp 2 allele is not unique in human. We also found that there is one additional -SH group (Cys-97) in bovine
chain with a total of 8 -SH groups, which may be responsible for the overall polymeric structure that is markedly different from human Hp 2-2. The significance of the finding and its relationship to structural evolution are also discussed.
Anti-oxidative Effect of a Protein from Cajanus indicus L against Acetaminophen-induced Hepato-nephro Toxicity
Ghosh, Ayantika ; Sil, Parames C. ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 1039~1049
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.1039
Overdoses of acetaminophen cause hepato-renal oxidative stress. The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of a 43 kDa protein isolated from the herb Cajanus indicus, against acetaminophen-induced hepatic and renal toxicity. Male albino mice were treated with the protein for 4 days (intraperitoneally, 2 mg/kg body wt) prior or post to oral administration of acetaminophen (300 mg/kg body wt) for 2 days. Levels of different marker enzymes (namely, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase), creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were measured in the experimental sera. Intracellular reactive oxygen species production and total antioxidant activity were also determined from acetaminophen and protein treated hepatocytes. Indices of different antioxidant enzymes (namely, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase) as well as lipid peroxidation end-products and glutathione were determined in both liver and kidney homogenates. In addition, Cytochrome P450 activity was also measured from liver microsomes. Finally, histopathological studies were performed from liver sections of control, acetaminophen-treated and protein pre- and post-treated (along with acetaminophen) mice. Administration of acetaminophen increased all the serum markers and creatinine levels in mice sera along with the enhancement of hepatic and renal lipid peroxidation. Besides, application of acetaminophen to hepatocytes increased reactive oxygen species production and reduced the total antioxidant activity of the treated hepatocytes. It also reduced the levels of antioxidant enzymes and cellular reserves of glutathione in liver and kidney. In addition, acetaminophen enhanced the cytochrome P450 activity of liver microsomes. Treatment with the protein significantly reversed these changes to almost normal. Apart from these, histopathological changes also revealed the protective nature of the protein against acetaminophen induced necrotic damage of the liver tissues. Results suggest that the protein protects hepatic and renal tissues against oxidative damages and could be used as an effective protector against acetaminophen induced hepato-nephrotoxicity.
Characterization of Peptide Deformylase2 from B. cereus
Park, Joon-Kyu ; Kim, Kook-Han ; Moon, Jin-Ho ; Kim, Eunice Eun-Kyeong ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 1050~1057
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.1050
Peptide deformylase (PDF) is a metalloenzyme that removes the N-terminal formyl groups from newly synthesized proteins. It is essential for bacterial survival, and is therefore-considered as a potential target for antimicrobial chemotherapy. However, some bacteria including medically relevant pathogens possess two or more def-like genes. Here we have examined two PDFs from Bacillus cereus. The two share only 32% sequence identity and the crystal structures show overall similarity with PDF2 having a longer C-terminus. However, there are differences at the two active sites, and these differences appear to contribute to the activity difference seen between the two. BcPDF2 is found as a dimer in the crystal form with two additional actinonin bound at that interface.
