Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 48, Issue 12 - Dec 2015
Volume 48, Issue 11 - Nov 2015
Volume 48, Issue 10 - Oct 2015
Volume 48, Issue 9 - Sep 2015
Volume 48, Issue 8 - Aug 2015
Volume 48, Issue 7 - Jul 2015
Volume 48, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 48, Issue 5 - May 2015
Volume 48, Issue 4 - Apr 2015
Volume 48, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 48, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 48, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
Selecting the target year
Single-molecule fluorescence measurements reveal the reaction mechanisms of the core-RISC, composed of human Argonaute 2 and a guide RNA
Jo, Myung Hyun ; Song, Ji-Joon ; Hohng, Sungchul ;
BMB Reports , volume 48, issue 12, 2015, Pages 643~644
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2015.48.12.235
In eukaryotes, small RNAs play important roles in both gene regulation and resistance to viral infection. Argonaute proteins have been identified as a key component of the effector complexes of various RNA-silencing pathways, but the mechanistic roles of Argonaute proteins in these pathways are not clearly understood. To address this question, we performed single-molecule fluorescence experiments using an RNA-induced silencing complex (core-RISC) composed of a small RNA and human Argonaute 2. We found that target binding of core-RISC starts at the seed region of the guide RNA. After target binding, four distinct reactions followed: target cleavage, transient binding, stable binding, and Argonaute unloading. Target cleavage required extensive sequence complementarity and accelerated core-RISC dissociation for recycling. In contrast, the stable binding of core-RISC to target RNAs required seed-match only, suggesting a potential explanation for the seed-match rule of microRNA (miRNA) target selection.
Role of neuropeptide Y in the bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell microenvironment
Park, Min Hee ; Min, Woo-Kie ; Jin, Hee Kyung ; Bae, Jae-sung ;
BMB Reports , volume 48, issue 12, 2015, Pages 645~646
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2015.48.12.22
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) or neurotransmitters in the bone marrow microenvironment has been known to regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) functions such as self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. However, the specific role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in this process remains relatively unexplored. In this study, we demonstrated that NPY deficient mice have significantly reduced HSC numbers and impaired bone marrow regeneration due to apoptotic destruction of SNS fibers and/or endothelial cells. Moreover, NPY treatment prevented bone marrow impairments in a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced SNS injury, while conditional knockout mice lacking the Y1 receptor in macrophages did not restore bone marrow dysfunction in spite of NPY injection. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) secreted by NPY-mediated Y1 receptor stimulation in macrophages plays a key role in neuroprotection and HSC survival in the bone marrow. Therefore, this study reveals a new role of NPY in bone marrow HSC microenvironment, and provides an insight into the therapeutic application of this neuropeptide.
Primary cilia in energy balance signaling and metabolic disorder
Lee, Hankyu ; Song, Jieun ; Jung, Joo Hyun ; Ko, Hyuk Wan ;
BMB Reports , volume 48, issue 12, 2015, Pages 647~654
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2015.48.12.229
Energy homeostasis in our body system is maintained by balancing the intake and expenditure of energy. Excessive accumulation of fat by disrupting the balance system causes overweight and obesity, which are increasingly becoming global health concerns. Understanding the pathogenesis of obesity focused on studying the genes related to familial types of obesity. Recently, a rare human genetic disorder, ciliopathy, links the role for genes regulating structure and function of a cellular organelle, the primary cilium, to metabolic disorder, obesity and type II diabetes. Primary cilia are microtubule based hair-like membranous structures, lacking motility and functions such as sensing the environmental cues, and transducing extracellular signals within the cells. Interestingly, the subclass of ciliopathies, such as Bardet-Biedle and Alström syndrome, manifest obesity and type II diabetes in human and mouse model systems. Moreover, studies on genetic mouse model system indicate that more ciliary genes affect energy homeostasis through multiple regulatory steps such as central and peripheral actions of leptin and insulin. In this review, we discuss the latest findings in primary cilia and metabolic disorders, and propose the possible interaction between primary cilia and the leptin and insulin signal pathways which might enhance our understanding of the unambiguous link of a cell's antenna to obesity and type II diabetes.
