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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Kyung Hee Oriental Medicine Research Center, Kyung Hee University
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 10, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
Selecting the target year
Validation of aseptic processes for pharmaceuticals
Joseph, Lincy ; George, Mathew ; Jain, Saurabh Kumar ;
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 231~238
DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2010.10.4.231
Sterile Products may be broadly classified into two main categories, according to the manner in which they are produced: those which are sterilized after the product has been filled and sealed in the final container(s) ("terminally sterilized" products) and those where the sterilization stage (or stages) takes place is it before or after the bulk product filled in to final container. In this latter instance, all subsequent processing (typically, the filling and sealing operations) must be conducted aseptically in order to prevent recontamination of the sterilized product. The two most common pharmaceutical applications of aseptic processing methods are (a) the filling of liquid products following sterilization by filtration and (b) the filling of previously sterilized bulk powder products. An aseptic processing operation should be tested using a microbiological growth medium (media fill) during lyophilized injection formulation, filling, loading, lyophilisation, stoppering, and unloading activities.
: a progress towards the treatment of neurodegenerative disease
Kumar, Peeyush ; Kumar, Pramod ; Ram, Alpana ; Kuma, Mithilesh ; Kumar, Rajeev ;
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 239~253
DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2010.10.4.239
, or ubiquinone) is an electron carrier of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (electron transport chain) with antioxidant properties. In view of the involvement of
in oxidative phosphorylation and cellular antioxidant protection a deficiency in this quinone would be expected to contribute to disease pathophysiology by causing a failure in energy metabolism and antioxidant status. Indeed, a deficit in
status has been determined in a number of neuromuscular and neurodegenerative disorders. Primary disorders of
biosynthesis are potentially treatable conditions and therefore a high degree of clinical awareness about this condition is essential. A secondary loss of
status following HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statins) treatment has been implicated in the pathophysiology of the myotoxicity associated with this pharmacotherapy.
and its analogue, idebenone, have been widely used in the treatment of neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders. These compounds could potentially play a role in the treatment of mitochondrial disorders, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich's ataxia, and other conditions which have been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. This article reviews the physiological roles of
, as well as the rationale and the role in clinical practice of
supplementation in different neurological diseases, from primary
deficiency to neurodegenerative disorders. These will help in future for treatment of patients suffering from neurodegenerative disease.
Artemisia capillaris Thunb. inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human hepatic stellate cell line LX2
Kim, Young-Il ; Lee, Jang-Hoon ; Park, Seung-Won ; Choi, In-Hwa ; Friedman, Scott L. ; Woo, Hong-Jung ; Kim, Young-Chul ;
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 254~262
DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2010.10.4.254
Artemisia capillaris (A. capillaries) is known to play roles in many cellular events, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. We investigated the antifibrogenic efficacy of A. capillaris in the immortalized human hepatic stellate cell line LX2. Cell proliferation was determined by the MTT assay. Cell cycle was analyzed by the flow cytometry. Apoptotic cells were measured using a cell death detection ELISA. Caspase activity was detected by a colorimetric assay. The mRNA level of Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA were measured by real-time PCR. MEK and ERK protein were detected by Western blot analysis. We provide evidence that A. capillaris induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and potently inhibits the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. A. capillaris inhibited cell proliferation of LX2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, increased the apoptosis fraction at cell cycle analysis with an accompanying DNA fragmentation, and resulted in a significant decrease in Bcl-2 mRNA levels and an increase in Bax expression. Exposure of LX2 cells to A. capillaris induced caspase-3 activation, but co-treatment of A. capillaris with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK, and the caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVE-FMK, blocked apoptosis. A. capillaris down-regulated Mcl-1 protein levels and inhibited phosphorylation of MEK/ERK, suggesting that it mediates cell death in LX2 cells through the down-regulation of Mcl-1 protein via a MEK/ERK-independent pathway.
Hepatoprotective activity of terpenoids and terpenoid fractions of Scoparia dulcis L
Krishnamurthy, Praveen Thaggikuppe ; Bajaj, Jitendra ; Sharma, Abhishek ; Manimaran, Sellappan ; Ravanappa, Prashantha Kumar Bommenahalli ; Pottekad, Vijayan ;
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 263~270
DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2010.10.4.263
Scoparia dulcis L. is widely used in the traditional system of medicine for treating liver ailments. In the present study the terpenoids and terpenoid fractions isolated from 1:1:1 petroleum ether, diethyl ether and methanol (PDM) extract of Scoparia dulcis L. were tested for their in vitro 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Selected samples from the assay were further tested for their in vitro hepatoprotective activity against
induced hepatotoxicity in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. In the in vitro antioxidant study, fractions 7, 11, 13, 14, and 15 and PDM extract show the DPPH radical scavenging activity. The phytochemical screening of all these fractions show the presence of terpenoids. In the in vitro hepatoprotective study all these fractions and the PDM extract significantly prevent the
induced changes in the aspartate aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase and alkaline phosphatase levels (p < 0.05). The above results are comparable with the standard, silymarin. The results of the study indicate that, the PDM extract of Scoparia dulcis L. possesses potential hepatoprotective activity and this may be attributed to its free radical scavenging potential, which in turn may be attributed to the presence of terpenoids.
