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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 43, Issue 12 - Dec 2010
Volume 43, Issue 11 - Nov 2010
Volume 43, Issue 10 - Oct 2010
Volume 43, Issue 9 - Sep 2010
Volume 43, Issue 8 - Aug 2010
Volume 43, Issue 7 - Jul 2010
Volume 43, Issue 6 - Jun 2010
Volume 43, Issue 5 - May 2010
Volume 43, Issue 4 - Apr 2010
Volume 43, Issue 3 - Mar 2010
Volume 43, Issue 2 - Feb 2010
Volume 43, Issue 1 - Jan 2010
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Control of asymmetric cell division in early C. elegans embryogenesis: teaming-up translational repression and protein degradation
Hwang, Sue-Yun ; Rose, Lesilee S. ;
BMB Reports , volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 69~78
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2010.43.2.069
Asymmetric cell division is a fundamental mechanism for the generation of body axes and cell diversity during early embryogenesis in many organisms. During intrinsically asymmetric divisions, an axis of polarity is established within the cell and the division plane is oriented to ensure the differential segregation of developmental determinants to the daughter cells. Studies in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have contributed greatly to our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying cell polarity and asymmetric division. However, much remains to be elucidated about the molecular machinery controlling the spatiotemporal distribution of key components. In this review we discuss recent findings that reveal intricate interactions between translational control and targeted proteolysis. These two mechanisms of regulation serve to carefully modulate protein levels and reinforce asymmetries, or to eliminate proteins from certain cells.
Mouse phenogenomics, toolbox for functional annotation of human genome
Kim, Il-Yong ; Shin, Jae-Hoon ; Seong, Je-Kyung ;
BMB Reports , volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 79~90
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2010.43.2.079
Mouse models are crucial for the functional annotation of human genome. Gene modification techniques including gene targeting and gene trap in mouse have provided powerful tools in the form of genetically engineered mice (GEM) for understanding the molecular pathogenesis of human diseases. Several international consortium and programs are under way to deliver mutations in every gene in mouse genome. The information from studying these GEM can be shared through international collaboration. However, there are many limitations in utility because not all human genes are knocked out in mouse and they are not yet phenotypically characterized by standardized ways which is required for sharing and evaluating data from GEM. The recent improvement in mouse genetics has now moved the bottleneck in mouse functional genomics from the production of GEM to the systematic mouse phenotype analysis of GEM. Enhanced, reproducible and comprehensive mouse phenotype analysis has thus emerged as a prerequisite for effectively engaging the phenotyping bottleneck. In this review, current information on systematic mouse phenotype analysis and an issue-oriented perspective will be provided.
Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 transactivates ErbB family receptors via the activation of Src in SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cells
Park, Yun-Jung ; Lee, Han-Soo ; Lee, Jeong-Hyung ;
BMB Reports , volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 91~96
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2010.43.2.091
The function of macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) in cancer remains controversial, and its signaling pathways remain poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that MIC-1 induces the transactivation of EGFR, ErbB2, and ErbB3 through the activation of c-Src in SK-BR-3 breast cells. MIC-1 induced significant phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr845, ErbB2 at Tyr877, and ErbB3 at Tyr1289 as well as Akt and p38, Erk1/2, and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Treatment of SK-BR-3 cells with MIC-1 increased the phosphorylation level of Src at Tyr416, and induced invasiveness of those cells. Inhibition of c-Src activity resulted in the complete abolition of MIC-1-induced phosphorylation of the EGFR, ErbB2, and ErbB3, as well as invasiveness and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression in SK-BR-3 cells. Collectively, these results show that MIC-1 may participate in the malignant progression of certain cancer cells through the activation of c-Src, which in turn may transactivate ErbB-family receptors.
Pig large tumor suppressor 2 (Lats2), a novel gene that may regulate the fat reduction in adipocyte
Liu, Qiuyue ; Gu, Xiaorong ; Zhao, Yiqiang ; Zhang, Jin ; Zhao, Yaofeng ; Meng, Qingyong ; Xu, Guoheng ; Hu, Xiaoxiang ; Li, Ning ;
BMB Reports , volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 97~102
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2010.43.2.097
-adrenoceptor agonist, has been proven to be a powerful repartition agent that can decrease fat deposition. Based on results from our previous cDNA microarray experiment of pig clenbuterol administration, a novel up-regulated EST was full-length cloned (4859 bp encoding 1041 amino acids) and found to be the pig homolog of large tumor suppressor 2 (Lats2). We mapped pig Lats2 to chromosome 11p13-14 by using FISH, and western blotting demonstrated that pig Lats2 protein was most abundant in adipose. In Drosophila, Lats2 ortholog was reported as a key component of the Hippo pathway which regulates cell differentiation and growth. Here, we show that pig Lats2 exhibit inverted expression to YAP1, another member of the Hippo pathway which positively regulates cell growth and proliferation, during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Our results suggested that Lats2 may involve in Hippo pathway regulating the fat reduction by inhibiting adipocyte differentiation and growth.