Adult stem cell lineage tracing and deep tissue imaging
Fink, Juergen ; Andersson-Rolf, Amanda ; Koo, Bon-Kyoung ;
BMB Reports , volume 48, issue 12, 2015, Pages 655~667
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2015.48.12.249
Lineage tracing is a widely used method for understanding cellular dynamics in multicellular organisms during processes such as development, adult tissue maintenance, injury repair and tumorigenesis. Advances in tracing or tracking methods, from light microscopy-based live cell tracking to fluorescent label-tracing with two-photon microscopy, together with emerging tissue clearing strategies and intravital imaging approaches have enabled scientists to decipher adult stem and progenitor cell properties in various tissues and in a wide variety of biological processes. Although technical advances have enabled time-controlled genetic labeling and simultaneous live imaging, a number of obstacles still need to be overcome. In this review, we aim to provide an in-depth description of the traditional use of lineage tracing as well as current strategies and upcoming new methods of labeling and imaging.
Stem cell maintenance by manipulating signaling pathways: past, current and future
Chen, Xi ; Ye, Shoudong ; Ying, Qi-Long ;
BMB Reports , volume 48, issue 12, 2015, Pages 668~676
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2015.48.12.215
Pluripotent stem cells only exist in a narrow window during early embryonic development, whereas multipotent stem cells are abundant throughout embryonic development and are retainedin various adult tissues and organs. While pluripotent stem cell lines have been established from several species, including mouse, rat, and human, it is still challenging to establish stable multipotent stem cell lines from embryonic or adult tissues. Based on current knowledge, we anticipate that by manipulating extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways, most if not all types of stem cells can be maintained in a long-term culture. In this article, we summarize current culture conditions established for the long-term maintenance of authentic pluripotent and multipotent stem cells and the signaling pathways involved. We also discuss the general principles of stem cell maintenance and propose several strategies on the establishment of novel stem cell lines through manipulation of signaling pathways.
The end effector of circadian heart rate variation: the sinoatrial node pacemaker cell
Yaniv, Yael ; Lakatta, Edward G. ;
BMB Reports , volume 48, issue 12, 2015, Pages 677~684
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2015.48.12.061
Cardiovascular function is regulated by the rhythmicity of circadian, infradian and ultradian clocks. Specific time scales of different cell types drive their functions: circadian gene regulation at hours scale, activation-inactivation cycles of ion channels at millisecond scales, the heart's beating rate at hundreds of millisecond scales, and low frequency autonomic signaling at cycles of tens of seconds. Heart rate and rhythm are modulated by a hierarchical clock system: autonomic signaling from the brain releases neurotransmitters from the vagus and sympathetic nerves to the heart's pacemaker cells and activate receptors on the cell. These receptors activating ultradian clock functions embedded within pacemaker cells include sarcoplasmic reticulum rhythmic spontaneous Ca
cycling, rhythmic ion channel current activation and inactivation, and rhythmic oscillatory mitochondria ATP production. Here we summarize the evidence that intrinsic pacemaker cell mechanisms are the end effector of the hierarchical brain-heart circadian clock system.
Identification of small molecules that inhibit the histone chaperone Asf1 and its chromatin function
Seol, Ja-Hwan ; Song, Tae-Yang ; Oh, Se Eun ; Jo, Chanhee ; Choi, Ahreum ; Kim, Byungho ; Park, Jinyoung ; Hong, Suji ; Song, Ilrang ; Jung, Kwan Young ; Yang, Jae-Hyun ; Park, Hwangseo ; Ahn, Jin-Hyun ; Han, Jeung-Whan ; Cho, Eun-Jung ;
BMB Reports , volume 48, issue 12, 2015, Pages 685~690
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2015.48.12.063
The eukaryotic genome is packed into chromatin, which is important for the genomic integrity and gene regulation. Chromatin structures are maintained through assembly and disassembly of nucleosomes catalyzed by histone chaperones. Asf1 (anti-silencing function 1) is a highly conserved histone chaperone that mediates histone transfer on/off DNA and promotes histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation at globular core domain of histone H3. To elucidate the role of Asf1 in the modulation of chromatin structure, we screened and identified small molecules that inhibit Asf1 and H3K56 acetylation without affecting other histone modifications. These pyrimidine-2,4,6-trione derivative molecules inhibited the nucleosome assembly mediated by Asf1 in vitro, and reduced the H3K56 acetylation in HeLa cells. Furthermore, production of HSV viral particles was reduced by these compounds. As Asf1 is implicated in genome integrity, cell proliferation, and cancer, current Asf1 inhibitor molecules may offer an opportunity for the therapeutic development for treatment of diseases.