Proteomic Analysis of O-GlcNAc Modifications Derived from Streptozotocin and Glucosamine Induced β-cell Apoptosis
Park, Jung-Eun ; Kwon, Hye-Jin ; Kang, Yup ; Kim, Young-Soo ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 1058~1068
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.1058
The post-translational modifications of Ser and Thr residues by O-linked
-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), i.e., O-GlcNAcylation, is considered a key means of regulating signaling, in a manner analogous to protein phosphorylation. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the increased flux of glucose through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) stimulates O-GlcNAcylation, and that this may be responsible for many of the manifestations of type 2 diabetes mellitus. To determine whether excessive O-GlcNAcylation of target proteins results in pancreatic
cell dysfunction, we increased nucleocytoplasmic protein O-GlcNAcylation levels in
cells by exposing them to streptozotocin and/or glucosamine. Streptozotocin and glucosamine co-treatment increased O-GlcNAcylated proteomic patterns as assessed by immunoblotting, and these increases in nuclear and cytoplasmic protein O-GlcNAcylations were accompanied by impaired insulin secretion and enhanced apoptosis in pancreatic
cells. This observed
cell dysfunction prompted us to examine Akt and Bcl-2 family member proteins to determine which proteins are O-GlcNAcylated under conditions of high HBP throughput, and how these proteins are associated with
cell apoptosis. Eventually, we identified ten new O-GlcNAcylated proteins that were expressed during
cell apoptosis, and analyzed the functional implications of these proteins in relation to pancreatic
Disulfiram Suppresses Invasive Ability of Osteosarcoma Cells Via the Inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 Expression
Cho, Hyun-Ji ; Lee, Tae-Sung ; Park, Jae-Bok ; Park, Kwan-Kyu ; Choe, Jung-Yoon ; Sin, Doo-Il ; Park, Yoon-Yub ; Moon, Yong-Suk ; Lee, Kwang-Gill ; Yeo, Joo-Hong ; Han, Sang-Mi ; Cho, Young-Su ; Choi, Myeong-Rak ; Park, Nam-Gyu ; Lee, Yun-Sik ; Chang, Young-Chae ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 1069~1076
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.1069
Cancer cells, characterized by local invasion and distant metastasis, are very much dependant on the extracellular matrix. The expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been implicated in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. In this study, we reported the effects of disulfiram, a clinically used anti-alcoholism drug, on tumor invasion suppression, as well as its effects on the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human osteosarcoma cells (U2OS). Disulfiram has been used for alcohol aversion therapy. However, recent reports have shown that disulfiram may have potential in the treatment of human cancers. Herewith, we showed that the anti-tumor effects of disulfiram, in an invasion assay using U2OS cells and that disulfiram has a type IV collagenase inhibitory activity that inhibits expression of genes and proteins responsible for both cell and non-cell mediated invasion on pathways. In conclusion, disulfiram inhibited expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and it regulated the invasion of human osteosarcoma cells. These observations raise the possibility of disulfiram being used clinical for the inhibition of cancer invasion.
Inhibitory Properties of Nerve-Specific Human Glutamate Dehydrogenase Isozyme by Chloroquine
Choi, Myung-Min ; Kim, Eun-A ; Choi, Soo-Young ; Kim, Tae-Ue ; Cho, Sung-Woo ; Yang, Seung-Ju ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 1077~1082
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.1077
Human glutamate dehydrogenase exists in hGDH1 (housekeeping isozyme) and in hGDH2 (nerve-specific isozyme), which differ markedly in their allosteric regulation. In the nervous system, GDH is enriched in astrocytes and is important for recycling glutamate, a major excitatory neurotransmitter during neurotransmission. Chloroquine has been known to be a potent inhibitor of house-keeping GDH1 in permeabilized liver and kidneycortex of rabbit. However, the effects of chloroquine on nerve-specific GDH2 have not been reported yet. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of chloroquine on hGDH2 at various conditions and showed that chloroquine could inhibit the activity of hGDH2 at dose-dependent manner. Studies of the chloroquine inhibition on enzyme activity revealed that hGDH2 was relatively less sensitive to chloroquine inhibition than house-keeping hGDH1. Incubation of hGDH2 was uncompetitive with respect of NADH and non-competitive with respect of 2-oxoglutarate. The inhibitory effect of chloroquine on hGDH2 was abolished, although in part, by the presence of ADP and L-leucine, whereas GTP did not change the sensitivity to chloroquine inhibition. Our results show a possibility that chloroquine may be used in regulating GDH activity and subsequently glutamate concentration in the central nervous system.
