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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 42, Issue 12 - Dec 2009
Volume 42, Issue 11 - Nov 2009
Volume 42, Issue 10 - Oct 2009
Volume 42, Issue 9 - Sep 2009
Volume 42, Issue 8 - Aug 2009
Volume 42, Issue 7 - Jul 2009
Volume 42, Issue 6 - Jun 2009
Volume 42, Issue 5 - May 2009
Volume 42, Issue 4 - Apr 2009
Volume 42, Issue 3 - Mar 2009
Volume 42, Issue 2 - Feb 2009
Volume 42, Issue 1 - Jan 2009
Selecting the target year
Periplasmic glucans isolated from Proteobacteria
Lee, Sang-Hoo ; Cho, Eun-Ae ; Jung, Seun-Ho ;
BMB Reports , volume 42, issue 12, 2009, Pages 769~775
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2009.42.12.769
Periplasmic glucans (PGs) are general constituents in the periplasmic space of Proteobacteria. PGs from bacterial strains are found in larger amounts during growth on medium with low osmolarity and thus are often been specified as osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs). Furthermore, they appear to play crucial roles in pathogenesis and symbiosis. PGs have been classified into four families based on the structural features of their backbones, and they can be modified by a variety of non-sugar substituents. It has also recently been confirmed that novel PGs with various degrees of polymerization (DPs) and/or different substituents are produced under different growth conditions among Proteobacteria. In addition to their biological functions as regulators of low osmolarity, PGs have a variety of physico-chemical properties due to their inherent three-dimensional structures, hydrogen-bonding and complex-forming abilities. Thus, much attention has recently been focused on their physico-chemical applications. In this review, we provide an updated classification of PGs, as well as a description of the occurrences of novel PGs with substituents under various bacterial growth environments, the genes involved in PG biosynthesis and the various physico-chemical properties of PGs.
Th17 responses and host defense against microorganisms: an overview
Van De Veerdonk, Frank L. ; Gresnigt, Mark S. ; Kullberg, Bart Jan ; Van Der Meer, Jos W.M. ; Joosten, Leo A.B. ; Netea, Mihai G. ;
BMB Reports , volume 42, issue 12, 2009, Pages 776~787
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2009.42.12.776
T helper (Th) 17 cells have recently been described as a third subset of T helper cells, and have provided new insights into the mechanisms that are important in the development of autoimmune diseases and the immune responses that are essential for effective antimicrobial host defense. Both protective and harmful effects of Th17 responses during infection have been described. In general, Th17 responses are critical for mucosal and epithelial host defense against extracellular bacteria and fungi. However, recent studies have reported that Th17 responses can also contribute to viral persistence and chronic inflammation associated with parasitic infection. It has become evident that the type of microorganisms and the setting in which they trigger the Th17 response determines the outcome of the delicate balancethat exists between Th17 induced protection and immunopathogenesis.
Functional characterization of a minimal sequence essential for the expression of human TLX2 gene
Borghini, Silvia ; Bachetti, Tiziana ; Fava, Monica ; Duca, Marco Di ; Ravazzolo, Roberto ; Ceccherini, Isabella ;
BMB Reports , volume 42, issue 12, 2009, Pages 788~793
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2009.42.12.788
TLX2 is an orphan homeodomain transcription factor whose expression is mainly associated with tissues derived from neural crest cells. Recently, we have demonstrated that PHOX2A and PHOX2B are able to enhance the neural cell-type specific expression of human TLX2 by binding distally the 5' -flanking region. In the present work, to deepen into the TLX2 transcription regulation, we have focused on the proximal 5'-flanking region of the gene, mapping the transcription start site and identifying a minimal promoter necessary and sufficient for the basal transcription in cell lines from different origin. Site-directed mutagenesis has allowed to demonstrate that the integrity of this sequence is crucial for gene expression, while electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments have revealed that such an activity is dependent on the binding of a PBX factor. Consistent with these findings, such a basal promoter activity has resulted to be enhanced by the previously reported PHOX2-responding sequence.
Agrocybe chaxingu polysaccharide prevent inflammation through the inhibition of COX-2 and NO production
Lee, Byung-Ryong ; Kim, So-Young ; Kim, Dae-Won ; An, Jae-Jin ; Song, Ha-Yong ; Yoo, Ki-Yeon ; Kang, Tae-Cheon ; Won, Moo-Ho ; Lee, Kwang-Jae ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ; Joo, Jin-Ho ; Ham, Hun-Ju ; Hur, Jang-Hyun ; Cho, Sung-Woo ; Han, Kyu-Hyung ; Lee, Kil-Soo ; Park, Jin-Seu ; Choi, Soo-Young ; Eum, Won-Sik ;
BMB Reports , volume 42, issue 12, 2009, Pages 794~799
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2009.42.12.794
The inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) production is considered to be a promising approach to the treatment of various diseases, including inflammation and cancer. In this study, we examined the effects of the Agrocybe chaxingu
-glucan (polysaccharide) on lipopolysaccaride (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in murine macrophage Raw 264.7 cells as well as 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema in mice. The polysaccharide significantly inhibited (P < 0.01) LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression levels in the cells. Furthermore, topical application of polysaccharide resulted in markedly inhibited (P < 0.01) TPA-induced ear edema in mice. These results suggest that this polysaccharide may be used for NO- and COX-2-related disorders such as inflammation and cancer.