Characterization of anti-oxidative effects of Mori Cortex Radicis
Noh, Won-Ki ; Park, Jin-Baek ; Kim, Sung-Jin ;
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 271~277
DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2010.10.4.271
We tested to determine if Mori Cortex Radicis extract has antioxidant activities and its potential mechanism of action was explored. Anti-oxidative effects were tested by measuring free radical and nitric Oxide (NO) scavenging activity, and reducing power. Since iNOS and COX-2 are important enzymes responsible for the production of free radicals in the cell, Mori Cortex Radicis extract was tested as to whether it could inhibit iNOS and COX-2 expression in LPS stimulated Raw cells. 70% methanolic extract of Mori Cortex Radicis exerted significant DPPH free radical and NO scavenging activities. In addition, the Mori Cortex Radicis extract exerted dramatic reducing power with maximal activity observed at 1 mg/ml (11-fold over control). Production of iNOS induced by LPS was significantly inhibited by the Mori Cortex Radicis extract, suggesting it could inhibit NO production by suppressing iNOS expression. COX-2 induced by LPS was also significantly inhibited by the Mori Cortex Radicis extract. The extract contains well known antioxidant components including phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin at the concentration of 0.23 mg/g, 42.97 mg/g and 12.08 mg/g, respectively. These results suggest that 70% methanolic extract of Mori Cortex Radicis exerts significant anti-oxidant activity via inhibiting iNOS and COX-2 induction.
Cardioprotective effect of Argyreia speciosa (Burm. f) Boj. extracts against Isoproterenol- induced myocardial infarction in rats
Thakker, Shalin ; Biradar, S.M. ; Habbu, P.V. ; Mahadevan, K.M. ; Thippeswamy, B.S. ; Veerapur, V.P. ;
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 278~287
DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2010.10.4.278
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of ethanol (EtAS), ethyl acetate (EAAS) and aqueous (AQAS) extracts of Argyreia speciosa (AS) roots against Isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction in rats. The animals were exposed to isoproterenol (200 mg/kg. s.c) twice at an interval of 24 hrs. Cardioprotective effect was assessed by observing ECG parameters, serum marker enzymes and histopathology of the heart. Pretreatment of EAAS, and EtAS (200 mg/kg) resulted in a significant (P < 0.001) increase in P wave, QRS complex and R-R interval, whereas heart rate, QT interval and cardiac cycle were maintained near to normal values. EtAS and EAAS showed significant (P < 0.05; P < 0.001) reduction in all the tested diagnostic markers compared to ISO treated group. Histological studies on the structural changes of heart tissue supported the protective activity of AS. The result suggest that treatment of AS prior to ISO has a significant role in protecting the animals from ISO induced myocardial infarction.
Lindera erythrocarpa Makino extract reduces obesity induced by high-fat diet in rats
Ahn, Mee-Jung ; Yang, Won-Jun ; Kang, So-Hi ; Kang, Min-Chul ; Ko, Ryeo-Kyeong ; Kim, Gi-Ok ; Shin, Tae-Kyun ;
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 288~293
DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2010.10.4.288
Lindera erythrocarpa Makino (LE) is widely distributed on Jeju Island, where it has been used for various traditional therapies. Effects of a crude extract of LE were examined in rats with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Anti-obesity effects were followed in rats receiving orally administered vehicle, 100mg/kg extract, or 250 mg/kg LE extract, for 56 days. LE extract (250 mg/kg) suppressed increases in body weight and epididymal fat, with amelioration of fatty changes in the liver. Additionally, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and total cholesterol were significantly decreased compared with those of vehicle-treated groups (p < 0.05). These results suggest that oral administration of LE extract reduced rat obesity induced by HFD, possibly through the reduction of fat accumulation.