Response and transcriptional regulation of rice SUMOylation system during development and stress conditions
Chaikam, Vijay ; Karlson, Dale T. ;
BMB Reports , volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 103~109
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2010.43.2.103
Modification of proteins by the reversible covalent addition of the small ubiquitin like modifier (SUMO) protein has important consequences affecting target protein stability, sub-cellular localization, and protein-protein interactions. SUMOylation involves a cascade of enzymatic reactions, which resembles the process of ubiquitination. In this study, we characterized the SUMOylation system from an important crop plant, rice, and show that it responds to cold, salt and ABA stress conditions on a protein level via the accumulation of SUMOylated proteins. We also characterized the transcriptional regulation of individual SUMOylation cascade components during stress and development. During stress conditions, majority of the SUMO cascade components are transcriptionally down regulated. SUMO conjugate proteins and SUMO cascade component transcripts accumulated differentially in various tissues during plant development with highest levels in reproductive tissues. Taken together, these data suggest a role for SUMOylation in rice development and stress responses.
On-off controllable RNA hybrid expression vector for yeast three-hybrid system
Bak, Geunu ; Hwang, Se-Won ; Ko, Ye-Rim ; Lee, Jung-Min ; Kim, Young-Mi ; Kim, Kyung-Hwan ; Hong, Soon-Kang ; Lee, Young-Hoon ;
BMB Reports , volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 110~114
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2010.43.2.110
The yeast three-hybrid system (Y3H), a powerful method for identifying RNA-binding proteins, still suffers from many false positives, due mostly to RNA-independent interactions. In this study, we attempted to efficiently identify false positives by introducing a tetracycline operator (tetO) motif into the RPR1 promoter of an RNA hybrid expression vector. We successfully developed a tight tetracycline-regulatable RPR1 promoter variant containing a single tetO motif between the transcription start site and the A-box sequence of the RPR1 promoter. Expression from this tetracycline-regulatable RPR1 promoter in the presence of tetracycline-response transcription activator (tTA) was positively controlled by doxycycline (Dox), a derivative of tetracycline. This on-off control runs opposite to the general knowledge that Dox negatively regulates tTA. This positively controlled RPR1 promoter system can therefore efficiently eliminate RNA-independent false positives commonly observed in the Y3H system by directly monitoring RNA hybrid expression.
Transcript profiling of expressed sequence tags from intramuscular fat, longissimus dorsi muscle and liver in Korean cattle (Hanwoo)
Lim, Da-Jeong ; Lee, Seung-Hwan ; Cho, Yong-Min ; Yoon, Du-Hak ; Shin, Youn-Hee ; Kim, Kyu-Won ; Park, Hye-Sun ; Kim, Hee-Bal ;
BMB Reports , volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 115~121
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2010.43.2.115
A large data set of Hanwoo (Korean cattle) ESTs was analyzed to obtain differential gene expression results for the following three libraries: intramuscular fat, longissimus dorsi muscle and liver. To better understand the gene expression profiles, we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) via digital gene expression analysis. Hierarchical clustering of genes was performed according to their relative abundance within the six separate groups (Hanwoo fat versus non-Hanwoo fat, Hanwoo muscle versus non-Hanwoo muscle and Hanwoo liver versus non-Hanwoo liver), producing detailed patterns of gene expression. We determined the quantitative traits associated with the highly expressed genes. We also provide the first list of putative regulatory elements associated with differential tissue expression in Hanwoo cattle. In addition, we conducted evolutionary analysis that suggests a subset of genes accelerated in the bovine lineage are strongly correlated with their expression in Hanwoo muscle.
Neuronal differentiation and developmental characteristics in the dentate gyrus of staggerer mutant mice
Yi, Sun-Shin ; Hwang, In-Koo ; Shin, Jae-Hoon ; Baek, Sung-Hee ; Yoon, Yeo-Sung ; Seong, Je-Kyung ;
BMB Reports , volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 122~126
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2010.43.2.122
Homozygous staggerer (
) mice showed a severe ataxia caused by cerebellum degeneration. Decreased and dysfunctional Rora is a main cause of this neurologic phenotype. The phenotype of staggerer mice has been well known in cerebellum. However, there has been rarely reported about cerebrum even though of staggerer is expressed in merely cerebellum but hippocampus, thalamus, cortex, and olfactory bulb. The expressions of Ki67, doublecortin (DCX), and NeuN, which are cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation and mature neuron markers, respectively, were measured with immunohistechemistry in dentate gyrus in staggerer mice in order to uncover whether staggerer can affect the change in dentate gyrus. The immunoreactivities of DCX and NeuN were significantly reduced in the dentate gyrus of staggerer mice than normal control, while Ki67 were rarely unchanged in staggerer mice. These results suggest that staggerer mutation has an influence on the neuronal differentiation and development not only in cerebellum but also in dentate gyrus.