AtHAP3b Plays a Crucial Role in the Regulation of Flowering Time in Arabidopsis during Osmotic Stress
Chen, Nai-Zhi ; Zhang, Xiu-Qing ; Wei, Peng-Cheng ; Chen, Qi-Jun ; Ren, Fei ; Chen, Jia ; Wang, Xue-Chen ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 1083~1089
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.1083
The HAP complex has been found in many eukaryotic organisms. HAP recognizes the CCAAT box present in the promoters of 30% of all eukaryotic genes. The HAP complex consists of three subunits - HAP2, HAP3 and HAP5. In this paper, we report the biological function of the AtHAP3b gene that encodes one of the HAP3 subunits in Arabidopsis. Compared with wild-type plants, hap3b-1 and hap3b-2 mutants exhibited a delayed flowering time under long-day photoperiod conditions. Moreover, the transcription levels of FT were substantially lower in the mutants than in the wild-type plants. These results imply that AtHAP3b may function in the control of flowering time by regulating the expression of FT in Arabidopsis. In a subsequent study, AtHAP3b was found to be induced by osmotic stress. Under osmotic stress conditions, the hap3b- 1 and hap3b-2 mutants flowered considerably later than the wild-type plants. These results suggest that the AtHAP3b gene plays more important roles in the control of flowering under osmotic stress in Arabidopsis.
Cell Selectivity of an Antimicrobial Peptide Melittin Diastereomer with D-amino Acid in the Leucine Zipper Sequence
Zhu, Wan Long ; Nan, Yong Hai ; Hahm, Kyung-Soo ; Shin, Song-Yub ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 1090~1094
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.1090
Melittin (ME), a linear 26-residue non-cell-selective antimicrobial peptide, displays strong lytic activity against bacterial and human red blood cells. To design ME analogue with improved cell selectivity, we synthesized a melittin diastereomer (ME-D) with D-amino acid in the leucine zipper sequence (Leu-6, Lue-13 and Ile-20). Compared to ME, ME-D exhibited the same or 2-fold higher antibacterial activity but 8-fold less hemolytic activity. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that ME-D has much less
-helical content in
-helical content in the presence of zwitterionic EYPC/cholesterol (10 : 1, w/w) liposomes compared to negatively charged EYPE/EYPG (7 : 3, w/w) liposomes. The blue shift of the fluorescence emission maximum of ME-D in zwitterionic EYPC/cholesterol (10 : 1, w/w) liposomes was much smaller than in negatively charged EYPE/EYPG (7 : 3, w/w) liposomes. These results suggested that the improvement in therapeutic index/cell selectivity of ME-D is correlated with its less permeability to zwitterionic membranes.
Ectopic Expression of Mitochondria Endonuclease Pnu1p from Schizosaccharomyces pombe Induces Cell Death of the Yeast
Oda, Kaoru ; Kawasaki, Nami ; Fukuyama, Masashi ; Ikeda, Shogo ;
BMB Reports , volume 40, issue 6, 2007, Pages 1095~1099
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.6.1095
Endonuclease G (EndoG) is a mitochondrial non-specific nuclease that is highly conserved among the eukaryotes. Although the precise role of EndoG in mitochondria is not yet known, the enzyme is released from the mitochondria and digests nuclear DNA during apoptosis in mammalian cells. Schizosaccharomyces pombe has an EndoG homolog Pnu1p (previously named SpNuc1) that is produced as a precursor protein with a mitochondrial targeting sequence. During the sorting into mitochondria the signal sequence is cleaved to yield the functionally active endonuclease. From the analogy to EndoG, active extramitochondrial Pnu1p may trigger cell killing by degrading nuclear DNA. Here, we tested this possibility by expressing a truncated Pnu1p lacking the signal sequence in the extramitochondrial region of pnu1-deleted cells. The truncated Pnu1p was localized in the cytosol and nuclei of yeast cells. And ectopic expression of active Pnu1p led to cell death with fragmentation of nuclear DNA. This suggests that the Pnu1p is possibly involved in a certain type of yeast cell death via DNA fragmentation. Although expression of human Bak in S. pombe was lethal, Pnu1p nuclease is not necessary for hBak-induced cell death.