Bevacizumab accelerates corneal wound healing by inhibiting TGF-βexpression in alkali-burned mouse cornea
Lee, Sung-Ho ; Leem, Hyun-Sung ; Jeong, Seon-Mi ; Lee, Koon-ja ;
BMB Reports , volume 42, issue 12, 2009, Pages 800~805
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2009.42.12.800
This study investigated the effect of subconjunctival injections of bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF antibody, on processes involved in corneal wound healing after alkali burn injury. Mice were divided into three groups: Group 1 was the saline-treated control, group 2 received subconjunctival injection of bevacizumab 1hr after injury and group 3 received bevacizumab 1 hr and 4 days after injury. Cornea neovascularization and opacity were observed using a slit lamp microscope. Corneal repair was assessed through histological analysis and immunostaining for CD31,
-SMA, collagen I, and TGF-
2 7 days post-injury. In group 3, injection of bevacizumab significantly lowered neovascularization and improved corneal transparency. Immunostaining analysis demonstrated a reduction in CD31,
-SMA and TGF-
2 levels in stroma compared to group 1. These results indicate that bevacizumab may be useful in reducing neovascularization and improving corneal transparency following corneal alkali burn injury by accelerating regeneration of the basement membrane.
Induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis in melanoma cells by the synthetic compound (E)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl)-3-styrylurea
Kim, Ji-Hae ; Jang, Young-Oh ; Kim, Beom-Tae ; Hwang, Ki-Jun ; Lee, Jeong-Chae ;
BMB Reports , volume 42, issue 12, 2009, Pages 806~811
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2009.42.12.806
Recently, various phenolic acid phenethyl ureas (PAPUs) have been synthesized from phenolic acids by Curtius rearrangement for the development of more effective anti-oxidants. In this study, we examined the anti-tumor activity and cellular mechanism of the synthetic compound (E)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl)-3-styrylurea (PAPU1) using melanoma B16/F10 and M-3 cells. Results showed that PAPU1 inhibited the cell proliferation and viability, but did not induce cytotoxic effects on primary cultured fibroblasts. PAPU1 induced apoptotic cell death rather than necrosis in melanoma cells, a result clearly proven by the shift of cells into sub-
phase of the cell cycle and by the substantial increase in cells positively stained with TUNEL or Annexin V. Collectively, this study revealed that PAPU1 induced apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner, suggesting a potential role as a cancer chemopreventive agent for melanoma cells.
Aspartyl aminopeptidase of Schizosaccharomyces pombe has a molecular chaperone function
Lee, Song-Mi ; Kim, Ji-Sun ; Yun, Chul-Ho ; Chae, Ho-Zoon ; Kim, Kang-Hwa ;
BMB Reports , volume 42, issue 12, 2009, Pages 812~816
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2009.42.12.812
To screen chaperone proteins from Schizosaccharomyce pombe (S. pombe), we prepared recombinant citrate synthase of the fission yeast as a substrate of anti-aggregation assay. Purified recombinant citrate synthase showed citrate synthase activity and was suitable for the substrate of chaperone assay. Several heat stable proteins including aspartyl aminopeptidase (AAP) for candidates of chaperone were screened from the supernatant fraction of heat-treated crude extract of S. pombe. The purified AAP migrated as a single band of 47 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The native size of AAP was estimated as 200 kDa by a HPLC gel permeation chromatography. This enzyme can remove the aspartyl residue at N-terminus of angiotensin I. In addition, AAP showed the heat stability and protected the aggregation of citrate synthase caused by thermal denaturation. This study showed that S. pombe AAP is a moonlight protein that has aspartyl aminopeptidase and chaperone activities.
Regulation of type-1 protein phosphatase in a model of metabolic arrest
Ramnanan, Christopher J. ; Storey, Kenneth B. ;
BMB Reports , volume 42, issue 12, 2009, Pages 817~822
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2009.42.12.817
Type-1 phosphatase (PP-1) was assessed in foot muscle (FM) and hepatopancreas (HP) of estivating (EST) Otala lactea. Snail PP-1 displayed several conserved traits, including sensitivity to inhibitors, substrate affinity, and reduction in size to a 39 kDa catalytic subunit (PP-1c). During EST, PP-1 activity in FM and HP crude extracts was reduced, though kinetics and protein levels of purified PP-1c isoforms were not altered. PP-1c protein levels increased and decreased in nuclear and glycogen-associated fractions, respectively, during EST. Gel filtration determined that a 257 kDa low
complex decreased during estivation whereas a 76 kDa high
complex increased in EST. Western blotting confirmed that the 76 kDa protein consisted of PP-1
and nuclear inhibitor of PP-1 (NIPP-1). A suppression of PP-1 activity factors in the overall metabolic rate depression in estivating snails and the mechanism is mediated through altered cellular localization and interaction with binding partners.