PI(3,4,5)P3 regulates the interaction between Akt and B23 in the nucleus
Kwon, Il-Sun ; Lee, Kyung-Hoon ; Choi, Joung-Woo ; Ahn, Jee-Yin ;
BMB Reports , volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 127~132
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2010.43.2.127
Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (
) is a lipid second messenger that employs a wide range of downstream effector proteins for the regulation of cellular processes, including cell survival, polarization and proliferation. One of the most well characterized cytoplasmic targets of
, serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt, promotes cell survival by directly interacting with nucleophosmin (NPM)/B23, the nuclear target of
. Here, we report that nuclear
competes with Akt to preferentially bind B23 in the nucleoplasm. Mutation of Arg23 and Arg25 in the PH domain of Akt prevents binding to
, but does not disrupt the Akt/B23 interaction. However, treatment with phosphatases PTEN or SHIP abrogates the association between Akt and B23, indicating that nuclear
regulates the Akt/B23 interaction by controlling the concentration and subcellular dynamics of these two proteins.
Mitochondrial DNA analysis of ancient human bones excavated from Nukdo island, S.Korea
Kim, Ae-Jin ; Kim, Ki-Jeong ; Choi, Jee-Hye ; Choi, Eun-Ha ; Jung, Yu-Jin ; Min, Na-Young ; Lkhagvasuren, Gavaachimed ; Rhee, Sang-Myung ; Kim, Jae-Hyun ; Noh, Maeng-Seok ; Park, Ae-Ja ; Kim, Kyung-Yong ; Kang, Yoon-Sung ; Lee, Kwang-Ho ; Kim, Keun-Cheol ;
BMB Reports , volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 133~139
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2010.43.2.133
We have performed analyses using ancient DNA extracted from 25 excavated human bones, estimating around the 1st century B.C. Ancient human bones were obtained from Nukdo Island, which is located off of the Korean peninsula of East Asia. We made concerted efforts to extract ancient DNA of high quality and to obtain reproducible PCR products, as this was a primary consideration for this extensive kind of undertaking. We performed PCR amplifications for several regions of the mitochondrial DNA, and could determine mitochondrial haplogroups for 21 ancient DNA samples. Genetic information from mitochondrial DNA belonged to super-haplogroup M, haplogroup D or its sub-haplogroups (D4 or D4b), which are distinctively found in East Asians, including Koreans or Japanese. The dendrogram and principal component analysis based on haplogroup frequencies revealed that the Nukdo population was close to those of the East Asians and clearly distinguished from populations shown in the other regions. Considering that Nukdo is geologically isolated in the southern part of the Korean peninsula and is a site of commercial importance with neighboring countries, these results may reflect genetic continuity for the habitation and migration of ethnic groups who had lived in a particular area in the past. Therefore, we suggest that phylogenetic analyses of ancient DNA have significant advantages for clarifying the origins and migrations of ethnic groups, or human races.
High glucose induces differentiation and adipogenesis in porcine muscle satellite cells via mTOR
Yue, Tao ; Yin, Jingdong ; Li, Fengna ; Li, Defa ; Du, Min ;
BMB Reports , volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 140~145
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2010.43.2.140
The present study investigated whether the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal pathway is involved in the regulation of high glucose-induced intramuscular adipogenesis in porcine muscle satellite cells. High glucose (25 mM) dramatically increased intracellular lipid accumulation in cells during the 10-day adipogenic differentiation period. The expressions of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-
) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein were gradually enhanced during the 10-day duration while mTOR phosphorylation and sterol-regulatory- element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c protein were induced on day 4. Moreover, inhibition of mTOR activity by rapamycin resulted in a reduction of SREBP-1c protein expression and adipogenesis in cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that the adipogenic differentiation of porcine muscle satellite cells and a succeeding extensive adipogenesis, which is triggered by high glucose, is initiated by the mTOR signal pathway through the activation of SREBP-1c protein. This process is previously uncharacterized and suggests a cellular mechanism may be involved in ectopic lipid deposition in skeletal muscle during type 2 diabetes.
Induction of insulin receptor substrate-2 expression by Fc fusion to exendin-4 overexpressed in E. coli: a potential long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 mimetic
Kim, Jae-Woo ; Kim, Kyu-Tae ; Ahn, You-Jin ; Jeong, Hee-Jeong ; Jeong, Hyeong-Yong ; Ryu, Seung-Hyup ; Lee, Seung-Yeon ; Lee, Chang-Woo ; Chung, Hye-Shin ; Jang, Sei-Heon ;
BMB Reports , volume 43, issue 2, 2010, Pages 146~149
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2010.43.2.146
Exendin-4 (Ex-4), a peptide secreted from the salivary glands of the Gila monster lizard, can increase pancreatic
-cell growth and insulin secretion by activating glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor. In this study, we expressed a fusion protein consisting of exendin-4 and the human immunoglobulin heavy chain (Ex-4/IgG-Fc) in E. coli and explored its potential therapeutic use for the treatment of insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes. Here, we show that the Ex-4/IgG-Fc fusion protein induces expression of insulin receptor substrate-2 in rat insulinoma INS-1 cells. Our findings therefore suggest that Ex-4/IgG-Fc overexpressed in E. coli could be used as a potential, long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 mimetic.