Phytosphingosine promotes megakaryocytic differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells
Han, Sang Hee ; Kim, Jusong ; Her, Yerim ; Seong, Ikjoo ; Park, Sera ; Bhattarai, Deepak ; Jin, Guanghai ; Lee, Kyeong ; Chung, Gukhoon ; Hwang, Sungkee ; Bae, Yun Soo ; Kim, Jaesang ;
BMB Reports , volume 48, issue 12, 2015, Pages 691~695
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2015.48.12.100
We report that phytosphingosine, a sphingolipid found in many organisms and implicated in cellular signaling, promotes megakaryocytic differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells. Specifically, phytosphingosine induced several hallmark changes associated with megakaryopoiesis from K562 and HEL cells including cell cycle arrest, cell size increase and polyploidization. We also confirmed that cell type specific markers of megakaryocytes, CD41a and CD42b are induced by phytosphingosine. Phospholipids with highly similar structures were unable to induce similar changes, indicating that the activity of phytosphingosine is highly specific. Although phytosphingosine is known to activate p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated apoptosis, the signaling mechanisms involved in megakaryopoiesis appear to be distinct. In sum, we present another model for dissecting molecular details of megakaryocytic differentiation which in large part remains obscure.
An inhibitory alternative splice isoform of Toll-like receptor 3 is induced by type I interferons in human astrocyte cell lines
Seo, Jin-Won ; Yang, Eun-Jeong ; Kim, Se Hoon ; Choi, In-Hong ;
BMB Reports , volume 48, issue 12, 2015, Pages 696~701
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2015.48.12.106
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes viral double-stranded RNA. It stimulates pro-inflammatory cytokine and interferon production. Here we reported the expression of a novel isoform of TLR3 in human astrocyte cell lines whose message is generated by alternative splicing. The isoform represents the N-terminus of the protein. It lacks many of the leucine-rich repeat domains, the transmembrane domain, and the intracellular Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain of TLR3. Type I interferons (interferon-α and interferon-β) induced the expression of this isoform. Exogenous overexpression of this isoform inhibited interferon regulatory factor 3, signal transducers and activators of transcription 1, and Inhibitor of kappa B α signaling following stimulation. This isoform of TLR3 also inhibited the production of chemokine interferon-γ-inducible protein 10. Our study clearly demonstrated that the expression of this isoform of TLR3 was a negative regulator of signaling pathways and that it was inducible by type I interferons. We also found that this isoform could modulate inflammation in the brain.
Stanniocalcin 2 enhances mesenchymal stem cell survival by suppressing oxidative stress
Kim, Pyung-Hwan ; Na, Sang-Su ; Lee, Bomnaerin ; Kim, Joo-Hyun ; Cho, Je-Yoel ;
BMB Reports , volume 48, issue 12, 2015, Pages 702~707
DOI : 10.5483/BMBRep.2015.48.12.158
To overcome the disadvantages of stem cell-based cell therapy like low cell survival at the disease site, we used stanniocalcin 2 (STC2), a family of secreted glycoprotein hormones that function to inhibit apoptosis and oxidative damage and to induce proliferation. STC2 gene was transfected into two kinds of stem cells to prolong cell survival and protect the cells from the damage by oxidative stress. The stem cells expressing STC2 exhibited increased cell viability and improved cell survival as well as elevated expression of the pluripotency and self-renewal markers (Oct4 and Nanog) under sub-lethal oxidative conditions. Up-regulation of CDK2 and CDK4 and down-regulation of cell cycle inhibitors p16 and p21 were observed after the delivery of STC2. Furthermore, STC2 transduction activated pAKT and pERK 1/2 signal pathways. Taken together, the STC2 can be used to enhance cell survival and maintain long-term stemness in therapeutic use of stem cells.