CONVIRT: A web-based tool for transcriptional regulatory site identification using a conserved virtual chromosome
Ryu, Tae-Woo ; Lee, Se-Joon ; Hur, Cheol-Goo ; Lee, Do-Heon ;
BMB Reports , volume 42, issue 12, 2009, Pages 823~828
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2009.42.12.823
Techniques for analyzing protein-DNA interactions on a genome-wide scale have recently established regulatory roles for distal enhancers. However, the large sizes of higher eukaryotic genomes have made identification of these elements difficult. Information regarding sequence conservation, exon annotation and repetitive regions can be used to reduce the size of the search region. However, previously developed resources are inadequate for consolidating such information. CONVIRT is a web resource for the identification of transcription factor binding sites and also features comparative genomics. Genomic information on ortholog-independent conserved regions, exons, repeats and sequences is integrated into the virtual chromosome, and statistically over-represented single or combinations of transcription factor binding sites are sought. CONVIRT provides regulatory network analysis for several organisms with long promoter regions and permits inter-species genome alignments. CONVIRT is freely available at http://biosoft.kaist.ac.kr/convirt.
Role of the surface loop on the structure and biological activity of angiogenin
Jang, Seung-Hwan ; Song, Hyang-Do ; Kang, Dong-Ku ; Chang, Soo-Ik ; Kim, Min-Kyung ; Cho, Kwang-Hwi ; Scherga, Harold A. ; Shin, Hang-Cheol ;
BMB Reports , volume 42, issue 12, 2009, Pages 829~833
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2009.42.12.829
Angiogenin is a member of the ribonuclease superfamily that induces the formation of new blood vessels. It has been suggested that the surface loop of angiogenin defined by residues 59-71 plays a special role in angiogenic function (1); however, the mechanism of action is not clearly defined. To elucidate the role of the surface loop on the structure, function and stability of angiogenin, three surface loop mutants were produced in which 14 amino acids in the surface loop of RNase A were substituted for the 13 amino acids in the corresponding loop of angiogenin. The structure, stability and biological functions of the mutants were then investigated using biophysical and biological approaches. Even though the substitutions did not influence the overall structure of angiogenin, they affected the stability and angiogenic function of angiogenin, indicating that the surface loop of angiogenin plays a significant role in maintaining the stability and angiogenic function of angiogenin.
Putative association of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) polymorphisms with clearance of HBV infection
Chun, Ji-Yong ; Bae, Joon-Seol ; Park, Tae-June ; Kim, Jason-Y. ; Park, Byung-Lae ; Cheong, Hyun-Sub ; Lee, Hyo-Suk ; Kim, Yoon-Jun ; Shin, Hyoung-Doo ;
BMB Reports , volume 42, issue 12, 2009, Pages 834~839
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2009.42.12.834
DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1 is the key enzyme responsible for DNA methylation, which often occurs in CpG islands located near the regulatory regions of genes and affects transcription of specific genes. In this study, we examined the possible association of DNMT1 polymorphisms with HBV clearance and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Seven common polymorphic sites were selected by considering their allele frequencies, haplotype-tagging status and LDs for genotyping in larger-scale subjects (n = 1,100). Statistical analysis demonstrated that two intron polymorphisms of DNMT1, +34542G > C and +38565G > T, showed significant association with HBV clearance in a co-dominant model (OR = 1.30,
= 0.03) and co- dominant/recessive model (OR = 1.34-1.74,
= 0.01-0.03), respectively. These results suggest that two intron polymorphisms of DNMT1, +34542G > C and +38565G > T, might affect HBV clearance.
Casein Kinase 2 interacts with human mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase MSK1 and phosphorylates it at Multiple sites
Shi, Yan ; Han, Guanghui ; Wu, Huiling ; Ye, Kan ; Tian, Zhipeng ; Wang, Jiaqi ; Shi, Huili ; Ye, Mingliang ; Zou, Hanfa ; Huo, Keke ;
BMB Reports , volume 42, issue 12, 2009, Pages 840~845
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2009.42.12.840
Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase (MSK1) palys a crucial role in the regulation of transcription downstream of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and mitogen-activated protein kinase p38. MSK1 can be phosphorylated and activated in cells by both ERK1/2 and p38
. In this study, Casein Kinase 2 (CK2) was identified as a binding and regulatory partner for MSK1. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, MSK1 was found to interact with the CK2
regulatory subunit of CK2. Interactions between MSK1 and the CK2
catalytic subunit and CK2
subunit were demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. We further found that CK2
can only interact with the C-terminal kinase domain of MSK1. Using site-directed mutagenesis assay and mass spectrometry, we identified five sites in the MSK1 C-terminus that could be phosphorylated by CK2 in vitro: Ser757, Ser758, Ser759, Ser760 and Thr793. Of these, Ser757, Ser759, Ser760 and Thr793 were previously unknown.