Metal concentrations of Chinese herbal medicine products in the United States
Lee, Sun-Dong ; Shin, Heon-Tae ; Park, Hae-Mo ; Ko, Seong-Gyu ; Kook, Yoon-Bum ; Ryu, Jin-Yeol ; Kim, Hyun-Do ; Hu, Howard ; Park, Sung-Kyun ;
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 294~303
DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2010.10.4.294
We determined arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium concentrations in Chinese herbal medicines sold in the United States by medical use parts. 54 kinds of herbal products including 9 medical use parts (radix, rhizoma, cortex, pericarpium, fructus, lignum, semen, folium, and herba) were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for arsenic, lead and cadmium, and using mercury analyzer for mercury. Arsenic (median concentration, 0.25 mg/g), mercury (0.20 mg/g), lead (3.78 mg/g) and cadmium (0.39 mg/g) were detected in 71%, 54%, 35%, and 18% of 143 herbal medicine samples, respectively. A total of 27% and 12% of 143 products analyzed contained mercury and cadmium above the regulatory standards. Herba and folium (leaves of herbal plants) were the most contaminated parts from metals, whereas pericarpium, lignum and semen (outer layers and seeds) were less contaminated. This study suggests that metal contamination is different by medical use parts. Our findings provide further evidence that efforts to protect people using traditional remedies from metal intoxication should be made to enforce the regulatory standards.
Assessment of free-radical-scavenging and antibacterial activities, and brine shrimp toxicity of Scutellaria pinnatifida (Lamiaceae)
Sauvage, Severine ; Samson, Emilie ; Granger, Melanie ; Majumdar, Anisha ; Nigam, Poonam ; Nahar, Lutfun ; Celik, Sezgin ; Sarker, Satyajit D. ;
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 304~309
DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2010.10.4.304
Scutellaria pinnatifida A. Hamilt. (Lamiaceae) is an endemic Turkish herb. This plant is also endemic to Iran, and grows abundantly in other central and western Asian countries. Several species of the Scutellaria are known for their traditional uses in the treatment of hypertension, arteriosclerosis, inflammatory diseases, hepatitis, allergy, cancer and diarrhoea. Free-radical-scavenging property, antibacterial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of the n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MeOH) extracts of S. pinnatifida were assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the resazurin microtitre plate based assay, and the brine shrimp lethality assay, respectively. The DCM and MeOH extracts exhibited free-radical-scavenging property, with the
values of 0.362 and 0.127 mg/ml, respectively. Among the solid-phase extraction fractions of the MeOH extract, the 50% aqueous-MeOH fraction showed the highest level of free-radicalscavenging activity (
= 0.039 mg/ml). While the DCM extract showed low level of antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli, the MeOH extract was active against B. cereus, B. subtilis, E. coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli. However, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the MeOH extract against these bacterial strains were >10 mg/ml. None of the extracts showed any significant toxicity towards brine shrimps (
= > 1.00 mg/ml).
Anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging properties of Verbena officinalis
Shim, Hwan-Ki ; Kim, Seong-Yeol ; Kim, Bo-Rim ; Cho, Jae-Park ; Park, Yae-Jeong ; Ji, Won-Geun ; Cha, Dong-Seok ; Jeon, Hoon ;
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 310~318
DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2010.10.4.310
Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae) has been used as herbal medicine or health supplement in both Western and Eastern countries for centuries. In the present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the methylene chloride fraction of V. officinalis (VMC). To elucidate the anti-inflammatory properties of VMC, we investigated the inhibition effects of nitric oxide production in interferon-gamma (IFN-
) and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. VMC suppressed nitric oxide production, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression dose-dependently without notable cytotoxicity. In various radical scavenging assays, VMC exhibited strong scavenging effect on DPPH radical, superoxide radical, nitric oxide radical and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical. VMC also showed potent reducing power. These findings strongly suggest that VMC may be beneficial in oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory disorders.
Structure elucidation of a newly isolated saponin from Clerodendrum serratum (L) Moon
Bhujbal, Santosh S. ; K.Nanda, Rabindra ; S.Deoda, Ramesh ; Kumar, Dinesh ; Kewatkar, Shailesh M. ; S.More, Laxmikant ; J.Patil, Manohar ;
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, volume 10, issue 4, 2010, Pages 319~321
DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2010.10.4.319
Plant saponins are widely distributed amongst plants and have a wide range of biological properties. Icosahydropicenic acid,
((4S,6bS)-8a-((4,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-3-((3R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-methyl-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yloxy)-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yloxy)carbonyl)-2-hydroxy-4, 6a, 6b, 11, 14b-pentamethyl-11-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)-3-(3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl) - tetrahydro-2Hpyran-2-yloxy)-1, 2, 3, 4, 4a, 5, 6, 6a, 6b, 7, 8, 8a, 9, 10, 11, 12, 12a, 14, 14a, 14b-icosahydropicene-4-carboxylic acid), a new saponin was first time isolated from the roots of Clerodendrum Serratum (L) Moon (Verbenaceae). The structure elucidation of the compound was carried out by
NMR and DART-MS studies.